Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorHigham, James
dc.contributor.authorLangley, Maurice Jason Lloyden_NZ
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:12:28Z
dc.date.copyright2000en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationLangley, M. J. L. (2000). Sport tourism and the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: A New Zealand perspective (Thesis, Master of Tourism). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1270en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/1270
dc.descriptionxv, 243 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 237-243. University of Otago department: Tourism.
dc.description.abstractThe year 2000 sees the world's largest sporting event, the Olympic Games, held in the Southern Hemisphere for only the second time. Proponents of the Olympics believe them to be a recipe for urban (re)development, escalating tourist numbers, and economic growth. There is general consensus that a wide variety of Olympic impacts will occur (specifically economic, social, environmental and tourism). Recent research, however, has contested the notion that large sporting events mean tourism benefits and meaningful economic development for the host city. The relative proximity of Sydney 2000 suggests it is unlikely the impacts of the Olympic Games will bypass New Zealand. The principal aim of this study is to investigate the wider ramifications of the Sydney Olympics from a New Zealand perspective. This has been accomplished through a comprehensive literature review and the undertaking of complementary primary research. The primary research involved a nation-wide survey of regional tourism organisations and territorial local authorities. It examined the perceived impacts and opportunities Sydney 2000 may have on New Zealand at both a national and regional level. Other opportunities from Sydney 2000 available to New Zealand were also investigated. In addition the survey considered the relevance of sport to regional tourism development in New Zealand. Findings from the study indicated New Zealand should expect a wide range of benefits from the Sydney Olympics. These include tourism, sporting and commercial opportunities. The main beneficiary will be the New Zealand tourism industry. A wide range of initiatives have been undertaken at a national level, although the overall extent to which Olympic opportunities have been pursued on a regional scale has been limited. Sport and tourism have become increasingly important to both the New Zealand lifestyle and the nation's economy. The integration of sport and tourism has transpired at a national level, and is slowly being realised at a regional level with sport becoming increasingly important to both local economies and tourism industries. Most regions throughout New Zealand have man-made sports resources to attract sporting events. These facilities alongside New Zealand's natural sports resources indicate the potential for sport tourism in New Zealand is substantial.en_NZ
dc.subjectOlympic Gamesen_NZ
dc.subjectSydney Olympicsen_NZ
dc.subjectSporten_NZ
dc.subjectsporting eventsen_NZ
dc.subjectfacilitiesen_NZ
dc.subjectTourismen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF Commerceen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF5601 Accountingen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshGV Recreation Leisureen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshH Social Sciences (General)en_NZ
dc.titleSport tourism and the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: A New Zealand perspectiveen_NZ
dc.title.alternativeSport tourism and the Sydney Olympics
dc.typeThesisen_NZ
dc.description.versionUnpublisheden_NZ
otago.date.accession2007-05-04en_NZ
otago.schoolTourismen_NZ
thesis.degree.disciplineTourismen_NZ
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Tourism
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Otagoen_NZ
thesis.degree.levelMastersen_NZ
otago.interloanyesen_NZ
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
dc.identifier.eprints687en_NZ
otago.school.eprintsTourismen_NZ
dc.description.referencesAhmed, Z. Krohn, F. and Heller, V. (1996) World University Games - 1993 at Buffalo (New York : Boostin its Tourism Indust or Missin an 0 pportuni — an International Marketing Perspective, Journal of Professional Services Marketing, Vol. 14 (2), pp.79-97. Ahn, J. and McGahey, S. (1997) South Korea: Interaction Between Inbound and Outbound Markets, in Go, F. and Jenkins, C. (eds) Tourism and Economic Development in Asia and Australia, Cassell Imprint, England, pp.255-272. Alaszkiewicz, R. and McPhail, T. (1986) Olympic Television Rights, International Review for Sociology of Sport, Vol. 21 (2), pp.211-227. Anderton, D. (1995) Look at Tourism, Hodder and Stoughton, United Kingdom. Arthur, D. and Andrew, J. (1996) Incorporating Community Involvement in the Management tinMea-Events: An Australian Case Study, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 4, pp.21-27. Auckland Airport (2000) Fast Facts about Auckland Airport, http://www.auckland-airport.co.nz/facts.html Auckland Regional Services Trust (1996) Economic Impact Analysis: America's Cup - Auckland 2000, Ernst & Young, Auckland. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2000) Australia Now - A Statistical Profile: Population, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstatgabs%40. nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000 I 92af2/e04822688 51b52aeca2568a900154b08 !Op enDocument l3ackrnan, K. Backman, S. Muzaffer, U. and Sunshine, K. (1995) Event Tourism: An Examination of Motivations and Activities, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 3, pp.15-24, Barker, M. Page, S. and Meyer, D. (forthcoming) Evaluating The Impact of the 2000 America's Cu, on Auckland New Zealand, Event Management. Barney, R. (1996) The Ancient Games, in Findling, J. and Pelle, K. (eds) Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movement, Greenwood Press, pp.xxi-xl Berdie, D. Anderson, J. and Niebhur, M. (1986) Questionnaires: Design and Use, Second Edition, Scarecrow Press Inc. Billings, A. Eastman, S. and Newton, G. (1998) Atlanta Revisited: Prime-Time Promotion in the 1996 Summer Olympics, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol. 22 (1), pp.65-78. Birch, (1996) The Sydney 2000 Ceremonies, in de Moragas i Spa, M. MacAloon, J. and Limes, M. (eds) Olympic Ceremonies: Historical Continuity and Cultural Exchange, International Olympic Committee, pp.289-294. Bloxham, L. (1998) Rapid Progress at site for Olympics, MG Business, 30 March, pp.19-20. Boland, M. (1997) Tourism Eyes Millennium Magic, New Zealand Herald, 19 July, pp.A17. Bolger, J. (1993) Sydney Olympic 2000 Bid, Address to the