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dc.contributor.authorBadiani, Aldo
dc.contributor.authorBoden, Joseph M.
dc.contributor.authorDe Pirro, Silvana
dc.contributor.authorFergusson, David M.
dc.contributor.authorHorwood, L. John
dc.contributor.authorHarold,Gordon T.
dc.date.available2020-09-11T00:33:38Z
dc.date.copyright2015
dc.identifier0376-8716
dc.identifier.citationBadiani, A., Boden, J. M., De Pirro, S., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Harold, G. T. (2015). Tobacco smoking and cannabis use in a longitudinal birth cohort: Evidence of reciprocal causal relationships. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 150, 69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.02.015
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/10359
dc.description.abstractBackground: There is evidence of associations between tobacco and cannabis use that are consistent with both a classical stepping-stone scenario that posits the transition from tobacco use to cannabis use ('gateway' effect of tobacco) and with the reverse process leading from cannabis use to tobacco abuse ('reverse gateway' effect of cannabis). The evidence of direct causal relationships between the two disorders is still missing. Methods: We analysed data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) longitudinal birth cohort using advanced statistical modelling to control for fixed sources of confounding and to explore causal pathways. The data were analysed using both: (a) conditional fixed effects logistic regression modelling; and (b) a systematic structural equation modelling approach previously developed to investigate psychiatric co-morbidities in the same cohort. Results: We found significant (p<. 0.05) associations between the extent of cannabis use and tobacco smoking and vice versa, after controlling for non-observed fixed confounding factors and for a number of time-dynamic covariate factors (major depression, alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorder, stressful life events, deviant peer affiliations). Furthermore, increasing levels of tobacco smoking were associated with increasing cannabis use (p= 0.02) and vice versa (p<. 0.001) over time. Conclusions: Our results lend support to the notion of both of 'gateway' and 'reverse gateway' effects. That is, the association between tobacco and cannabis use arises from a reciprocal feedback loop involving simultaneous causation between tobacco use disorder and cannabis use disorder.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.ispartofDrug and Alcohol Dependence
dc.relation.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.02.015
dc.rightsCC BY-NC-ND 4.0
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subjectSubstance Abuse
dc.subjectPsychiatry
dc.titleTobacco smoking and cannabis use in a longitudinal birth cohort: Evidence of reciprocal causal relationships
dc.typeJournal Article
otago.schoolUniversity of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences
otago.relation.volume150
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.02.015
otago.bitstream.endpage76
otago.bitstream.startpage69
otago.openaccessOpenen_NZ
dc.rights.statementThis version in OUR Archive is the author's manuscript accepted for publication after peer-review. The published version is: Badiani, A., Boden, J. M., De Pirro, S., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Harold, G. T. (2015). Tobacco smoking and cannabis use in a longitudinal birth cohort: Evidence of reciprocal causal relationships. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 150, 69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.02.015 This OUR Archive version is licensed Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
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CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as CC BY-NC-ND 4.0