Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorHarsasto, Priyatnoen_NZ
dc.identifier.citationHarsasto, P. (1993, December). The political economy of industrialization in the Indonesian new order (1966 - 1993) (Dissertation, Master of Arts). Retrieved from
dc.description.abstractIndonesia's political system has restricted power and participation to a small portion of the population who are high-ranking officers in the army and the bureaucracy. The ideology which is embraced by the military caused them to curtail societal countervailing power in order to create an effective instrument for dirigisrne economic policy. The establishment of an autonomous state has been achieved through developing fiscal autonomy through external resources (foreign loans, aid ) and natural resource exploitation (especially oil and gas). Social control in Indonesia relies heavily on coercion. Coercion is frequently the starting point for control exercised through the bureaucracy. This thesis is an effort to understand the nature of the business-state relationship as well as the role of the state in the industrialization process using an approach which was developed by Neo-Marxists such as Fred Block. Strategic industrial policy forms a central component of the state. Economic nationalism in Indonesia took the form of state support for industrialization programs and intolerance for foreign ownership of capital. This was possible due to the oil booms in the 1970s. The economic nationalism was translated into high trade barriers to induce the development of a manufacturing sector, and foreign investment laws which required the participation of indigenous businessmen. State intervention involved the creation of price distortions so that economic activity was directed towards greater investment in particular industries. Import-substituting industrialization in Indonesia has served both economic nationalism as well as ensuring the development of strong political supporters in the bureaucracy (both civilian and military). This policy has resulted in the formation of a capitalist class. Therefore, in almost three decades in power, the New Order has been instrumental in both capital accumulation and class formation. The nature of the business-state relationship is characterized by the extremely dependent business class upon the state. The influence of business on policy formation was minimal. Businessmen only react defensively to public policy in a covert and specific manners. As a result, the effect was felt in the implementation stage rather than in the formulation stage of policy. The prevailing forms of the instrumental influence of business were the outright giving bribes, and more importantly for big business enterprises, the creation of clientelistic ties with military-bureaucratic leaders. The drop in oil prices in the 1980s forced the state to take corrective measures towards the high-cost economy. The structural adjustment was carried out slowly and reluctantly in order to avoid damaging the existing power structure too dramatically. There has been a tendency towards loosening state control over the economy in recent years. Indonesia has already shifted its industrialization strategy which was inward-oriented in nature towards an outward-oriented industrialization. However, economic reforms have not yet changed the nature of the business-state relationship. The fact that capitalism in Indonesia has not yet fully developed explains this partially. At least in the near future, the state will still dominate the economy.en_NZ
dc.subjectIndonesia's political systemen_NZ
dc.subjectdirigisrne economic policyen_NZ
dc.subjectState interventionen_NZ
dc.subjectcapitalist classen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF Commerceen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF5601 Accountingen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHC Economic History & Conditionsen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshH Social Sciences (General)en_NZ
dc.titleThe political economy of industrialization in the Indonesian new order (1966 - 1993)en_NZ
otago.schoolEconomicsen_NZ of Arts of Otagoen_NZ Dissertationsen_NZ
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