Sydney 2000 Luncheon: Auckland, 28 July, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, pp.46-47. Booth, D. and Tatz, C. (1994) Sydney 2000: The Games People Play, Current Affairs Bulletin, December 1993/January 1994, pp.4-11. Bramwell, B. (1997) Strategic Planning Before and After a Mega-event, Tourism Management, Vol. 18 (3), pp.167-176. Bramwell, B. (1999) Sport, Tourism and City Development, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol. 1(6), Conference Report, pp.459-460. Brissenden, C. (1987) Expo 86 – Scenario for Success, Tourism Management, Vol. 8 (1), March, pp.49-53. Broadway, M. (1997) Urban Tourism Development in the Modern Canadian City: A Review, in Murphy, P. (ed) Quality Management in Urban Tourism, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, England, pp.25-39. Brohm, J. (1978) The Olympic Opiate, in Brohm, J. (ed) Sport: Prison of Measured Time, Ink Links, London, pp.102-115. Brooke, K. (1988) A Sporting Chance, Pacific Way, June, pp.32-35. Brownell, S. (1995) Cultural Variations in Olympic Telecasts: China and the 1992 Olympic Games and Ceremonies, The Journal of International Communication, Vol. 2 (1), pp.26-41. Brundage, A. (1969) Addresses of President Avery Brundage at Solemn Openings of IOC Sessions between 1952 and 1968, Comite International Olympique, Lausanne. Buchanan, I. and Mallon, B. (1995) Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement, Scarecrow Press Inc., USA. Burgan, B. and Mules, T. (1992) Economic Impact of Sporting Events, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 19 (4), pp.700-710. Burns, J. and Mules, T. (1989) An Economic Evaluation of the Adelaide Grand Prix, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds) The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.172-185. Burroughs, A. (1999) Winning the Bid, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.35-45. Burton, M. (2000) Sustainability Means We All Win, Otago Daily Times, 2 February, pp.14. Butler, R. and Grigg, J. (1989) The Hallmark Event that Got Away: the Case of the 1991 Pan American Games and London, Ontario, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds) The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.142-153. Cameron, J. (1996) The Olympic Games: A Stage for Other Plays, Journal of Physical Education, New Zealand, Vol. 29 (2), pp.9-12. Campbell, G. (1994) And the Winner will be..., The Listener, Vol. 146 (2847), 5 November, pp.14-15. Carroll, P. and Donohue, K. (1991) Special Events and Tourism, in Carroll, P. Donohue, K. McGovern, M. and McMillen, J. (eds) Tourism in Australia, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Group, Australia, pp.129-140. Cashman, R. (1999) The Greatest Peacetime Event, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.3-17. Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (1998) Sydney 2000: Car Australian Sport?, in Rowe, D. and Lawrence, G. (eds) Tourism, Leisure, Sport: Critical Perspectives, Hodder Education, Australia, pp.216-225. Cates, K. (1999) Olympic Troubles Put Utah in the Press Limelight, The Salt Lake Tribune, 13 January: http://www.sltrib.com/1999/jan/01131999/nation_w/74407.htm Chalip, L., Green, C. and Vander Velden, L. (1998a) Sources of Interest in Travel to the Olympic Gaines, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 4 (1), pp.7-22. Chalip, L. Green, C. and Vander Velden, L. (1998b) Using the 2000 Olympic Games to Attract American Visitors to Australia, in proceedings from the 1998 Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, February 11-14, pp.414. Chernushenko, D. (1996) Sports Tourism Goes Sustainable: The Lillehammer Experience, Visions in Leisure and Business, Vol. 15 (1), pp.65-73. Chow, L. (1996) Going for Gold – Sydney Olympics Promise a Business Bonanza, Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 159 (37), 12 September, pp.58. Christchurch City Council (1997) City a Magnet for Top Sports Stars http://www.ccc.govt.nz/CityScene/1997/September/citya.asp Christchurch City Council (1999) Christchurch Sports Training Destination Guide Christchurch City Council (2000) City Training Ground for 0lympians http://www.ccc.govt.nz/CityScene/2000/JanuaryFebruary/CityTrainingGround.asp Collier, A. (1999) Principles of Tourism: A New Zealand Perspective, Fifth Edition, Longman, New Zealand. Collins, C. and Stuart, M. (1994) Politics and Sport in New Zealand, in Trenberth, L. and Collins, C. (eds) Sport Management in New Zealand: An Introduction, Dunmore Press, New Zealand, pp.43-58. Collins, M. (1991) The Economics of Sport and Sports in the Economy: Some International Comparisons, in Cooper, C. (ed) Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Vol. 3, Belhaven, London, pp.184-214. Colman, J. (1988) On Your Marks..., Pacific Way, April, pp.36-39. Comite International Olympique (1993) Environment, Olympic Message, Vol.35. Consalvi Dictionary of New Zealand Local Government (1998) Strategic Information Service Limited, North Shore City, New Zealand. Corcoran, T. (1988) Advantages and Considerations in Staging a Major Sporting Event: World Cup Skiing Competitions at Waterville Valley, New Hampshire, in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 19-23 June, pp.101-102. Cousineau, C. (1998) Leisure and Recreation and the 'Sport or All' Policy in Develop Countries: a Critical Examination, in Collins, M. and Cooper, I. (eds) Leisure Management: Issues and Applications, CAB International, U.K., pp. 29-48. Coughlan, G. (2000) Time to Look at How to Make the Most of Industr y, Otago Daily Times, 2 February, pp.14. Coventry, N. (1996) Our Fastest Growing Industry, Chartered Accountants Journal, Vol. 75 (9f)o, Orctober, pp.9-11. for Al' Policy in Developing Crompton, J. and McKay, S. (1997) Motives of Visitors Attending Festival Events, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 24 (2) pp.425-439. Czaja, R. and Blair, J. (1996) Designing Surveys: A Guide to Decisions and Procedures, Pine Forge Press, U.S.A. Darcey, S. and Veal, A. (1994) The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: The Story So Far, Australian Journal of Leisure and Recreation, Vol. 4 (1), pp.5-14. Davidson, L. and Schaffer, W. (1980) A Discussion o Methods Em lo ed in Anal in the Impact of Short-term Entertainment Events, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 18 (3), pp.12- 16. Dearnaley, M. (1997) Tourism Eyes in Games Air Deal, New Zealand Herald, 30 January, pp.A3. De Knop, P. (1987) Some Thoughts on the Influence of Sport on Tourism, in Garmise, M. (ed) Proceedings of the International Seminar and Workshop on Outdoor Education, Recreation and Sport Tourism, Emmanuel Gill Publishing, Israel, pp.38-45. Delpy, L. (1998) An Overview of Sport Tourism: Building Towards a