Novel Biodegradable Milk-protein Based Biomaterial for Tissue Engineering Applications
Recent advances in tissue engineering (TE) focus on finding more biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic biomaterials with an ability to mimic the natural physiological environment. Appropriate physical and chemical properties are sought that could provide enhanced cell-material interaction, inviting the ever-growing and ever-evolving need for suitable novel biomaterials. In this study, caseins obtained from commercially available β-casein rich skim milk (A2-casein) and casein-containing dairy industry waste (DAF-casein), were used as bioactive additives. Two types of methacrylated casein (CasMA) were chemically modified using methacrylic anhydride (MA) and combined with biocompatible polymers like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to develop two types of porous scaffolds (CasMA/PVA/PVP). The effects of both types of scaffolds from two different sources of casein were investigated chemically and physically at high and low MA concentrations in terms of their swelling ratio, dissolution profiles, morphological appearance and rheological properties. Furthermore, biological properties of both biomaterials was comparatively studied using human keratinocytes (HaCats) and primary cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). The main findings of this study were based on the biomaterial characteristics attained by casein modification and its development into scaffolds. The scaffolds presented unique patterned microstructures with good porosity and swelling capacity. The analysis of the scaffolds in vitro using HaCats and CPCs demonstrated that the unique physical properties were conducive for cell adhesion and proliferation. The study showed a possible mechanism of casein methacrylation and its potential application as an injectable gel, surgical adhesive or cardiac/skin patch for tissue replacement. This study highlights the importance of chemical modification in tissue engineering and also the need for developing value-added products from the dairy industry wastes predominantly affecting the environment in New Zealand.
Advisor: Ali, Azam
Degree Name: Master of Science
Degree Discipline: Food Science
Publisher: University of Otago
Keywords: Biomaterials; Casein; tissue engineering; milk protein; Regenerative medicine
Research Type: Thesis