dc.description.referencesAdicondro, G, "From Chinatown to Nanyang",Prisma 13 (1979). Alavi, Hamza, "State and Class Under Peripheral Capitalism", in alavi and Shanin (eds,), Introduction to the Sociology of Developing Societies,(London: Macmillan, 1982). Althusser, Reading Capital,(London:New Left Books,1965). Amsden, Alice, "The State and Taiwan's Economic Development", in Bringing the State Back In, in P.B.Evans, D.Rueschemeyer, and T.Scokpol, (eds.), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1985). Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization (New York: Oxford University press, 1989). Anderson, Ben.R.O'G.,"Old State, New Society:Indonesia's New Order in Comparative Historical Perspective", Journal of Asian Studies,17 (3),(1983). Arthur, C.J.(ed.), The Gerrnan Ideology, Part 1, (London:Lawrence and Wishart,1974). Benjamin, Roger and Raymond Duval, "The Capitalist State in context", in Roger Benjamin and Stephen Elkin,(eds.), The Democratic State,(Lawrence:University Press of Kansas,1985). Bhagwaty, J, "Outward Orientation: Trade Issues", in Corbo, Khan and Goldstein (eds.), Growth Oriented Structural Adjustment ( Washington: IMF and World Bank, 1987). Block, Fred ,"Beyond Relative Autonomy:State Managers as historical Subjects" ,In Fred Block (ed.), Revisiting State Theory ,(Philadelphia:Temple University Press,1987). Ruling Class Does Not Rule:Notes on the Marxist Theory of the State" ,In Fred Block (ed.), Revising State Theory:Essays in Politics and Post- Industrialisation, (Philadelphia:Temple University Press,1987). Booth, Anne and Amina Tyabji,"Survey of Recent Developments",BIES,15(2),(July 1979). ...........,"Survey of Recent Developments", BIES 20 (3), (1984). ..........., Agricultural Developrnent in Indonesia, (Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1988). ..........., "Survey of Recent Developments", BIES 24 (1),(1988). Bates, Robert, Essays on the Political Econorny of Rural Africa (Berkeley: California University Press, 1983). Broad, Robin and John Cavanangh, "No More NICs', Foreign Policy, Fall (1988). Bulkin, Farchan, "Kapitalisme, Golongan Menengah dan Negara: Sebuah Catatan Penelitian (Capitalism, the Middle Class, and the State: A Research Note), Prisrna,2, (1984). Negara, Masyarakat, dan Ekonomi (State, Society and Economy),Prisrna, (1984). ...............,"Nasib Publik Dalam Sebuah Republik" (Peoples' Fate in a Republic), Prisrna, 8(1985). Chang, Ha-Joon, "The Political Economy of Industrial Policy in Korea", Cambridge Journal of Econornics 17 (1993). Clark, S. , "Marxism, Sociology and Poulantzas' Theory of the State", Capital and Class,2 (1977). Crouch, Harold , "Generals and Business in Indonesia",Pacific Affairs,48, (4) (Winter 1975-76). ..............., "The January Affairs in Indonesia", Melbourne: Dyason House Papers, 1,(August, 1974) The Arrny and Politics in Indonesia, (Cornel,NY:Cornell University Press,1978). ........,"Patrimonialism and Military Rule in Indonesia", World Politics,31,(4)(July 1979). ..............., "The Missing Bourgeoisie: Approaches to Indonesia's New Order" ,in D.Chandler and M.Ricklefts (eds.), Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Indonesia: Essays in Honour of Professor J.D.Legge, (Melbourne, Centre for Southeast Asian Studies : Monash University,1986). Cumming, Bruce ,"The Origin and Development of the Northeast Asian Political Economy:Industrial Sectors, Product Cycles, and Political Consequences", in F.Deyo (ed),The Political Econorny of the New Asian Industrialization, (Ithaca,NY: Cornell University Press,1987). Daroesman, Ruth, "Survey of Recent Developments", BIES,17(2),(July, 1982). ..............., "Survey on Recent Developments",BIES 17(2),(July, 1981). Datatrust, Reference Book on Indonesia's Major Business Groups, 1st ed. (Jakarta:Business Data and Credit Information Service,1986). Departemen Perindustrian, Berita Industri Edisi Khusus Tahun XVII/85: Industri Dalarn PPI 1985, (Jakarta: 1985). Departemen Perindustrian, "Perkembangan Ekspor Hasil Industri", July-Dec.