Dimensional Framework, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 4 (1), pp.23-38. deMorgagas i Spa, M, Rivenburg, N. and Larson, J. (1995) Television in the Olympics, John Libbey Company Ltd., England. Detroit News (1997) Swedish Extremists Threaten Killings if Stockholm Gets 2004 Olympics, Associated Press Tuesday, 19 August. http://www.detnews.com/1997/sports/9708/19/08190089.htm Donaldson, M. (1998) Olympic Face-Lift, Otago Daily Times, 8 June, pp.7. Downey, B. (1993) Major Sports Events in Victoria: The Economic Impacts and Related Tourism Opportunities, Australian Journal of Leisure and Recreation, Vol. 3 (3), pp.28-32. Dundas, A. (1995) Event Tourism: An Analysis of Event Tourism with Reference to the Central Wellington Region (a study of the organisational and residential perceptions of event tourism and the impacts that event tourism can cause), Unpublished Dissertation, Centre for Tourism, Otago University, New Zealand. Bibliography 169 Dungan, T. (1984) How Cities Plan Special Events, The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 25 (1), pp.83-89. Dunn, K. and McGuirk, P. (1999) Hallmark Events, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.18-32. Dusevic, T. (1999) Rough Track to 2000, Time International, 8 February, Vol. 153 (5), pp.34- 35. Dwyer, L. and Mistilis, N. (1997) Challenges to MICE Tourism in the Asia-Pacific Region, in Opperman, M. (ed.) Pacific Rim Tourism, CAB International, pp.219-230. Eames, (1993) Barcelona, Insight Guides, Spain Series, MA Houghton Publishers, U.S.A. Edwards, H. (1984) The Free Enterprise Olympics, Journal of Sport and Social Issues Vol. 8 (2), pp.i-iv. Emerson, M. and Perse, E. (1995) Media Events and Sports Orientations to the 1992 Winter Olympics, The Journal of International Communication, Vol. 2 (1), pp.80-99. Espy, R. (1979) The Politics of the Olympic Games, University of California Press, USA. Export News (1987) A High Time at the Hilton, Journal of the New Zealand Trade Commission, Vol. 31 (7), pp.38. Faulker, B. (1993) Evaluating the Tourism Impacts of Hallmark Events, Occasional Paper No.16, Bureau of Tourism Research, Canberra, Australia. Faulker, B. Tideswell, C. and Weston, A. (1998) Leveraging Tourism Benefits from the Sydney 2000 Olympics, Keynote address, Sport Management: Opportunities and Change, Fourth Annual Conference, Sports Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ), Gold Coast, Australia, 26-28 November. Faulker, B. Weston, A. and Tideswell, C. (1998) Forecasting the Tourism Impacts of the Sydney 2000 Olympics, in proceedings from the 1998 Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, 11-14 February, pp.411. Ferreira, R. (1998) The Impact of the 1996 Summer Olympics on Private Clubs in the Greater Atlanta Area, in proceedings from the 1998 Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, February 11-14, pp.412-413. Ferrers, T. (1996) Branch Banking Under Threat, Chartered Accountants Journal, Vol. 75 (9), October, pp.87-88. Findling, J. and Pelle, K. (1996) Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movement, Greenwobd Press. Fowler, F. (1988) Survey Research Methods, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA. French, S. and Disher, M. (1997) Atlanta and the Olympics: A One-Year Retrospective, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 63 (3), pp.379-392. Gammon, S. and Robinson, T. (1997) Sport and Tourism: A Conceptual Framework, Journal of Sport Tourism, Vol. 4 (3) pp.8-24. Garnham, B. (1996) Events Tourism: the Im p act o Ranfurly Shield Rugby on a Provincial City: The Case of New Plymouth, Taranaki, New Zealand, in proceedings from Tourism Down-Under II Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, 3-6 December, pp. 73-78. Gasson, W. (1996) Sydney Games: Now or Never, New Zealand Business, April, pp.42-45. Getz, D. (1988) Festivals and Events: Defining the Product, in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 19-23, pp.251-252. Getz, D. (1989) Special Events: Defining the Product, Tourism Management, Vol. 10 (2), pp.125-137. Getz, D. (1991) Festivals, Special Events and Tourism, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Getz, D. (1997) Event Management and Event Tourism, Cognizant Communication Corporation, U.S.A. Getz, D. (1998a) The Impacts of Mega Events on and Research Issues for Destinations, Keynote Paper for the 1998 Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, 11-14 February, pp.417-439. Getz, D. (1998+) Trends, Strategies, and Issues in Sport-Event Tourism, Sport Marketing Quarterly, Vol. 7 (2), pp.8-13. Gibson, H. (1998) Sport Tourism: A Critical Analysis of Research, Sport Management Review, Vol. 1 (1), pp.45-76. Gibson, H. Attie, S. and Yiannakis, A. (1998) Segmenting the Active Sport Tourist Market: A Life Span Perspective, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 4 (1), pp.52-64. Glubok, S. and Tamain, A. (1976) Olympic Games in Ancient Greece, Harper and Row Publishing. Glyptis, S. (1991) Sport and Tourism, in Cooper, C. (ed) Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Vol. 3, Belhaven, London, pp.165-183. Good, D. (1999) The Cultural Olympiad, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.159-169. Goodger, G. (2000) $5m Sports Centre Addition Urged, Otago Daily Times, 16 March, pp. 1 . Gordon, S. and Sibson, R. (1998) Global Television: The Atlanta 0lympics Opening Ceremony, in Rowe, D. and Lawrence, G. (eds) Tourism, Leisure, Sport: Critical Perspectives, Hodder Education, Australia, pp.204-215. emIi Goscinny and Uderzo (1980) Asterix at the Olympic Games, Hodder and Stoughton Ltd, United Kingdom. Gratton, R. (1999) The Media, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.121-131. Groome, R. (1976) An Unwritten Chapter of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games, The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 17 (3), pp.86-91.. 