Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorWiig, Hamishen_NZ
dc.identifier.citationWiig, H. (2004, August). Barriers to export trade and investment in Latin America (Thesis, Master of Commerce). Retrieved from
dc.description233, 69, 16, [10] p. :ill. (some col.), maps (some col., some folded) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographies. University of Otago department: Marketing. "August 2004".
dc.description.abstractIn recent years, Latin America has been identified as a region that offers significant potential for New Zealand business. However, for many New Zealand firms there are a number of factors that make conducting business in the region difficult. The following study will focus on this issue, by identifying and describing the barriers that inhibit the business activities of New Zealand firms within Latin America. The study utilises semi-structured interviews in order to obtain some rich new insights on the barrier phenomena. Such an approach addressed the confinement of prior barrier theory that has been restricted by an over-reliance on deductive research techniques. Interviews were conducted with seventeen New Zealand firms that were engaged in exporting or joint ventures in one or more Latin American country. Thirty-nine barriers that inhibit the business operations of New Zealand firms in Latin America were identified from this enquiry, with six of these barriers found to be emergent. Some of the more important barriers identified in this study include economic volatility, unfavourable/fluctuating exchange rates, political volatility and low incomes/wealth. However one of the most useful findings to come out of this study was the observation that several barriers appear to have a greater inhibiting effect than is consciously recognised by many businesses and thus have been termed as 'Hidden barriers'. Such barriers include language, corruption, bureaucracy, the legal system, obtaining adequate representation/JV partner and culture. It is contended that these 'Hidden barriers' are often underestimated and overlooked when assessing foreign market attractiveness or reviewing company performance and may also contribute towards company failure within the region. Furthermore, this study revealed that many barriers are seen as more severe by firms participating in joint ventures than by those engaged in the exporting activity. This indicates that the joint venture entry mode strategy is more problematic than direct exporting for firms operating in Latin America. Finally, on comparison with the literature, the findings from this study demonstrate that the types and severity of barriers identified would appear to vary considerably depending on the foreign target destination. That is, the foreign target destination is a highly important contextual factor for studies on barriers.en_NZ
dc.subjectLatin Americaen_NZ
dc.subjectNew Zealand businessen_NZ
dc.subjectbarrier phenomenaen_NZ
dc.subjecteconomic volatility, unfavourable/fluctuating exchange ratesen_NZ
dc.subjectpolitical volatilityen_NZ
dc.subjectlow incomes/wealthen_NZ
dc.subjectdirect exportingen_NZ
dc.subjectjoint venturesen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF Commerceen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF5601 Accountingen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshH Social Sciences (General)en_NZ
dc.titleBarriers to export trade and investment in Latin Americaen_NZ
dc.title.alternativeExport trade & investment in Latin America
otago.schoolMarketingen_NZ of Commerce of Otagoen_NZ Thesisen_NZ
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
dc.description.referencesAaby, N. E. and Slater, S. F. (1989), "Management influences on export perfo mance: A review of the empirical literature 1978-1988", International Marketing Review, 6(4): 7-25. Adarkar, A., Adil, A., Ernst, D. and Vaish, P. (1997), "Emerging market alliances: must they be win-lose?" The McKinsey Quarterly, 22 September(4): 120-137. Alam, M. (I995), A Theory of Limits on Corruption and Some Applications, Kyklos. Alexandrides, C. B. (1971), "The problems: how the major obstacles to expansion can be overcome", Atlanta Economic Review, 21(5): 12-15. Anderson, E. and Gatignon, H. (1986), "Modes of foreign entry: a transaction cost analysis and propositions", Journal of International Business Studies, 17(1): I-26. Anderson, 0. (1993), "The internationalisation process of firms: a critical analysis", Journal of International Business Studies, 