(1992). Dick, Howard W. , "Interisland Shipping: Process, Problems and Prospects" ,B/ES 21(2),(1985). „ .......... , "Survey in Recent Developments" ,Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies (BIES),21(3), (1985). ................, "Further Reflections on the Middle Class", in Tanter and Young (eds.), The Politics of Middle Class in Indonesia,(Melbourne: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1990). Djojohadikusumo, Sumitro, Perdagangan dan Industri Dalam Pernbangunan, (Jakarta:LP3ES,1985) Doner, Richard F., Driving A Bargain: Automobile Industrialization and Japanese Firrn in Southeast Asia, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). "Approaches to the Politics of Economic Growth in Southeast Asia", The Journal of Asian Studies 50(4), (1991). ................., "Limit of State Strength: Toward an Institutionalist View of Economic Development", World Politics 44 (3),(April 1992). Emmerson, Donald K. , "The Bureaucracy in Political Context: Weakness in Strength", in Jackson and Pye (eds.), Political Power and Cornmunication in Indonesia, (Berkeley: California University Press, 1978). Evans, Peter.B, Dependent Development (Princeton: Princetone University Press, 1979). Evers, Hans-Dieters, "Bureaucratization of Southeast Asia", Masyarakat 1(1),(1990). Feith, Herbert , "Repressive Developmentalist Regimes in Asia: Old Strengths, New Vulnerabilities", Paper delivered at the New York Conference of the World Order Model Project (1979). Fernbach,(ed.),Karl Marx: Surveys frorn Exile (New York: Penguin, 1973). Gaffar, Afan, Javanese Voters: A Case Study of Elections Under a Hegemonic Party System,(Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1992). Glassburner, Bruce, "Economic Policy-Making in Indonesia, 1950-1957" ,in Economic Developrnent and Cultural Change,10 (2), (1962). "The Political Economy and the Soeharto Regimes", BIES (Nov.1978). Gray, Clive, "Civil Service Compensation in Indonesia", BIES 15(1),(1979). Grenville, Stephen , "Monetary and The Formal Financial Sector", in Booth and McCawley(eds. )(1981). Habibie, B.J., "Some Thoughts Concerning a Strategy for the Industrial Transformation of a Developing country", Address delivered at the Deutsche Gesellshaft fur Luftund Raumfahrt,Bonn, June 14(1983). Haggard, Stephen ,"The Newly Industrializing Countries in the International System" ,World Politics, 38 (2), (1986). .....,......and Chung-in Moon, "Institutions and Economic Policy", World Politics XLII (2) (1990). Handayaningrat, Soewarno , Adrninistrasi Dalarn Pernbangunan Nasional, (Jakarta: Gunung Agung). Hasibuan, N, "Oligopoli di Indonesia: Kasus Sektor Industry"(Oligopoly in Indonesia: The Case of the Industrial Sector),Prisma,(Apri1,1985). Hill, Hal , Choice of Technique in the Indonesian Weaving Industry, unpublished doctoral dissertation, (Canberra:Australian National University,1979). "Concentration in Indonesian Manufacturing" BIES, 23(1987). .........., "Ownership in Indonesia: Who Owns What and Does it Matter?" in Hill and Hull (eds.),Indonesia Assessment 1990 (Canberra: Australian National University, 1990). "Manufacturing Industry" ,in Anne Booth (ed.),The Oil Boorn and After: Indonesian Econornic Policy and Performance in the Soeharto Era,(Singapore:Oxford University Press,1992) Huntington, Samuel P., "Political Development and Political Decay", World Politics, 17(3),(April 1965). Political Order in Changing Societies,(New Haven,Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1968). Huppy, Monika and Martin Ravallion, " The Sectoral Structure of Poverty During and Adjustment Period: Evidence for Indonesia in the Mid-1980s, World Developrnent, 19(2), (1991). Informasi, Konglornerasi Sektor Bisnis Keuangan (Conglomeration of the Financial Business Sector),(Jakarta:Yayasan Manajemen Informasi,1985). International Bank for Reconstruction and development (IRBD), Korea: Current Developrnents and Policy Issues (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1980). Jackson, Karl.D.,"Bureaucratic Polity: A Theorethical Framework for the Analysis of Power and Communication", in Jackson and Pye (eds.),Political Power and Cornmunication in Indonesia, (Berkeley: University of California Press,1978). Jenkins, David, Soeharto and His General,(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984). Jessop, Bob ,"Recent Theories of the Capitalist State", in Jessop (ed.) State Theory: Putting the Capitalist State in Its Place, (Cambridge: Polity Press,1990). Johnson, Chalmers, MITI and the Japanese Miracle (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982). Katzenstein, Small States in World Markets: Industrial Policy in Europe (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985). King, Dwight, "Indonesia's New Order as a Bureaucratic Polity, a Neopatrimonial Regime or Bureaucratic Authoritarian Regime: What Difference Does it Make?" in Anderson and Kahin (eds.), Interpreting Indonesian Politics: Thirteen Contributions to