172 Hall, C.M. (1987) The Effects of Hallmark Events on Cities, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 26 (2), pp.44-45. Hall, C.M. (1989a) Hallmark Tourist Events: Analtsis, Definition Methodoloy and Review, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds), The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.3-19. Hall, C.M. (1989b) Hallmark Events and the Planning Process, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds) The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.20-39. Hall, C.M. (1989c) The Politics of Hallmark Events, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds), The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.219-241. Hall, C.M. (1989d) The Definition and Analysis of Hallmark Events, GeoJournal, Vol. 19 (3), pp.263-268. Hall, C.M. (1989e) Impact of the 1987 America's Cup on Fremantle, Western Australia: Implications for the Hosting of Hallmark Events, in proceedings from the 1989 New Zealand Geography Conference, August, Dunedin, pp.74-80. Hall, C.M. (1992a) Hallmark Tourist Events: Impacts, Management and Planning, Belhaven Press, London. Hall, C.M. (1992b) Adventure, Sport and Health Tourism, in Weiler, B. and Hall, C.M. (eds) Special Interest Tourism, Belhaven Press, London, pp.141-158. Hall, C.M. (1994) Tourism and Politics: Policy, Power and Place, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., England. Hall, C.M. (1996a) Communication from the Guest Editor, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 4, pp.1-2. Hall, C.M. (1996b) Hallmark Events and Urban Re-imaging Strategies: Coercion, Community and the Sydney 2000 Olympics, in Harrison, L. and Husbands, W. (eds) Practicing Bibliography 173 Responsible Tourism: international case studies in tourism planning, policy and development, John Wiley, New York, pp.366-379. Hall, C.M. (1997a) Recent Progress of Sports Tourism in New Zealand, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 22 (2), pp.63. Hall, C.M. (1997b) Mega-events and their Le acies, in Murphy, P. (ed) Quality Management in Urban Tourism, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, England, pp.75-87. Hall, C.M. (1998) Imaging, Tourism and Sports Events Fever: The Sydney Olympics and the Need for a Social Charter for Mega-Events, in conference proceedings, Sport in the City Conference, Sheffield, U.K., 2-4 July, pp.1-25. Hall, C.M. and Hodges, J. (1996) The Party's Great, But What About The Hangover?: The Housing and Social Impacts of Mega-events with Special Reference to the 2000 Sydney Olympics, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 4, pp.13-20. Hall, C.M. and Hodges, J. (1998) The Politics of Place and Identity in the Sidney 2000 Olympics: 'Sharing the Spirit of Corporatism', in Roche, M. (ed), Sport, Popular Culture and Identity, pp.95-111. Hall, C.M. and Selwood, J. (1989) America's Cup Lost: Paradise retained?: The Dynamics of a Hallmark Event, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds) The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.103-118. Ham, P. (1999) Off their Marks, The Bulletin, 13 July, pp.64-71. Haugsjaa, S. and Stromo, E. (1993) From. Challenge to Opportunities, Olympic Message, Vol. 35, pp.29-39. Haywood, B. (1989) Development of Tourism and Recreation Policy in New Zealand, in proceedings from the 1989 New Zealand Geography Conference, August, Dunedin, pp.69-73. Head, W. (1995) NSW Boom May Send Ripple Across Tasman, Export News, 11 December, pp.7-10. Higham, J. (1999) S ort as an Avenue o Tourism Develo ment: An Anal An Analysis of the Positive and Negative Impacts of Sport Tourism, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 2 (1), pp.82-90. Higham, J. and Devlin, B. (1993) The Bledisloe Cup: The Economic Impact of Visitors on the Dunedin Economy, unpublished report for the Otago Rugby Football Union. Higham, J. and Ritchie, B. (1996) Event Tourism: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sporting Events and their Respective Tourism Components, in proceedings from Tourism Down-Under II Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, 3-6 December, pp. 132-138. Hill, C. (1996) Olympic Politics: Athens to Atlanta 1896-1996, Second Edition, Manchester University Press, U.S.A. Hillary Commission (1998) The Growing Business of Sport and Leisure, Hillary Commission, prepared by independent economic analysts Business and Economic Research Ltd (BERL), Hillary Commission (1999) A Gold Medal Sports Destination, Sport Bulletin, June, pp.4. Hillary Commissions Regional Sports Trusts (1999) Regional Sports Trust Map http://www.sport.org.nz/rst.html Hillary Commission (2000) Personal Communication, April. Hiller, H. (1989) Fact and Image: the Convergence of Urban Factors in Preparing for the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympics, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds) The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.119- 131. Hiller, H. (1998) Assessing the Impact of Mega-Events: a Linkage Model, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 1 (1), pp.47-57. Hinch, T. and Higham J. (2000) Sport Tourism: A Framework for Research., International Journal of Tourism Research, accepted for publication. Hindson, A. Cushman, G. and Gidlow, B. (1994) Historical and Social Perspectives on Sport in New Zealand, in Trenberth, L. and Collins, C. (eds) Sport Management in New Zealand: An Introduction, Dunmore Press, New Zealand, pp.27-42. Hindson, A. Gidlow, B. and Peebles, C. (1994) The "Trickle-down" Effect of Top-level Sport: Myth or Reality? A Case Study of the Olympics, Australian Journal of Leisure and Recreation, Vol. 4 (1), pp.16-24; 31. Hobernian J. (1986) The Olympic Crisis: Sports, Politics and the Moral Order, Caratza Publishing Co. Ltd, New York. Hodges, J. and Hall, C.M. (1996) The Housing and Social Impacts of Mega-Events: Lessons for the Sydney 2000 Olympics, in proceedings from Tourism Down-Under II Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 3-6, pp. 152-166. Holloway, C. (1985) The Business of Tourism, Second Edition, Pitman Publishing, U.K. Holmes, B. (1984) The Olympian Games in Athens, 1896, Grove Press Inc., New York, Houlihan, B. (1994) Sport and International Politics, Harvester Wheatsheaf Publishers, U.K. Hughes, A. (1999) The Paralympics, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.170-180. Hughes, H. (1993) Olympic Tourism and Urban Regeneration, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 1, pp.157-162. Hyun, j. (1990) The Impact 0f 1988 Seoul International 01 m ics on Inbound Tourism in Korea, Study on Tourism, Vol. 14, pp.235-245. International Olympic Committee (1989) Olympic Charter, Comite International Olympique, Lausanne. Ihtntp:t//ewrwnw.oalytmipoicn.orag/lio cO/e/loryg/mioc/pioci_cin tCro_oe.hmtmlmittee (2000) History of the IOC Irwin, R. and Sandler, M. (1998) An Anal sis o Travel Behavior and Event-induced Expenditures Among American Collegiate Championship Patron Groups, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 4 (1), pp.78-90. Jackson, G. and Reeves, M. (1998) Evidencing the Sport-Tourism Interrelationship: A Case Study of Elite British Athletes, in Collins, M. and Cooper, I. (eds) Leisure Management: Issues and Applications, CAB International, U.K., pp. 263-275. Jafari, J: (1988) Tourism Mega-Events, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 15 (2), pp.272- 273. Jago, L. and Shaw, R. (1998a) Special Events: A Conceptual and Differential Framework, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp.21-32. Jago, L. and Shaw, R. (1998b) Special Events: A Consumer-Based Conceptualization, in proceedings