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dc.contributor.authorVillanueva, Rochelle de Asaen_NZ
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:13:02Z
dc.date.copyright2004-07-22en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationVillanueva, R. de A. (2004, July 22). Think-aloud protocol and heuristic evaluation of non-immersive, desktop photo-realistic virtual environments (Dissertation, Master of Science). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1324en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/1324
dc.descriptionxi, 214 leaves :col. ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Information Science. "22 July 2004".
dc.description.abstractThe concept of Virtual Reality (VR), a three-dimensional, computer-generated environment that allows for a single or multiple users to interact, navigate, respond, and experience a synthesized world modelled from the real world, has provided social, scientific, economic and technological change since its inception in the early 1960's. Since that time, VR has also evolved into many forms and taken different tangents. One form that it has taken is non-immersive desktop photo-realistic Virtual Environments (VEs), where real-world still images are joined together to create 360 degree panoramas of places and objects in time. The concept has become increasingly popular since its creation using Apple QuickTime Virtual Reality Authoring Studio (QTVRAS) in 1995. This study is about the evaluation of non-immersive desktop web-based photo-realistic virtual environments using a previously applied evaluation method for non-immersive desktop 3D multi-user environments conducted by Koykka, Ollikainen, Ranta-aho, Milszus, Wasserroth and Friedrich (1999). The two qualitative evaluation methods are think-aloud protocol analysis and heuristic evaluation. There are three aims in this study: (1 ) to determine whether applying the same usability evaluation methodologies result in additional usability guideline categories: 3D environments should provide support for orientation, navigation and movement, real world metaphors need to be clearly understandable and avoidance of delay and waiting periods in performance (identified from the Koykka et at. study); (2) to determine whether think-aloud protocol or usability heuristic evaluation is a better evaluation method, for identifying usability problems in desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments; and (3) to determine whether large-scale desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments will have more usability problems than small-scale non-immersive, desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments. It is hoped that by investigating these aims that design guidelines for desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments may be derived. Twelve subjects took part in evaluating two different web-based photo-realistic VEs using the Think-Aloud Protocol (TAP) and Jakob Nielsen's usability Heuristic Evaluation (HE). The think-aloud protocols were videotaped and the heuristic evaluation results were word-processed. A variation of the grounded theory research method called Emergent Themes Analysis (ETA) was used to "distil" the recorded narratives into broad themes. The results show that ETA derived four broad themes: functionality, interaction, appearance and user comments. Within each broad theme, sub-themes were also derived to produce possible design guidelines for desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments. The results also show that the functionality and interaction broad themes were similar to the categories suggested by Koykka et al. (1999). Furthermore, the results indicate that small-scale non-immersive, desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments had more usability problems than large-scale non-immersive, desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments, contrary to the hypothesis that large-scale VEs will have more usability problems due to its complexity. Using the ETA method to analyze the data, the think-aloud protocol derived more themes compared to the heuristic evaluation – suggesting that TAP is a better usability evaluation method than HE in this type of study. However, a combination of the two qualitative methods has identified a greater number of usability problems, supporting the need for triangulation of research methods. It is hoped that these new design guidelines will allow for more usable design of non-immersive desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments. Furthermore, it is hoped that this study provides a beginning of future developments of usability evaluation methods for non-immersive desktop, photo-realistic virtual environments. Regardless of its future use, usability evaluations of any virtual environments are still needed.en_NZ
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.subjectVirtual Realityen_NZ
dc.subjectcomputer-generated environmenten_NZ
dc.subjectnon-immersive desktop photo-realistic Virtual Environmentsen_NZ
dc.subjectnon-immersive desktop web-based photo-realistic virtual environmentsen_NZ
dc.subjectthink-aloud protocol analysisen_NZ
dc.subjectheuristic evaluationen_NZ
dc.subjectusability evaluation methodologiesen_NZ
dc.subjectlarge-scale desktopen_NZ
dc.subjectphoto-realistic virtual environmentsen_NZ
dc.subjectfunctionalityen_NZ
dc.subjectinteractionen_NZ
dc.subjectusability evaluationsen_NZ
dc.subjectThree-dimensionalen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshT Technology (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshQ Science (General)en_NZ
dc.titleThink-aloud protocol and heuristic evaluation of non-immersive, desktop photo-realistic virtual environmentsen_NZ
dc.title.alternativeEvaluation of virtual environments.
dc.typeDissertationen_NZ
dc.description.versionUnpublisheden_NZ
otago.bitstream.pages219en_NZ
otago.date.accession2006-09-29en_NZ
otago.schoolInformation Scienceen_NZ
thesis.degree.disciplineInformation Scienceen_NZ
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Science
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Otagoen_NZ
thesis.degree.levelMasters Dissertationsen_NZ
otago.openaccessOpen
dc.identifier.eprints397en_NZ
otago.school.eprintsInformation Scienceen_NZ
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