24(2): 209-231. Babbie, E. (1998), The Practice of Social Research, Wadsworth, Auflage, Belmont, CA. Bandelj, N. (2002), "Embedded economies: Social relations as determinants of foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe", Social Forces, 81(2): 411-444. Barker, A. T. and Kaynak, E. (1992), "An Empirical Investigation of the Differences between Initiating and Continuing Exporters", European Journal of Marketing, 26(3). Barrett, N. I. and Wilkinson, I. F. (1985), "Export stimulation: A segmentation study of the exporting problems of Australian manufacturing firms", European Journal of Marketing, 19(2): 53-72. Bauerschmidt, A., Sullivan, D. and Gillespie, K. (1985), "Common factors underlying barriers to export: studies in the US paper industry", Journal of International Business Studies, 16(3): 111-123. Baumgarten, S. A. and Rivard, R. J. (1991), "The Evolution of Conditions for Joint Ventures in China", Journal of Global Marketing, 5(4): 183-199. _Belcl, oJ. m(199p5)u, "Tthee rin tseronaftitonwaliasartioen offi srmmall csom: paut efr usofrtwtahree fir challenge to "stage theories", European Journal of Marketing, 29(8): 60-75. Bell, J. (1997), "A comparative study of the export problems of small computer exporters in Finland, Ireland and Norway", International Business Review, 6(6): 585-604. Bell, J., McNaughton, R. and Young, S. (2001), "Born-Again Global' Firms: An Extension to the 'Born Global' Phenomenon", Journal of International Management, 7(3): 1-I 7 . Benito, G. and Gripsrud, G. (1992), "The expansion of foreign direct investments: Discrete rational location choices or a cultural learning process?" Journal of International Business Studies, 23(3): 461-476, Bilkey, W. J. (1978), "An attempted integration of the literature on the export behavior of firms", Journal of International Business Studies, 9(1): 33-46. Bilkey, W. J. and Tesar, G. (1977), "The export behavior of smaller Wisconsin manufacturing firms", Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1): 93-98. Boatright, J. (2000), Ethics and the Conduct of Business, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Bodur, M. (1986), "A study on the nature and intensity of problems experienced by Turkish exporting firms", Advances in International Marketing, 1205-232. Caves, R. E. and Mehra, S. K. (1986), In Competition in Global Industries, (Ed, Porter, M.) Harvard Press, Boston. Cavusgil, S. T. (1982), In Export Management: An International Context, (Eds, Czinkota, M. R. and Tesar, G.) Praeger, New York: 276-285. Cavusgil, S. T. (1984b), "Differences among exporting fir ms based on their degree of internationalization", .Journal of Business Research, (12)195-208. Cavusgil, S. T. (1985), "Guidelines for Export Market Research", Business Horizons, (Nov-Dec 1985): 27-33. Cavusgil, S. T. and Nevin, J. R. (1980), In Theoretical Developments in Marketing, (Eds, Lamb, C. W. and Dunne, P. M.) American Marketing Association, Chicago: 68-71. Cavusgil, S. T. and Zou, S. (1994), "Marketing Strategy-Performance Relationship: An Investigation of the Empirical Link in Export Market Ventures", Journal of Marketing, 58(January): 1-21. Cho, J. and Kang, J. (2001), "Benefits and Challenges of Global Sourcing: Perceptions of US Apparel Retail Firms", International Marketing Review, 18(5). Christensen, C. H., da Rocha, A. and Gertner, R. K. (1987), "An empirical investigation into the factors influencing exporting success of Brazilian firms", Journal of International Business Studies, 1961-67. Clark, H. (2000), Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade; Building Relations with Latin America, Available from: [Accessed 11 October 2002] Clegg, J. (1990), "The Determinants of aggregate international licensing behaviour: Evidence from five countries", Management International Review, 30(3): 231-251. Coviello, N. E. and McAuley, A. (1999), "Internationalisation and the smaller firm: A review of contemporary empirical research", Management International Review, 39(2): 223-257. Cui, G. and Liu, Q. (2000), "Regional market segments of China: opportunities and barriers in big emerging markets", Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(1): 55-72. Czinkota, M. and Ronkainen, I. (1993), International Marketing, The Dyrden Press, New York. Czinkota, M. R. and Johnston, W. J. (1983), "Exporting: Does sales volume make a difference?" Journal of International Business Studies, 14(I): 147-I53. Czinkota, M. R. and Ursic, M. L. (1987), "A refutation of the psychic distance effect on export development", Developments in Marketing Science, (10): 157-160. Da Silva, P. A. and Da Rocha, A. (2001), "Perceptions of Export Barriers to Mecosur by Brazilian Firms", International Marketing Review, 18(6): 589-601. Davidson, W. H. (1980), "The location of foreign direct investment activity: Country characteristics and experience effects", Journal of International Business Studies, 11(2): 9-22. De Carvalho, M. and Da Rocha, A. (1998), "Continuidade da acao internacional, caracteristicas da empresa obstaculos percebidos: um estudo na industria brasiliera de calcados", Revista de Administracao Contemporanea, 2(2): 23-39. Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (1994), The art and politics of interpretation. In: Handbook of Qualitative Research, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, California, USA. Deshpande, R. (1983), "Paradigms Lost on Theory and Method in Research Marketing", Journal of Marketing, 4(3): 101-110. Dichtl, E. and Koeglmayr, H. G. (1990), "International orientation as a precondition for export success", Journal of International Business Studies, 21(1): 23-40. Dichtl, E., Koglmayr, H. G. and Muller, S. (1986), "Identifying export potential: a comparative analysis of German and Japanese frrms", Advances in International Marketing, (1): 233-254. Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, A. (I991), Management Research: An Introduction, Sage Publications, London, UK. Glaister, K. and Thwaites, D. (1993), "Managerial perception and organisational strategy", Journal of General Management, 13(4): 15-33. Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Aldine, New York, USA. Gray, B. and Yan, A. (1992), "A Negiotiations Model of Joint Venture Formation, Structure and Performance: Implications for Global Management", Advances in Comparative Management, 741-75. Gripsrud, G. (1990), "The determinants of export decisions and attitudes to a distant market Norwegian fishery exports to Japan", Journal of International Business Studies, 21(3): 469-485. Guba, E. and Lincoln, Y. (1994), In Handbook of Qualitative Research, (Eds, Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y.), Sage Publications, CA: 105-117. Gummesson, E. (1991), Qualitative Methods in Management Research, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA. Habib, M. and Zurawicki, L. (2002), "Corruption and foreign direct investment", Journal of International Business Studies, 33(2): 291-307. Hague, P. (1993), Interviews, Kogan Page Ltd, London. Hofstede, G. (1980), Culture's Consequences, Sage Publications, California. Hofstede, G. (1994), "The business of international business is culture", International Business Review, 3(I): 1-14. Hofstede, G. (1997), Cultures and organisations: Software of the mind, McGraw Hill, New York. Hook, R. H. and Czinkota, M. R. (1988), "Export activities and prospects of Hawaiian firms", International Marketing Review, 5(4): 51-57. Hopkins, D. M., Kontnik, L. T. and Turnage, M. (2003), Counterfeiting Exposed: How to Protect Your Brand and Market Share, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey. Husted, B. W. (1999), "Wealth, culture and corruption", Journal of International Business Studies, 30(2): 339-360. Jackson, S. and Markowski, S. (1995), "The attractiveness of countries to foreign direct investment - Implications for the Asia-Pacific Region", Journal of World Trade, 29(5): 159-179. Johanson, J. and Mattsson, L.-G. (1992), Industrial Networks: A New View of Reality, Routledge, London. Johanson, J. and Vahlne, J. (1977), "The Internationalisation Process of the Firm - A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments", Journal of International Business Studies, Spring/Summer (1997): 23-32. Johanson, J. and Vahlne, J. (I990), "The Mechanism of Internationalisation", International Marketing Review, 7(4): 11-24. Johanson, J. and Wiedersheim-Paul, F. (1975), "The internationalisation of the frrm - four Swedish case studies", Journal of Management Studies, 12(3): 305-322. Johansson, J. K. (1997), Global Marketing, Foreign Entry, Local Marketing and Global Management, McGraw-Hill, Chicago. Johnston, W. J. and Czinkota, M. R. (1982), In Export Management: An International Context, (Eds, Czinkota, M. R. and Tesar, G.) Praeger, New York. Kahler, R. and Kramer, R. (1977), International Marketing, South-Western Publishing Co., Cincinnati, OH. Karafakioglu, M. (1.986), "Export activities of Turkish manufacturers", International Marketing