from the 1998 Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, 11-14 February, pp.445-457. Jayasankaran, S. (1996) The Big Leagues – Malaysians Expect a Games Windfall, Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 159 (6), pp.50. Jennings, A. (1996) The New Lords o the Rin • s: 01 msic Corruption and How to Bu Gold Medals, Pocket Books, United Kingdom. Jennings, A. (1998) All the President's Men: How One Man Brought the Winter Olympics, The Sun-Herald, 8 February, pp.47-48. Jensen, B. (1994) Sport and the Economy, in Trenberth, L. and Collins, C. (eds) Sport Management in New Zealand: An Introduction, Dunmore Press, New Zealand, pp.71-84. Jeong, G-H. (1988) Tourism Expectations on the 1988 Seoul Olympics: A Korean Perspective, in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 19-23 June, pp.175-182. Jeong, G-H. and Faulkner, B. (1996) Resident Perceptions of Mega-Event Impacts: The Taejon International Exposition Case, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 4, pp.3- 11. Johnston, A. (1999) Marketing and Sponsorship, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: The event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.132-139. Kang, Y-S. and Perdue, R. (1994) Long-Term Impact of a Mega-Event on International Tourism to the Host Count : A Conceptual Model and the Case of the 1988 Seoul Olympics, in Uysal, M. (ed) Global Tourist Behaviour, The Haworth Press, Inc. pp.205-225. Kaye, M,(1994) Luring the Locals, Marketing Magazine, Vol.13, pp21-25. Kearsley, G. (1993) Dunedin Aims for Olympic Spin-offs, Otago Daily Times, 25 September PP.3. Kieran, J. and Daley, A. (1973) The Story of the Olympic Games: 776 BC to 7972, JB Lippincott Company, U.S.A. Killian, L. (1983) My Olympic Years, Martin Seeker and Warburg, London. King, F. (1988) Keynote Address, in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 19-23 June, pp.1-6. Kurtzman, J. and Zauhar, J. (1995) Tourism Sport International Council, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 22 (3), pp.707-708. Kurtzman, J. and Zauhar, J. (1997) Wave in Time: the Sports Tourism Phenomena, Journal of Sport Tourism, Vol. 4 (2). http://www.mcb.co.uk/journals/jst/archive/vo14no2/welcome.htm Kurtzman, J. and Zauhar, J. (1998) First Came The Profession ... Then The Discipline, Journal of Sport Tourism, Vol. 5 (2), http://www.mcb.co.uk/journals/jst/vol5no2/jst18.htm#BS7 Labrie, P. (1988) The Long-term Tourism and Economic Impact of Major Sports Events (Montreal and the. 1976 01, mpics – A Love Story), in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 19-23, pp.103-105. Langley, M. (2000) Economic Impact Study for the 2000 New Zealand Masters Games, Unpublished Report for the New Zealand Masters Games, June, Dunedin. Larson, J. and Park, H. (1993) Global Television and the Politics of the Seoul Olympics, Westview Press Inc., USA. Law, C. (1993) Urban Tourism: Attractin Visitors to Lar e Cities, Mansell Publishing Limited, England. Law, C. (1996) Tourism in Major Cities, International Thomson Business Press, London. Lawson, R. Thyne, M. and Young, T. (1997) New Zealand Holidays: A Travel Lifestyles Study, Marketing Department, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Lee, C. Var, T. and Blame, T. (1996) Determinants of Inbound Tourist Expenditures, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 23 (3), pp.527-542. Lee, C. and Kim, J. (1998) International Tourism Demand for the 2002 World Cup Korea: A Combined Forecasting Technique, Pacific Tourism Review, Vol. 2, pp.157-166. Leiper, N. (1979) The Framework of Tourism: Towards a Definition of Tourism, Tourist and the Tourism Industry, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 6 (4), pp.390-407. Leiper, N. (1997) A Town Like Elis? The Olympics' Impacts on Tourism in Sydney, 1997 Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, led by University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia, pp.228-234. Lenskyi, H. (1996) When Winners are Losers: Toronto and Sydney Bids for the Summer Olympics, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol. 20 (4), pp.392-410. Lenskyi, H. (1998) Sport and Corporate Environmentalism: The Case of the Sydney 2000 Olympics, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Vol. 33 (4), pp.341-354. Loeb, P. (1982) International Travel to U.S. an Econometric Evaluation, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 9 (1), pp.7-20. Lucas, J. (1992) The Future of the Olympic Games, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois. MacKenzie, D. (2000) THL Ready to Expand in to Australia post-Olympics, Otago Daily Times, 4 March, pp.33. McGeoch, R. and Korporal, G. (1994) The Bid: How Australia Won the 2000 Games, William Heinemann, Melbourne, Australia. McIntosh, R. Goldener, C. and Ritchie, J. (1995) Tourism: Principles, Practices and Philosophies, Seventh Edition, John Wiley and Sons, U.S.A. McKinnon, B. (1998) What's the Games Plan?, The Open Road, Jan/Feb, pp.11-12. McLean, T. (1990) Silver Fern: 150 Years of New Zealand Sport, Moa Publications, New Zealand. McPherson, B. Curtis, J. and Loy, J. (1989) The Social Significance of Sport, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois. McWhirter, N. and McWhirter, A. (1976) The Guinness Book of Olympic Records, Penguin Publishing, U.K. MacAloon, J. (1984) Rite Drama Festival S ectacle Rehearsals Toward a Theo Cultural Performance, Institute for the Study of Human Issues, United States. Mandell, R. (1971) The Nazi Olympics, Macmillian Publishing, New York. Marris, T. (1987) The Role and Im act o Me!a-Events and Attractions on Regional and National Tourism Development, Revue de tourisme, Vol. 42 (4), pp.3-12. Mathieson, A. and Wall, G. (1982) Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts, Harlow, Longmans. May, V. (1995) Environmental Implications of the 1992 Winter Olympic Games, Tourism Management, Vol. 16 (4), pp.269-275. Mazitelli, D. (1989) Major Sports Events in Australia – Some Economic, Tourism and Sportsrelated Effects, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds) The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.195-202. Mihalik, B. and Simonetta, L. (1999) A Mid-term Assessment of the Host Populations Perceptions of the 1996 Summer Olympics: Support, Attendance, Benefits, and Liabilities, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 37 (3), pp.244-248. Millennium Office (1999) Millennium Office http://www.millennium.govt.nz/ Min, G. (1987) Over-Commercialisation of the Olympics 1988: The Role of US Television Networks, International Review for Sociology of Sport, Vol. 22 (2) pp.137-142. Mossberg, L. (1997) The Event Market, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 24 (3), pp.748- 751. Mules, T. (1993) A Special