the Debate,(Ithaca:Cornell Modern Indonesian Project,1982). Kornparternen JKRE'l 7 Kadin, (Kadin:Jakarta,1985). Krueger, Anne ,"Problems of Liberalisation" in A.C.Harberger (ed.),World Econornic Growth,(San Francisco: Institute for contemporary Studies,1984). Krugman, Paul , "Import-Protection as Export Promotion", in H.Kierzkowski (ed,), Monopolistic Competition and International Trade , (Oxford: Oxford University Press,1984). .............., Strategic Trade Policy and the New International Economics (Cambridge,MA: MIT Press,1986). Kuntjoro-Jakti, Dorodjatun , The Political-Econorny of Development: The Case ofIndonesia Under the New Order Government, 1966 - 1978, (Ph.D.diss., Berkeley: University of California, 1981). Lal, Deepak ,"Public Enterprises", in John Cody, Helen Hughes, and David Wall(eds.), Policies for Industrial Progress in Developing countries,(New York: Oxford University Press for The World Bank,1980). "The Political Economy of Economic Liberalisation", in World Bank Economic Review, 1 (2), (January, 1987). Lev, Daniel S. ,"Colonial Law and the Genesis of the Indonesian State", Indonesia, 40(1985). Liddle, William , "Modernizing Indonesian Politics", in Liddle (ed.),Political Participation in Modern Indonesia, (New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asian Monograph Series No.19, 1973). ,...,"Soeharto's Indonesia:Personal rule and Political Institutions", Pacific Affairs,58(1985). ......... „ , "The Politics of Shared Growth: Some Indonesian Cases", Cornparative Politics, 19(2),(1987). ................, "The Relative Autonomy of the Third World Politician: Soeharto and Indonesian Economic Development in Comparative Perspective" ,International Studies Quarterly, 35 (Des.1991). Lindslay, Holly , "The Indonesian Log Export Ban:An Estimation of Forgone Export Earning' ,BIES 25 (2),(1988),113. Linz, Juan ," An Authoritarian Regime: Spain", in E.Allard and S.Rokkan, Mass Politics: Studies in Political Sociology ,(New York:The Free Press,1970). McCawley, Peter,Industrialization in Indonesia: Development and Prospect, Occasional Paper:13 (Canberra: Development Studies Center, The Australian National University, 1979). .......... , "The Growth of The Industrial Sector", In Anne Booth and McCawley (eds.), The Indonesian Economy During the The Soeharto Era , (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1981). .............., "The Economics of Ekonomi Pancasila", BIES 18 (March 1982). .............. , "Survey of Recent Developments" ,BIES 19(1),(1983). Mackie, Jamie,(ed.) The Chinese in Indonesia: Five essays (Melbourne:Thomas Nelson,1976). ............., "Property and Power in Indonesia", in K.Young and Tanter (eds.), The Politics of Midlle Class in Indonesia, (Melbourne:Monash University, 1986). ..„........., "Changing Patterns of Chinese Big Business in Southeast Asia" ,in Ruth Mc Vey (ed.), Southeast Asian Capitalist (Ithaca:South East Asian Publication (SEAP) Cornell UNiversity Press, 1992). Maclntyre, Andrew ,"The Political Economy of Finance in Indonesia" ,Paper presented to conference on "Government, Financial Systems, and Economic Development" , (East-West center,Honolulu,November 1990). „ ............ ,Business and Politics in Indonesia (Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1991) ...... ........., "Politics and Reorientation of Economic Policy in Indonesia", in Maclntyre and K.Jayasuriya (eds.), The Dynarnics of Econornic Policy Reforrn in Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1992). ....... ........and Syahrir, "Survey of Recent Developments", BIES 29(1) (1993). Maitra, Priyatosh,"Mahalanobis Planning Model Revisited",(Dunedin: Otago University, unpublished paper, Nov.1993a). ................., "Internationalization of Production and Capitalism's Dilemma", The International Journal of Social Economics 20 (9),(1993b). Marx, Karl and F.Engels, The Cornrnunist Manifesto,(New York:The International Publisher, 1948). Marx, Karl, Capital vol.] (New York: International Publisher, 1967). Mar'i Muhammad and Arifin Siregar, "Perkembangan Badan Usaha Milik Negara" (The Development of State-Owned Enterprises), Paper Presented at the Ninth Conggress of ISEI, Cipanas, July 28-30 (1983). Mas'oed, Mohtar ,Ekonorni dan Struktur Politik Orde Baru 1966-1971 (Economy and Political Structure of The New Order, 1966 - 1971), (Jakarta:LP3ES,1989). McLeod, Ross, H. and David C.Cole,(eds.), Cases on Financial