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dc.contributor.advisorWalton, Sara
dc.contributor.advisorO'Kane, Conor
dc.contributor.advisorFennessy, Peter
dc.contributor.authorBortsie-Aryee, Nana Awuah
dc.identifier.citationBortsie-Aryee, N. A. (2020). Water footprint management - theory to reality. Water management and performance of New Zealand livestock agribusiness (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago. Retrieved from
dc.description.abstractThe livestock industry in New Zealand has seen remarkable growth in recent times, in terms of farm outputs and an increase in the farming area. This has put increased pressure on water resources around the country. In this context, there has been a proliferation of environmental regulations driven by the Resource Management Act (RMA), aimed at limiting the impact of the agriculture industry on water resources. Complying with these regulations, while dealing with other environmental constraints faced, poses a significant challenge for farm managers. This thesis focuses on farm managers’ responses to the environmental constraints they face in the current regulatory regime, by relying on the theoretical framework of the Natural Resource-Based View (NRBV). The NRBV extends the work of the Resource-Based View (RBV) by accounting for the influence of the natural environment on business performance and strategy. In the livestock production industry in New Zealand, where farmers do not compete amongst themselves due to the more co-operative nature of the industry, farm performance was conceptualised as resulting from the combination of resources in response to changes in and around the farm. Thus, espousing the NRBV perspective, the study looked at the resource combination responses of farmers when faced with natural environment constraints. More specifically, the study looked at the responses of farmers in terms of the pollution prevention capabilities they used when faced with natural environment constraints specifically concerning the management of water resources. Water management in the context of this research was operationalised as water footprint management – that is, knowing the impact the farm operation has on water resources and implementing practices to reduce these impacts. The findings revealed that the responses of award-winning farmers noted for their exemplary water management practices could be conceptualised as different resource combinations that could help improve water management. For instance, it was found that the technologically inclined award-winning farmers were driven primarily by intellectual and financial resources. In terms of farm performance, it was found that for most farmers, regardless of the constraints they faced, the farm’s economic survival is paramount. The farmers’ resource combinations reflect this. Among these farmers studied, staying profitable is a major motivation to develop different types of resource combinations. While the thesis discusses the potential for performance improvements, the findings do not confirm whether certain resource combinations lead to improved farm performance. The findings also enhance our understanding of the influences driving resource combinations, especially considering that farmers operate under unique contexts. It was also noted that the farmers’ resource combinations are driven by tacit skills, which consider the dynamic environment within which the farms operate. Thus, by gaining a clearer understanding of the drivers and influences of resource use, and understanding how farmers can manage their water within regulatory limits, this study has improved understanding of how farmers might derive benefits from pollution prevention practices at the farm level. This could encourage such farmers to contribute to improving the industry’s impact on New Zealand’s water resources.
dc.publisherUniversity of Otago
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dc.subjectNew Zealand
dc.subjectWater Footprint Management
dc.subjectFarm Performance
dc.subjectNatural Resource Based View
dc.subjectResource Based View
dc.subjectWater Management
dc.subjectPollution Prevention
dc.subjectLivestock Industry
dc.titleWater footprint management - theory to reality. Water management and performance of New Zealand livestock agribusiness
dc.language.rfc3066en of Management of Philosophy of Otago
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
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