Event as Part of an Urban Renewal Strategy, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 1, pp.65-67. Mules, T. and McDonald, S. (1994) The Economic Impact of Special Events: The Use of Forecasts, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 2, pp.45-53. Murphy, P. and Carmichael, B. (1991) Assessing the Tourism Benefits of an Open Access Sports Tournament: The 1989 B.C. Winter Games, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 29 (3), pp.32-36. Nachmias, C. and Nachmias, D. (1981) Research Methods in the Social Sciences, Second Edition, St. Martins Press Inc., London, U.K. Nauright, J. (1996) "A Besieged Tribe"?: Nostalgia, White Cultural Identity and the Role of Rugby in a Changing South Africa, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Vol. 31 (1), pp.69-90. New Zealand Audit Office (1999) Report of the Controller and Auditor-General = Tumuaki o re Mana Arotake; An inquiry into certain events concerning the New Zealand Tourism Board, Wellington, New Zealand. New Zealand Government (1998) Changes in Government Structure, http://www.cultureandheritage.govt.nz/publications/workinprogress/1998winter/f.html New Zealand Herald (1993) Tourist Chiefs Jump for Joy on Sydney Games Success, 25 September, pp.l. Nhtetwp: /Z/wewalwa.nndzh Herearlda.lcdo .(n2z0/s0t0o)ry Gdiasmpleasy .Ocffmfe?rs KtoirwyIiDs =G1o4l3d6e9n0 J&obth Cesheacnticoens=, news&thesubsection .general&reportID=52508 New Zealand Industrial Supplies Office (1999a) NZISO Function, http://www.nziso.govt.nz/index.html New Zealand Industrial Supplies Office (1999b) Olympic Business Information Service, http://www.nziso.govt.nz/contacts/sydney/obis.html New Zealand Industrial Supplies Office (1999c) Olympic Co-ordination Authority, http://www.nziso.govt.nz/contacts/sydney/oca.html New Zealand Industrial Supplies Office (1999d) Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games, http://www.nziso.govt.nz/contacts/sydney/socog.html New Zealand Industrial Supplies Office (1999e) Sydney Paral mpic Organising Committee, http://www.nziso.govt.nz/contacts/sydney/spoc.html New Zealand Olympic Council (1999) New Zealand's Olympic History, http://www.olympic.org.nz/nnonflash/history/index New Zealand Oxford Dictionary (1995) edited by Burchfield, R. New Zealand Sports Foundation (1999) New Zealand Sports Foundation, http://www.sportsfoundation.gen.nz/ New Zealand Torch Relay (2000) About the Torch Relay, http://www.torchrelay.org.nz/about.htm New Zealand Tourism Board (1993a) New Zealand Olympics – trade-tourism sign up for major joint promotion, New Zealand Tourism News, November, pp.3. New Zealand Tourism Board (1993b) Sydney Games Boost to NZ Tourism Plan, New Zealand Tourism News, November, pp.3. New Zealand Tourism Board (1999) Regional Tourism Organisation List, Personal Communication. Nogawa, H. Yamaguchi, Y. and Hagi, Y. (1996) An Empirical Research Study on Japanese Sport Tourism in Sport-for-All Events: Case Studies of a Single-Night Event and a Multiple- Night Event, Journal of Travel Research Vol. 35 (2), pp.46-54. O'Reilly, D. (1996) 1997: Year of the Tourist, Business with Newsweek, Vol. 116 (6052), December 24, pp.42-43. Office of Tourism and Sport (2000) Office of Tourism and Sport, http://www.otsp.govt.nz/ Okraut, M. (1988) S or in Events: an Untapped Market Share for Travel and Tourism, in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 19-23 June, pp.91. Olds, K. (1998) The Urban Me . a-Event Evaluations and Housin Ri hts: The Canadian Case, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 1 (1), pp.3-46. Olympic (1998) Olympic Magazine published by the Hillary Commission. Olympic Co-Ordination Authority (1996) The Sydney Olympics, Australian Leisure, pp.8- 10. Olympic Co-Ordination Authority (1997) State of Play: A Report to the people of NSW, Information Booklet. Orams, M. and Brons, A. (1999) Planning for a Major Sport/Tourism Event: The America's Cup 2000, Auckland, New Zealand, Visions in Leisure and Business, Vol.18 (1), pp.14-28. Otago Daily Times (1999) Pushing for more cheaper tickets, 4 September, pp.24. Otago Daily Times (2000a) Kiwis shun Olympics, 12 February, pp.2. Otago Daily Times (2000b) Travel Briefs- Games' flights doubled, 16 March, pp.20. Otago Daily Times (2000c) Aborigines Warn of Olympic Violence Over 'Stolen Generation' Claim, 4 April, pp.6. Otago Daily Times (2000d) Fears Terrorists May Target Games, 19 June, pp.7. Otago Daily Times (2000e) Tourism Now 'At Heart', 1 July, pp.2. Page, S. (1999) New Zealand Outbound, Travel and Tourism Analyst, No. 2, pp.21-40. Palenski, R. and Maddaford, T. (1983) The Games, Moa Publications, New Zealand. Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia (1995) Cashing in on the Sydney Olympics: Protecting the Sydney Olympic Gaines from Ambush Marketing, Report by the Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, March. Pearce, D. (1987) Tourism Today: A Geographical Analysis, Longman Group, U.K. Peisley, T. (1999) The Cruise Business in Asia Pacific, Travel and Tourism Analyst, No. 2, pp.1-20. Pelletier, J. (1988) The Social, Ethnic and Economic Impacts of Festivals and Events, in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 19-23 June, pp.253-256. Pennell (1999a) Please be Seated for the Following Australian Olympic Joke, Otago Daily Times, 15 June, pp.12. Pennell (1999b) Op timism and An er on Olympics, Otago Daily Times, 16 June, pp.16. Pennell (2000) Holding Tourism's Ti ger by the Tail, Otago Daily Times, 2 February, pp.14. Perkins, S. (1998) S ecial Events in Rural Communities: Examinin the Impacts, Unpublished Thesis, Centre for Tourism, Otago University, New Zealand. Planet FM (2000) Hoglund Art Glass Chosen As Offical Olympics Licensee http://www.planetfm.co.nz/news/sept99/060999.htm Prasad, D. (1999) Environment, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.83-92. Priestley, G. (1996) City Tourism in Spain: A Recently Discovered Potential, in Law, C. (ed.) Tourism in Major Cities, International Thomson Business Press, London, pp.114-154. Poole, L. and Poole, G. (1963) History of Ancient Olympic Games, Vision Press, London. Pyo, S. Cook, R. and Howell, R. (1988) Summer Olympic Tourist Market – Learning From the Past, Tourism Management, Vol. 9 (2), pp.137-144. Redmond, G. (1990) Points of Increasing Contact: Sport and Tourism in the Modern World, in Tomlinson, A. (ed) Sport in Society: policy, politics and culture, LSA Publications, England, pp.158-167. Redmond, G. (1991) Changing Styles of Sports Tourism: Industry/Consumer Interactions in Canada. the U.S.A. and Europe, in Sinclair, M. and Stabler, M. (eds), The Tourism Industry: An International Analysis, CAB International, pp.107-120. Richardson, J. (1995) Travel and Tourism in Australia: The Economic