Policy and Banking Deregulation in Indonesia, (Gadjah Mada University Press, 1991). „ ...........,"Survey of Recent Developments", BIES 29 (2),(1993). Miliband, Ralp,"State Power and Class Interests", NLR,138 (1983). Murtopo, Ali ,"A Strategic Analysis of Industrialization", Indonesian Quarterly 11(1), (1983). Nasution, Anwar, "Survey of Recent Developments", BIES 20(2),(1985). ..,..,.....,..., "The Adjustment Program in The Indonesian Economy Since the 1980s", in Hal Hill (ed,), Indonesia Assessrnent 1991, (Canberra: Dept.Of Political and Social change, Research School of Pacific Studies,ANU, 1991). O'Connor, James, The Fiscal Crisis of the State,(New York:St.Martin Press,1973) O'Donnel, G., Modernisation and Bureaucratic-Authoritarianisrn: Studies in South Arnerican Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973). ......, ..., "Corporatism and the Question of the State", in J.M.Malloy, Authoritarianisrn and Corporatism in Latin Arnerica,(London:University of Pitsburgh Press, 1977). ............, "Reflections of The Patterns of Change in The Bureaucratic-Authoritarian State", Latin Arnerican Research Review, 13,(1), (1978). Offe, Claus , Contradiction in the Welfare State,(ed.)John Keane (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press,1987). Packenham, Robert, "The Dependency Perspective and Analytic Dependency", in Charles Doran,, North-South relations: Studies in Dependency Reversal ( New York: Praeger, 1983). Palmer, Ingrid , The Indonesian Economy Since 1965: A Case Study of Political Economy,(London:Frank Cass and Co. ,1978). Pangestu, Man and Boediono,"The Structure and Causes of Manufacturing Sector Protection in Indonesia", in Christopher Findlay and Ross Garnout,(eds.), The Political Econorny of Manufacturing Protection: Experience of ASEAN and Australia,(Sydney: Allan and Unwin, 1986). Petras, J. and S.Grundle, "A Critique of Structuralist State Theorizing" ,Contemporwy Crisis,6(1982). Poulantzas, Nicos, "The Problem of Capitalist State", New Left Review (NLR),58 (1969). "The Capitalist State: A Reply to Miliband and Laclau", NLR,95(1976). .................,Political Power and social Classes,(London:New Left Books,1973). . „ . ,State, Power and Socialisrn, (London:New Left books, 1978). Ramli, Rizal ,"Intervensi Langsung Negara Dalam Industri Kayu Lapis", Prisma, no .6(1992). Reeves, David , Golkar of Indonesia: An Alternative to The Party Systern,(Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1985). Riefel, Alexis and A.S.Wirjasaputra,"Military Enterprises",BIES,8 (2),(1972). Robison, Richard, "Authoritarian States, Capital-Owning Classes and the Politics of Newly Industrializing Countries: The Case of Indonesia' ,World Politics, XLI (1) (1988). ................,and Richard Higgott, "Theories of Development and Underdevelopment: Implications for Study of Southeast Asia", in Robison and Higgott (eds.), Southeast Asia: Essays in the Political Econorny of Structural Change (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985). ................, Indonesia: The Rise of Capital, (Sydney: Allen and Unwin,1986). ................, "Industrialization and the Economic and Political Development of Capital: The Case of Indonesia", in Ruth McVey (ed.), Southeast Asian Capitalist (Ithaca: SEAP-Cornell University Press, 1992). Roepstorff, Torben , "Industrial Development in Indonesia: Performance and Prospect", BIES,21(1) (1985). Rosendale, P, "Survey of Recent Developments", BIES 20 (1),(1984). Schosstein, Steven , Asia's New Little Dragon: The Dynarnic ernergence of Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1991). Skocpol, Theda , The State and Social Revolutions: Cornparative Analysis of France, Russia and China, (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1979). "Political Response to Capitalist Crisis:Neo-Marxist Theories of the State and the Case of the New Deal", Politics and Society,10(1980). "Bringing the State Back In: Strategies of Analysis in Current Research,in P.B.Evans,Bringing The State Back In, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1985). Soehartono, R.B, Econornic Developrnent and National Resilience (Jakarta: CSIS, 1974). Soehoed, A.R, "Industrial Development During Repelita II", Indonesia quarterly 10 (4) (1982). Stepan, Alfred, The State and Society: Peru in Cornparative Perspective (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978). .............., "State Power