Environmental values of consumptive and nonconsumptive marine tourists in the South Island of New Zealand
Just as opinions, preferences, religions, and beliefs range dramatically from person to person, so does the way in which individuals value the natural environment. Some people see the environment as an economic resource from which elements may be extracted for anthropocentric gain, where others value it for its ecocentric and inherent beauty. Dunlap and Heffernan (1978) proposed that nonconsumptive recreationists value the environment more than consumptive recreationists. A nonconsumptive activity involves actions, which are considered to be ‘environmentally sensitive’, and do not involve taking anything from nature (e.g. kayaking, canoeing, tramping, wildlife viewing). In contrast consumptive activities are extractive and are arguably viewed as environmentally ‘insensitive’ (e.g. fishing and hunting). The purpose of this thesis is to further explore the environmental value differences between nonconsumptive and consumptive marine tourists utilising the South Island of New Zealand as a recreational setting. The study involved a postal and hand delivered survey distributed to visitors at selected South Island sea kayaking and sea fishing operations from 01-July to 31-October, 2002. Profiles of sea kayaking and sea fishing tourists revealed the activities attract different individuals who are representative of distinct and separate user groups. It was then determined that nonconsumptive sea kayaking tourists value the environment more than consumptive sea fishing tourists and that this environmental value variation represents a key divisionary tool segregating the two groups. This conclusion was established after examining the statistically significant relationships emerging between the ‘integrated values scale’ and demographics, setting circumstances, and more frequently with tourist typology. Despite this division it was evident that both sea kayakers and sea fishers maintain a reasonable level of environmental appreciation, which is encouraging for activity and environmental sustainability.
Degree Name: Master of Tourism
Degree Discipline: Tourism
Keywords: environmental values; recreation; marine tourism; Tourism
Research Type: Thesis
180,  p. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliography. University of Otago department: Tourism. "February 2003".