Sustaining the physical and social dimensions of wilderness tourism: the perceptual approach to wilderness management in New Zealand
|dc.contributor.author||Higham, James E S||en_NZ|
|dc.identifier.citation||Higham, J. E. S. (1998). Sustaining the physical and social dimensions of wilderness tourism: the perceptual approach to wilderness management in New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 6(1), 26–51.||en|
|dc.description||Full text available only via related link.||en_NZ|
|dc.description.abstract||The dynamics of the tourism industry are well illustrated by the case of New Zealand’s tourism development over the last decade. The number of international tourists visiting New Zealand has doubled in the last ten years to approximately 1.5 million annual visitors. Associated with this growth has been a significant shift in patterns of tourist demand. No longer do most tourists simply comply with established tourist routes linking the high profile scenic attractions. Rather tourists have demonstrated a preference for more independent and dispersed patterns of travel, including an increase in demand for settings that offer subjective qualities of wilderness experience. This poses a complex but intriguing management challenge. If wilderness recreation involves pristine natural settings in the complete absence of facility development and visitor management, then these resources are more prone to degradation so than any other natural tourism resources. This paper suggests that an understanding of tourist perceptions of wilderness is crucial to the management of wilderness tourism, and considers the application of the perceptual approach to wilderness tourism as a means of sustaining wilderness values while promoting the satisfaction of visitor expectations.||en_NZ|
|dc.relation.ispartof||Journal of Sustainable Tourism||en_NZ|
|dc.subject.lcsh||G Geography (General)||en_NZ|
|dc.title||Sustaining the physical and social dimensions of wilderness tourism: the perceptual approach to wilderness management in New Zealand||en_NZ|
|dc.description.references||Alreck, P.L. and Settle, R.B. (1985) The Survey Research Handbook. Illinois: Irwin, Inc. Booth, K.L. (1988) A Literature Review of Visitors to the Conservation Estate with Special Reference to Families and Under Represented Groups (Vol.1). Te Papa Atawhai. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation. Bourassa, S.C. (1991) Aesthetics of Landscape. London and New York: Belhaven Press. Brown, P.J. and Haas, G.E. (1980) Wilderness recreation experiences: The Rawah case. Journal of Leisure Research 12 (3), 229–41. Cannon, J.C. (1987) Issues in sampling and sampling design — A managerial perspective. In J.R.B. Ritchie and C.R. Goeldner (eds) Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Research. A Handbook for Managers and Researchers. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Cessford, G.R. (1987) Recreation in the Greenstone and Caples Valleys: For whom and how? Master of Applied Science thesis, University of Canterbury. Chadwick, D.H. (1992) Denali: Alaska’s wild heart. National Geographic 182 (2), 63–87. Christchurch Press Association (1995) Tramper lucky to be found alive. Otago Daily Times, 6 March 1995, p. 1. Clark, W.A.V. and Hoskin, P.L. (1986) Statistical Methods for Geographers. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Conservation Act 1987 No. 65. Wellington, New Zealand: V.R. Ward Government Printer — 1988. Coughlan, D. (1997) Displacement in the New Zealand Back Country: Does it Exist? Trails in the Third Millennium: A Tourism Research Conference (pp. 379–85) 2–5 December 1997. New Zealand: Cromwell. Cullen, R. (1985) Rationing recreational use of public lands. Journal of Environmental Management 21 (2), 213–25. Davison, J. (1983) Wilderness research needs. In L.F. Molloy (ed.) Wilderness Recreation. Proceedings of the F.M.C. 50th Jubilee Conference on Wilderness. Rotoiti Lodge, Nelson Lakes National Park. August, 1981. Department of Conservation (1995) Visitor Strategy. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation. Te Papa Atawhai. Dubos, R. (1972) A God Within. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Dubos, R. (1980) The Wooing of Earth. New Perspectives on Man’s Use of Nature. London: The Athlone Press. Duncan, J. and Davison, J. (1991) Review of the Capacity of Selected Tramping Tracks to Cater for Projected Increases in Overseas Trampers. Wellington, New Zealand: NZTB. Godin, V.B. and Leonard, R.E. (1979) Management problems in designated wilderness areas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 34 (3), 141–3. Gresham, P. (1983) Tourism and wilderness. In L.F. Molloy (ed.) Wilderness Recreation. Proceedings of the F.M.C. 50th Jubilee Conference on Wilderness. Rotoiti Lodge, Nelson Lakes National Park. August, 1981. Grumbine, R.E. (1994) Wildness, wise use and sustainable development. Environmental Ethics 16 (3), 227–49. Haas, G.E., Driver, B.L., Brown, P.J. and Lucas, R.G. (1987) Wilderness management zoning. Journal of Forestry 85 (12), 17–21. Hall, C.M. and McArthur, S. (1993) Heritage management: An introductory framework. In M. Hall and S. McArthur (eds) Heritage Management in New Zealand and Australia. Visitor Management, Interpretation and Marketing. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Hardin, G. (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162, 1243–8. Hendee, J.C., Stankey, G.H. and Lucas, R.C. (eds) (1990) Wilderness Management (2nd edn). Golden, Colorado: North American Press. Henson, D. (1983) F.M.C. and wilderness preservation. In L.F. Molloy (ed.) Wilderness Recreation. Proceedings of the F.M.C. 50th Jubilee Conference on Wilderness. Rotoiti Lodge, Nelson Lakes National Park. August, 1981. Higham, J.E.S. (1996) Wilderness perception imagery: The perceptual approach to the management of international tourists visiting wilderness areas within New Zealand’s conservation estate. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Higham, J.E.S. and Kearsley, G.W. (1994) Wilderness perception and its implications for the management of the impacts of international tourism on natural areas in New Zealand. In Proceedings Tourism Down-under: A Tourism Research Conference (pp. 505–29), 6–9 December 1994. Department of Management Systems, Massey University. Kearsley, G.W. (1990) Tourism development and the user’s perceptions of wilderness in southern New Zealand. Australian Geographer 21 (2), 127–40. Kearsley, G.W. (1997) Wilderness tourism: A new rush to destruction? Inaugural professorial lecture, 21 May 1997. University of Otago. Dunedin, New Zealand. Kliskey, A.D. (1992) Wilderness perception mapping: A GIS approach to the application of wilderness perceptions to protected areas management in New Zealand. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Kliskey, A.D. and Kearsley, G.W. (1993) Mapping multiple perceptions of wilderness in southern New Zealand. Applied Geography 13, 203–23. Krippendorf, J. (1995) Towards new tourism policies. In S. Medlik (ed.) Managing Tourism. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann Ltd. Lesslie, R.G. and Taylor, S.G. (1985) The wilderness continuum concept and its implications for Australian wilderness preservation policy. Biological Conservation 32, 309–33. Lucas, R.C. (1982) Recreation regulations — When are they needed? Journal of Forestry 80 (3), 148–51. Lucas, R.C. and Oltman, J.L. (1971) Survey sampling wilderness visitors. Journal of Leisure Research 3 (1), 28–43. Manning, R.E. (1985) Crowding norms in backcountry settings: A review and synthesis. Journal of Leisure Research 17 (2), 75–89. Molloy, L.F. (1983)Wilderness Recreation — The New Zealand Experience. In L.F. Molloy (ed.) Wilderness Recreation. Proceedings of the F.M.C. 50th Jubilee Conference on Wilderness. Rotoiti Lodge, Nelson Lakes National Park. August, 1981. New Zealand Tourism Board (1996) International Visitor Survey 1995/6. Wellington, New Zealand. New Zealand Tourism Board (1997) New Zealand Tourism News. Wellington, New Zealand. O’Neill, D. and Kearsley, G.W. (1994) Some perceptions of crowding at selected New Zealand tourism sites. Unpublished paper. University of Otago. Dunedin, New Zealand. Price, G. (1996) Crowded tracks tourism concern. Otago Daily Times, 6 December 1996, p. 3. Schreyer, R., Lime, D.W. and Williams, D.R. (1984) Characterising the influence of past experience on recreation behaviour. Journal of Leisure Research 16 (1), 34–50. Schwarz, C.F., Thor, E.C. and Elsner, G.H. (1976) Wildland Planning Glossary. Washington DC: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Shultis, J.D. (1991) Natural environments, wilderness and protected areas: An analysis of historical Western attitudes and utilisation, and their expression in contemporary New Zealand. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Shultis, J.D. and Kearsley, G.W. (1990) Environmental Perception in Protected Areas. Proceedings of the Symposium on Environmental Monitoring in New Zealand (pp. 166–77). Wellington: Department of Conservation. Spotts, D. (1997) Reducing recreational pressure on wilderness areas by expanding trail based recreation opportunities on non-wilderness lands. Trails in the Third Millennium: A Tourism Research Conference (pp. 335–48), 2–5 December 1997. New Zealand: Cromwell. Stankey, G.H. (1973) Visitor Perceptions of Wilderness Recreation Carrying Capacity. USDA Forest Service Research Paper. INT-142. Ogden, Utah 84401. Stankey, G.H. (1982). The role of management in wilderness and natural-area preservation. Environmental Conservation 9, 149–55. Stankey, G.H. and Schreyer, R. (1987) Attitudes toward wilderness and factors affecting visitor behaviour: A state of knowledge review. Proceedings — National Wilderness Research Conference: Issues, State of Knowledge and Future Directions (pp. 246–93). General Technical Report INT-220. Intermountain Research Station. Ogden, UT. Tuan, Yi-Fu. (1974) Topophilia. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. Vaske, J.J., Donnelly, M.P. and Heberlein, T.A. (1980) Perceptions of crowding and resource quality by early and more recent visitors. Leisure Sciences 3 (4), 367–81. Wilderness Advisory Group (1985) Wilderness Policy. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Lands and Survey, New Zealand Forest Service. Watkins, L. (1987) Billion Dollar Miracle. Auckland, New Zealand: Inhouse Publications. Zaslowsky, D. (1984) Managing the dream. Recreation, contradiction and the pressures of enchantment. Wilderness 48, 27–33.||en_NZ|
Files in this item
There are no files associated with this item.
This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.
If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.