Review, (Winter): 34-43. Karakaya, F. (1993), "Barriers to entry in international markets", Journal of Global Marketing, 7(I): 7-24. Karakaya, F. (2002), "Barriers to entry in industrial markets", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 17(5): 379-388. Karakaya, F. and Stahl, M. (1989), "Barriers to entry and market entry decisions in consumer and industrial goods markets", Journal of Marketing, 53(May): 80-91. Katsikeas, C. S., Bell, J. and Morgan, R. E. (1998), "Editorial: Advances in export marketing theory and practice", International Marketing Review, I5(5): 322-332. Katsikeas, C. S. and Morgan, R. E. (1994), "Differences in perceptions of exporting problems based on firm size and export market experience", European Journal of Marketing, 28(5): 17-35. Katsikeas, C. S. and Piercy, N. F. (1993), "Long-term export stimuli and firm characteristics in European LDC", Journal of International Marketing, 1(3): 23-47. Kaynak, E. and Kothari, V. (1983), "Export behaviour of small manufacturers: a comparative study of American and Canadian firms", European Management Journal, 2(2): 41-47. Kedia, B. L. and Chhokar, V. (1986), "Factors inhibiting export performance of firms: an empirical investigation", Management International Review, 26(4): 33-43. Keng, K. A. and Jivan, T. S. (I989), "Differences between small and medium-sized exporting and non-exporting firms: nature or nurture?" International Marketing Review, 6(4): 27-40. Kerlinger, F. (1964), Foundations of Behavioral Research, Holt, New York, USA. Kim, V., Triandis, H. C., Kagitcibasi, C., Choi, S. G. and Yoon, G. (1994), Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method and Application, Sage Publications, California. Klein, S. and Roth, V. J. (1990), "Determinants of export channel structure: the effects of experience and psychic distance reconsidered", International Marketing Review, 7(5): 27-38. Knight, G. A. (1995), "International Marketing Blunders by American firms in Japan - some lessons for management", Journal of International Marketing, 3(4): 107-129. Knight, J. (2000), In Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin. Kobrin, S. (1976), "The Environmental Determinants of Foreign Direct Manufacturing Investment: An Ex-post Empirical Analysis", Journal of International Business Studies, 7(l): 29-42. Koch, A. J. (2001), "Selecting Overseas Markets and Entry Modes: Two decision processes or one?" Marketing Intelligence and Planning, I9(1): 65-75. Kogut, B. and Singh, H. (1988), "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode", Journal of International Business Studies, 19(3): 411-432. Kumar, V., Stam, A. and Joachimasthaler, E. (1994), "An interactive multicriteria approach to identifying potential foreign markets", Journal of International Marketing, 2(1): 29-53. Kyrkilis, D. and Pantelidis, P. (2003), "Macroeconomic determinants of outward foreign direct investment", International Journal of Social Economics, 30(7/8): 827-848. Leonidou, L. C. (1995a), "Empirical research on export barriers: review, assessment and synthesis", Journal of International Marketing, 3(1): 29-43. Leonidou, L. C. (1995b), "Export stimulation: a non-exporter's perspective", European Journal of Marketing, 29(8): 17-36. Leonidou, L. C. (1995c), "Export barriers: non-exporters' perceptions", International Marketing Review, I2(I): 4-25. Leonidou, L. C. and Adams-Florou, A. S. (1999), "Types and Sources of Export Information: Insights from small business", International Small Business Journal, 17(3): 30-48. Leonidou, L. C. and Katsikeas, C. S. (1996), "The export development process: An integrative review of empirical models", Journal of International Business Studies, 27(3): 517-551. Leonidou, L. C., Katsikeas, C. S. and Piercy, N. F. (1998), "Identifying managerial influences on exporting: Past research and future directions", Journal of International Marketing, 6(2): 74-102. Luostarinen, R. (1980), The Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki. Macrae, J. (1982), "Underdevelopment and the Economics of Corruption: A Game Theory Approach", World Development, 10(8): 677-687. Maignan, I. and Lukas, B. A. (1997), "Entry Mode Decisions: The Role of Managers' Mental Models", Journal of Global Marketing, 47-22. Masden, T. (1987), "Empirical export performance studies: a review of conceptualizations and findings", Advances in International Marketing, 2177-198. Masden, T. K. (1989), "Successful export marketing management: Some empirical evidence", International Marketing Review, 6(4): 41-57. Merton, R. K., Fiske, M. and Kendall, P. L. (1956), The Focused Interview, The Free Press, USA. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2002), The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Available from: [Accessed 11 October 2002] Misenbock, K. J. (1988), "Small Businesses and Exporting: A literature review", International Small Business Journal, 6(1): 42-61. Moen, 0. (2002a), "Born global or gradual global? Examining the export behavior of small and medium-sized enterprises", Journal of International Marketing, 10(3): 49-73. Moen, 0. (2002b), "The born globals: A new generation of small European exporters", International Marketing Review, 19(2): I56-175. Moini, A. H. (1997), "Barriers inhibiting export performance of small and medium-sized manufacturing firms", Journal of Global Marketing, I0(4): 67-93. Morgan, G. and Smircich, L. (1980), "The Case for Qualitative Research", Academy of Management Review, 5(4): 491-500. Morgan, R. E. (1997), "Export Stimuli and Export Barriers: Evidence from Empirical Research Studies", European Business Review, 97(2): 68-79. Naidu, G. M. and Rao, T. R. (1993), "Public sector promotion of exports: a needs-based approach", Journal of Business Research, 2787-101. Nationmaster (2004),, Available from: [Accessed 13 April, 2004] Naumann, E. and Lincoln, D. J. (1991), "Non-tariff Barriers and Entry Strategy Alternatives: Strategic Marketing Implications", Journal of Small Business Management, 29(2): 60-70. Negandhi, A. and Prasad, S. (1971), Comparative Management, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York. Neuman, L. (1999), Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches 5th Edition, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, USA. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (2003), New Zealand Trade and Enterprise, Strategic Direction, Available from: [Accessed 15 June 2004] Nordstrom, K. A. (1990), In Institute of International Business, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden O'Donnell, S. and Jeong, I. (2000), "Marketing standardisation within global industries: An empirical study of performance implications", International Marketing Review, 17(1): 19-33. Onkvisit, S. and Shaw, J. J. (1988), "Marketing Barriers in International Trade", Business Horizons, 3 l(May-June): 67-72. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2004), Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Available from: [Accessed 3 March 2004] Osland, G. E., Taylor, C. R. and Zou, S. (2001), "Selecting international modes of entry and expansion", Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 19(3): 153-161. Oviatt, B. M. and McDougall, P. P. (1994), "Towards a theory of international new ventures", Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1): 45-64. Page, C. and Meyer, D. (2000), Applied Research Design for Business and Management, McGraw-Hill, Australia. Parkhe, A. (1993), "Messy research, methodological predispositions and theory development in international joint ventures", Academy of Management Review, 18(2): 227-268. Patton, M. (1980), Qualitative Evaluation Methods, Sage Publications, London, UK. Patton, M. (1990), Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, Sage Publications, California, USA. Pavord, W. C. and Bogart, R. G. (1975), "The Dynamics of the Decision to Export", Akron Business and Economic Review, 66-11. Perry, C. (1994), In ANZ Doctoral Colloquium, Sydney, Australia. Porter, M. (1980), Competitive Strategy, The Free Press, New York. Posavac, E. and Carey, R. (1989), Program Evaluation.' Methods and Case Studies, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. QSR (1996), In NUD*IST, Qualitative Solutions and Research Pty Ltd., Australia. Rabino, S. (1980), "An Examination of Barriers to Exporting Encountered by Small Manufacturing Companies", Management International Review, 1(1980): 67-73. Rahman, S. (2003), "Modelling of International Market Selection Process: a qualitative study of successful Australian international businesses", Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 6(2): 119-132. Rao, T. R. and Naidu, G. M. (1992), "Are the stages of internationalisation empirically supportable?", Journal of Global Marketing, 6(1/2): 147-170. Reid, S. D. (1983), "Fii irr internationalisation, transaction costs and strategic choice", International Marketing Review, l(2): 44-56. Rodriguez, C. M. (2002), "Relationship bonding and trust as a foundation for commitment in U.S.