• Does space always matter in the origin of biological species 

    Winter, David J; Spencer, Hamish G
    For the last 40 years one of the most contentious issues in evolutionary biology has been determining the role that spatial separation of populations plays in the generation of new species. Most early formulations of this ...
  • The effect of spatial population structure on levels of genetic variation 

    Star, Bastiaan; Spencer, Hamish G
    A vast amount of genetic variation is a striking hallmark of natural populations, and is vital to the adaptation and long-term survival of a species. Just why this variation is there, however, is unclear: the two most ...
  • Phylogeography of carnivorous snails from Northland 

    Spencer, Hamish G; Kennedy, Martyn
    Landsnails of the subfamily Paryphantinae are active carnivores on earthworms and other snails. Most species are endemic to Northland, New Zealand, are several are of conservation concern, being threatened by habitat ...