• Does negative advertising work? 

    Kolovos, Ioannis; Harris, Phil
    In an overview of the use of negative advertising through the years, Kaid (1999) notes a real increase in the number of negative advertisements used in presidential campaigns. From 1952 to 1996, such ads made up about 38% ...
  • Political marketing and political communication: the relationship revisited 

    Kolovos, Ioannis; Harris, Phil
    Harrop (1990) perceives political marketing as being not just about political advertising, party political broadcasts and electoral speeches but covering the whole area of party positioning in the electoral market. Kavanagh ...
  • Voter apathy in British elections: causes and remedies 

    Kolovos, Ioannis; Harris, Phil
    The turnout for the 2001 General election in Britain was the lowest ever after full adult suffrage. This essay presents the theoretical explanations of voter apathy and then reviews the literature on the causes behind the ...