- Mexican strategic alliances: A structural equation modeling approach", Journal of International Marketing, I0(4): 53-77. Root, F. R. (1994), Entry Strategies for International Markets, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA. Saimee, S. and Mayo, A. (1990), "Barrier to Trade with Japan: A socio-cultural Perspective", European Journal of Marketing, 24(12): 48-66. Shane, S. (1994), "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice Between Licensing and Direct Foreign Investment", Strategic Management Journal, 15(8): 627-642. Sharma, D. (1992), "International Business Research: Issues and Trends", Scandinavian International Business Review, 1(3): 3-8. Stainback, S. and Stainback, W. (1988), Understanding and Conducting Qualitative Research, Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA. Statistics New Zealand (2003), Statistics New Zealand; Overseas and export trade, Available from: [Accessed 1 April, 2003] Stewart, D. and McAuley, A. (I999), "The effects of export stimulation: implications for export performance", Journal of Marketing Management, (15): 505-518. Stottinger, B. and Schlegelmilch, B. B. (1998), "Explaining export development through psychic distance: enlightening or elusive?" International Marketing Review, I5(5): 357-372. Strauss, A. (1987), Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Suarez-Ortega, S. (2003), "Export Barriers: Insights from small and medium-sized frrms", International Small Business Journal, 21(4): 403-419. Tanzi, V. (1998), "Corruption Around the World: Causes, Consequences, Scope and Cures", 45(4): 559-594. Tesar, G. and Tarleton, J. S. (1982), In Export Management: An International Context, (Eds, Czinkota, M. R. and Tesar, G.) Praeger, New York. The American Heritage Dictionary (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Available from: [Accessed 10 November 2003] The World Bank (2004a), The World Bank Group, Available from: [Accessed 12 April 2004] The World Bank (2004b), The World Bank Group, Trade, Available at:, pagePK:149018–piPK:149093–theSitePK:23907I,00.html [Accessed 16 June 2004] The World Energy Council (2003), The World Energy Council, Available from: http://www.worldenergy.orgiwec- eis/publications/reports/emt/overview/overview.asp [Accessed 12 April 2004] United Kingdom Companies Act (1985), United Kingdom Companies Act, Available at: [Accessed 24 April 2003] Villegas, P.N. (1996), "FOCUS: New Zealand: Isolationist no more", BusinessWorki, Oct 81. Weaver, K. and Pak, J. (1990), "Export Behaviour and Attitudes of Small and Medium-Sized Korean Manufacturing Firms", International Small Business Journal, 859-70. Wikipedia (2004), Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopaedia, Available at: America [Accessed 8 Apr 2004] Williams, L., Whyte, W. and Green, C. (1966), "Do cultural differences affect workers' attitudes?" Industrial Relations, (5): 105-117. Williamson, 0. E. (1975), Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications, The Free Press, New York. Winkelmann, L. and Winkelmann, R. (1998), "Tariffs, quotas and terms-of-trade: the case of New Zealand", Journal of International Economics, (46):313-332. Wood, V. and Robertson, K. (2000), "Evaluating International Markets", International Marketing Review, 17(1): 34-55. Woodcock, C. P., Beamish, P. and Makino, S. (1994), "Ownership-based entry mode strategies and international performance", Journal of International Business Studies, 25(2): 253-274. Yang, G. (I998), "Barriers to entry and industrial performance in China", International Review of Applied Economics, 12(1): 39-51. Yang, Y. S., Leone, R. P. and Alden, D. L. (1992), "A market expansion ability approach to identify potential exporters", Journal of Marketing, 56(1): 84-96. Yin, R. (1994), Case Study Research: Design and Methods 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, California, USA. Zejan, M. C. (1990), "New ventures or acquisitions: The choice of Swedish multinational enterprises", Journal of Industrial Economics, 38(3): 349-355. Zou, S. and Stan, S. (1998), "The determinants of export performance: A review of the empirical literature between 1987 and 1997". International Marketing Review, 15(5): 333-356.en_NZ
 Find in your library

Files in this item


There are no files associated with this item.

This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.

If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.

If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record