Perspective, Hospitality Press Pty Ltd, Australia. Richardson, J. (1996) Marketin Australian Travel and Tourism: Principles and Practices, Hospitality Press Pty Ltd, Australia. Ritchie, B. (1996) How Special are Special Events? An Impact Study of the National Mutual New Zealand Masters Games on Dunedin 's Economy, Unpublished Dissertation, Centre for Tourism, Otago University, New Zealand. Ritchie, B. (1998) New Zealand Masters Games 1998 Economic Impact and Satisfaction Study, March, Unpublished Report, Dunedin. Ritchie, J.B.R. (1984) Assessing the Impacts of Hallmark Events: Conceptual and Research Issues, Jdurnal of Travel Research, Vol. 23 (1), pp.2-11. Ritchie, J.R.B. and Aitken, C. (1984) Assessin • the Impacts o the 1988 01 m ic Winter Games: The Research Program and Initial Results, Journal Of Travel Research, Vol. 22 (3), pp.17-25. Ritchie, J.R.B. and Lyons, M. (1987) Olympulse 111/Olympulse IV: A Mid-term Report on Resident Attitudes Concernin the XV Olympic Winter Games, Journal Of Travel Research, Vol. 26 (1), pp.18-26. Ritchie, J.B.R. and Lyons, M. (1990) Olympulse VI: A Post-Event Assessment of Residnet Reaction to the XV 01 m ic Winter Games, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 28(3), pp.14-23. Ritchie, J.R.B and Smith, B. (1991) The Impact Of a Mega-Event on Host Region Awareness: A Longitudinal Study, Journal Of Travel Research, Vol. 30 (1), pp.3-10. Rivenburgh, N. (1995) Images of Others: The Presentation of Nations in the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, The International Journal of International Communication, Vol. 2 (1), pp.6-25. Roberts, E. and McLeod, P. (1989) The Economics of a Hallmark event, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds), The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.242-249. Roche, M. (1992) Me a-events and Micro-modemi ation: on the Sociolo v of the Urban Tourism, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 43 (3), pp.563-600. Roche, M. (1994) Mega-Events and Urban Policy, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 21 (1), pp.1-19. Romanos, J. (1993) Our Home Olympics, The Listener, Vol. 140 (2793), October 16, pp.39- 40. Rooney, J. (1988) Mega-Sports Events as Tourist Attractions: a Geographical Analysis, in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 19-23 June, pp.93-99. Rothenbuhler, E. (1988) The Living Room Celebration of the Olympic Games, Journal of Communication, Vol. 38 (4), pp.61-81. Rowe, D. (1998) Tourism, 'Australianness' and Sydney 2000, in Rowe, D. and Lawrence, G. (eds) Tourism, Leisure, Sport: Critical Perspectives, Hodder Education, Australia, pp.74-85. Ruskin, H. (1987) Selected Views on Socio-Economic Aspects of Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Education and S p ort Tourism, in Garmise, M. (ed) Proceedings of the International Seminar and Workshop on Outdoor Education, Recreation and Sport Tourism, Emmanuel Gill Publishing, Israel, pp.18-37. Ryan, C. Smee, A. Murphy, S. and Getz, D. (1998) New Zealand Events: A Temporal and Regional Analysis, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp.71-83. Salt Lake Tribune (1999) S.L. Scandal Doesn't Appear to Harm Tourism, Volunteers' Enthusiasm, 23 January. http://www.sltrib.com/1999/jan/01231999/utah/77316.htm Scarrott, M. (1999) Sport, Leisure and Tourism Information Sources: A Guide for Researchers, Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd. Seppanen, P. (1984) The Olympics: A Socioloical Perspective, International Review for Sociology of Sport, Vol. 19 (2), pp.113-126. Sharpley, R. (1994) Tourism Tourists and Socie , Huntington Press, London. Shaw, B. J. (1989) The 'Auld Mug and the Vintage Port' – Papers Dealin with the E ect o the America's Cup Defence Upon Freemantle, Western Australia: An Introduction, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds) The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.43-45. Shinnick, P. (1982) Progressive Resistance to Nationalism and the 1980 Boycott of the Moscow Olympics, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol. 6 (2), pp.13-21. Shultis, J. Johnston, M. and Twynam, G.D. (1996) Developing a Longitudinal Research Program to Measure Impacts of a Special Event, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 4, pp.59-66, Slowikowski, S. and Loy, J. (1993) Ancient Athletic Motifs and the Modern Olympic Games: An Analysis of Rituals and Representations, in Ingham, A. and Loy, J. (eds) Sport in Social Development, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois, pp.21-49. Smith, C. and Jenner, P. (1998) The Impact of Festivals and Special Events on Tourism, Travel and Tourism Analyst, No. 4, pp.73-91. Smith, M. (1989) Tourist Operators Hold Little Hope for 1990 Bonanza, National Business Review, 7 February, pp.4. Socher, K. (1997) How Not to Get the Olympic Games: Destination Managers Instead of Strategists, The Tourist Review, Vol. 32 (2), pp.41-45. Sonmez, S. Backman, S. and Allen, L. (1993) Crisis Management for Event Tourism, Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol. 1, pp.110-120. Sparrow, M. (1989) A Tourism Plannin gModel or Hallmark Events, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds), The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.250-262. Sport Destination (1999a) New Zealand as a Pre-Games Training Venue http://www.hillarysportorg.nz/training/benefits/benefits Sport Destination (1999b) Letter from the Minister of Sport, Fitness and Leisure http://www.hillarysport.org.nz/training/introduction/intro.html Biblio h 188 Sports Illustrated (1999) IOC takes steps toward repairing image, 11 December. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/olympics/news/1999/12/11/olympic_meeting_ap/ Spurr, R. (1998) Tourism and the Economic Impacts of the Olympics, in proceedings from the 1998 Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, 11-14 February, p.415. Spurr, R. (1999) Tourism, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.148-156. Standeven, J. and De Knop, P. (1999) Sport Tourism, Human Kinetics, U.S.A. Statistics New Zealand (2000a) New Zealand Olympic Committee, http://www.stats.govt.nz/ Statistics New Zealand (2000b) Tourism New Zealand, http://www.stats,govt.nz/ Stevens, T. (1996) A Different Picture, Panstadia International, Vol. 3 (4), pp.60-61. Stevens, T. and van de Broek, M. (1997) Sport and Tourism – Natural Partners in Strategies for Tourism Development, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 22 (2), pp.1-3. Stevens, T. and Wootton, G. (1997) Sports Stadia and Arena: Realising their Full Potential, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 22 (2), pp.49-56. Stevenson, D. (1997) Olympic Arts: Sydney 2000 and the Cultural Olympiad, International Review for Sociology of Sport, Vol. 32 (3), pp.227-238. Stevenson, D. (1998) The Art of the Games: Leisure, Tourism and the Cultural Olympiad, in Rowe, D. and Lawrence, G. (eds) Tourism, Leisure, Sport: Critical Perspectives, Hodder Education, Australia, pp.124-134. Stewart, K. and Delbert, M. (1993) A Marketing Study of Festivals and Special Events to Attract Tourism and Business, Journal of Professional Services Marketing, Vol. 8 (2), pp.215- 222. Sullivan, R. (1999) How the Olympics were Brought, Time, 25 January, pp.44-48. Swaddling, J. (1980) The Ancient Olympic Games, Tex Press Edition, U.S.A. Sydney 2000 Official Site (2000) Find Out About the Green Games, http://www.olympics.com/eng/about/green/about/home.htm. Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (1989) The Plannin and Evaluation o Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England. Taylor, P. and Gratton, C. (1988) The Olympic Games: An Economic Analysis, Leisure Management, Vol. 8 (3), March, pp.32-34. Telstra (2000) Spotlight on the Olympics, Television New Zealand television programme, March. The Dominion (1997) McCully Unveils Plan to Attract Big Events, 14 July. Thompson, A. (1999) Security, in Cashman, R. and Hughes, A. (eds) Staging the Olympics: the event and its impacts, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Australia, pp.106-120. Toohey, K. and Veal, A. (2000) The Olympic Games: A Social Science Approach, Cromwell Press, U.K. Tourism Forecasting Council (1998) The Olympic Effect: A Report on the Potential Tourism Impacts of the Sydney 2000 Games, Canberra, Australia. Tourism New Zealand (2000) Personal Communication, June-July. Tourism Queensland (2000a) Queensland Training Numbers, http://www.qttc.com.au/media/olympic/news/jull.htm Tourism Queensland (2000b) Queensland 2000 Taskforce, http://www.qttc.com.au/2000_taskforce/index.htm Tow, S. (1994) Sport Tourism – the Benefits, Journal of Sport Tourism. http://www.mcb.co.uk/journals/jst/archive/vol3no4/benefits.htm Trade New Zealand (1998a) Trade New Zealand Olympic & Construction Information Service Bulletin 17, 5 February. Trade New Zealand (1998b) Trade New Zealand Olympic & Construction Information Service Bulletin 21, 21 April. Trade New Zealand (1998c) Trade New Zealand Olympic & Construction Information Service Bulletin 26, 28 September. Trade New Zealand (1999) Trade New Zealand, http://www.tradenz.govt.nz/services/index.html Trenberth, L. and Collins, C. (1994) Sport Management in New Zealand: An Introduction, Dunmore Press, New Zealand. Turco, D. and Navarro, R. (1993) Assessing the Economic Impact and Financial Return on Investment of a National Sporting Event, Sports Marketing Quarterly, Vol. 2 (3), pp.17-23. US Embassy (1999) McCaffrey Calls For Tougher Olympic Doping Policies, 4 February. http://www.usembassy.ro/USIS/Washington-File/400/99-02-04/eur419.htm Vincent, L. and Trenberth, L. (1994) The Structure and Organisation of Sport in New Zealand, in Trenberth, L. and Collins, C. (eds) Sport Management in New Zealand: An Introduction, Dunmore Press, New Zealand, pp.99-110. Wallechinsky, D. (1996) The Complete Book of the Olympics, Acrum Press Ltd., London. Walls-Smith, M. (1989) Major International Sporting Events – Characteristics and Criteria for Selection: a South Australian Viewpit, in Syme, G. Shaw, B. Fenton, D. and Mueller, W. (eds) The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events, Gower Publishing Company, England, pp.203-213. Wang, P. and Gitelson, R. (1988) Limitations with the Economic Benefits of Short-term Events, in proceedings from Tourism Research: Expanding Boundaries, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, Nineteenth Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 19-23 June, pp.257-261. Weed, M. and Bull, C. (1997a) Intergrating Sport and Tourism: A Review of Regional Policies in England, Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 3 (2), pp.129-148. Weed, M. and Bull, C. (1997b) Influences on Sport-Tourism Relations in Britain: the Effects of Government Policy, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 22 (2), pp.5-12. Weed, M. and Bull, C. (1998) The Search for a Sport-Tourism Policy Network, in Collins, M. and Cooper, I. (eds) Leisure Management: Issues and Applications, CAB International, U.K., pp 277-298. Wellington City Council (2000a) Wider Wellington Olympic Trade Focus Group, http://cda.wcc.govt.nz/page6.html Wellington City Council (2000b) Summertime and the living is easy – and exciting, http://www.wcc.govt.nz/news/apnewsletter/issue5/page4.html. Whitson, D. and Macintosh, D. (1993) Becoming a World-Class City: Hallmark Events and S ort Franchises in the Growth Strate ies o Western Canadian Cities, Sociology of Sport Journal, Vol. 10, pp.221-240. Whitson, D. and Macintosh, D. (1996) The Global Circus: International Sport, Tourism and the Marketing of Cities, Sport and Social Issues, Vol. 20 (3), pp.278-295. Whittaker, M. (1993) How Green the Gaines?, The Australian Magazine, 11-12 December, pp.28-36. Wider Wellington Olympic Trade Focus Group (2000) Personal Communication June/July. Williams, D. (1998) Sydney Rebuilding for 2000 Olympics, Otago Daily Times, 2 December, pp.18. Williams, D. (2000) Many Line Streets to see Olympic Flame, Otago Daily Times, 6 June, PP.9. Williams, P. Hainsworth, D. and Dossa, K. (1997) Community Development and Special Event Tourism: The Men's World Cuø o Skiin at Whistler British Columbia, The Journal of Tourism Studies, Vol. 6 (2), pp.11-20. Wilson, H. (1998) Television's Tour de Force: The Nation Watches the Olympic Games, in Rowe, D. and Lawrence, G. (eds) Tourism, Leisure, Sport: Critical Perspectives, Hodder Education, Australia, pp.135-145. Wilson, P. (1996) Hot Spot U.S.A., The Australian Magazine, 6-7 July, pp.16-19. Witt, S. Brooke, M. and Buckley, P. (1995) The Management of International Tourism, Second Edition, Routledge, Chapman and Hall, U.S.A. World Tourism Organisation (1997) WTO Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.world-tourism.org/faq/faq.htm World Tourism Organisation (2000) Results Revised Updates, http://www.world-tourism.org-/INDEX2.HTM. Yiannakis, A. and Gibson, H. (1992) Roles Tourists Play, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 19 (2), pp.287-303. Zbar, J. (1996) Olympics Torpedo Fla Boards, Advertising Age, 27 May, pp.35. Zbar, J. and Bayor, L. (1996) Atlanta Organisers Decry Links, Advertising Age, 6 May, pp.48.en_NZ
dc.identifier.voyager498642
 Find in your library

Files in this item

FilesSizeFormatView

There are no files associated with this item.

This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.

If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.

If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record