and the Strength of Civil Society in the Southern cone of Latin America", in Evans, Skocpol, and Rueschemeyer (eds.), Bringing the State Back in (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Sundhaussen, Ulf, "The Military Structure, Procedures, and Effects on Indonesian Society", in Jackson and Pye (eds.),Political Power and Comrnunications in Indonesia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). Susastro, Hadi , "The Political Economy Of Deregulation in Indonesia", Asian Survey, 29, (9) (Sept. 1989). "Capital Formation and Equal Distribution", The Indonesian Quarterly , XIX (1) (1991). Sutherland, H, The Making of a Bureaucratic Elite:The Colonial Transformation of Javanese Priyayi, (Singapore: Heinemann Educational Books,1979). Suryadinata, Leo, Priburni Indonesians, the Chinese Minority and China: A Study of Perceptions and Policies (Kuala Lumpur: Heinemann, 1978). Syahrir and Colin Brown, "Indonesian Financial and aTrade Policy Deregulation: Reform and Response" ,in Maclntyre and Jayasuriya (eds.), The Dynarnics of Econornic Policy Reforrn in Southeast Asia and South-west Pacific, (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1992). Thorbecke, E, Adjustrnent and Equity in Indonesia (Paris : OECD Development Center, 1991). Van den Ham, Allert P.,"Development cooperation and Human Rights" ,Asian Survey, 33 (5),(May, 1993) Vatikiotis, Michael, Indonesia Under Soeharto: Order, Developrnent and Pressure for Change (London:Routledge, 1993). Wade, Robert, Governing the Market: Econornic theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990). ............,"East Asia's Economic Success: Conflicting Perspectives, Partial Insights, Shaky Evidence", World Politics 44(2) (1992). Wardana, Ali, "Structural Adjustment in Indonesia: Export and the 'High Cost' Economy", Indonesian Quarterly, XXIX(9),(1989). Weber, Max , "The Fundamental concepts of Sociology" ,In Talcott Parsons,(ed.) The Theory of Social And Econornic Organization, (New York:The Free Press,1964). Wertheim, W.F, Indonesian Society in Transition (The Hague: Van Hoeve, 1956). Wibisono, Christianto , Kearah Indonesia Incorporated (Towards Indonesia Inc.), (Jakarta:Yayasan Manajemen Informasi, 1985). Wibisono, Makarim, "The Politics of Indonesian textile Policy: The Interest of Government Agencies and the Private Sector", BIES 25(1),(1989). Woo, Jung-En, Race to the Swift: State and Finance in Korean Industrialization, (New York: columbia University Press, 1991). World Bank, Indonesia: Policies for Growth and Employrnent,(Jakarta:1985). World Bank, World Development Report,(1986). Wright, Erik Olin, Class, Crisis and the State (London: New Left Books, 1978). Young, Keneth , "Middle Bureaucrats, Middle Peasents, Middle class?",in Tanter and Young (eds.),The Politics of Middle Class in Indonesia, (Melbourne: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1990). Forestry Statistics of Indonesia, 1989. Pusat Data Bisnis Indonesia, (Jakarta: 1990). Indonesian Comrnercial Newsletter (ICN), Sept.24(1979). Indonesian Cornmercial Newsletter (ICN), Feb.26(1985). Astra International Inc. (1985). Bank Indonesia, Indonesian Financial Statistics (1993). Megazines and News Papers: Asian Wallstreat Journal (AWSJ), Nov.24 (1986). Business Indonesia, March 2 (1993). Far Eastern Econornic Review (FEER), June 21(1978). FEER, May 29(1981), FEER, April 7 (1983). FEER,August 18,(1983). FEER, May 22 (1986). FEER, Oct.30, (1986). FEER, January 7(1988). FEER, Nov.17 (1988). FEER, Nov.24 (1988). FEER, Feb.2 (1989). FEER, March 14 (1991). FEER, May 2 (1991). FEER,March 12 (1992). FEER, April 30 (1992). FEER, July, 29 (1993). FEER, Oct.7 (1993). Jurnal Ekuin, 12 March (1983). Media Indonesia, Nov.30 (1989) Kompas, March, 24 (1976). Kornpas, May 17(1985). Kornpas, August 7(1985). Sinar Harapan,February 4(1983). Sinar Harapan,February 14(1984). Sinar Harapan,June 25(1985). Sinar Harapan, May 22(1986). Swasembada, January 10(1990). Ternpo ,October 13,(1979). Ternpo, March 3 (1984). Ternpo, June 4 (1985). Tempo, June 14 (1986). Tempo, May 17 (1986). Ternpo, March 20 (1993) Tempo, June 19 (1993). The Econornist,July 17(1993).en_NZ
 Find in your library

Files in this item


There are no files associated with this item.

This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.

If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.

If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record