Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorHall, Michael
dc.contributor.advisorDuval, David
dc.contributor.authorValentin, Andreaen_NZ
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:13:04Z
dc.date.copyright2003-11en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationValentin, A. (2003, November). Terrorism, tourism, and the issue attention cycle: An exploratory and longitudinal investigation of student perceptions of travel to the US post September 11 (Dissertation, Master of Tourism). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1328en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/1328
dc.description.abstractThe terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States (US) exposed the vulnerabilities of the tourism industry to changes in perception as to travel safety and security. The events of September 11 and subsequent policy measures confirmed that an act of terrorism, although not a new phenomenon, may have a substantial impact on a destination’s image. Nevertheless, just as significant as the actual terrorist attack is the role of the media in reporting the event and therefore influencing public and political perceptions of the relative safety of travel and of destinations. Despite the broad recognition of the role of the media in influencing tourist and destination images, the extent to which media shapes tourism images in the context of terrorism is relatively underrepresented in the literature. However, Hall (2002) suggested that the notion of an ‘issue attention cycle’ (Downs 1972) could be applied to explain public policy and travel behaviour over time in the post September 11 environment. Therefore, this thesis seeks to establish whether the ‘issue attention cycle’ is applicable to opinions and perceptions of the US as a tourist destination considering the substantial implications of the September 11 attacks. The objectives of this thesis are to examine students’ perceptions on the events of September 11 in the US upon future career and travel plans and, at the same time, to investigate the perceived image of the US as a tourist destination. Moreover, media reports relating to September 11 and tourism were content analysed in order to study the applicability of the ‘issue attention cycle’. To meet the aims of the research, exploratory research was conducted. First, a questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in tourism papers at the University of Otago; second, a content analysis was undertaken of the local Dunedin newspaper, the Otago Daily Times, to illustrate the relevance of the ‘issue attention cycle’. Results were compared to data collected shortly after the terrorist attacks in 2001 in a similar student survey by Duval and Hall (2002). While some parallels could be drawn between the results, respondents held statistically different perceptions of the terrorist attacks only one year after. In general, respondents in 2002 did not appear too concerned about the terrorist attacks and its impacts upon future career or travel plans as opposed to findings from 2001. This may have been caused by the increased timeline to the events as well as decreasing media reports. Analysis of newspaper coverage illustrated that the application of the ‘issue attention cycle’ is well grounded. Arguing from the premise that the issue of terrorism, and accordingly tourism, has followed cyclical attention in the print media, empirical results support the assumption that the media should not be underestimated in influencing tourist behaviour and the image of a destination. A distinct need for further research on interrelations between the media and tourism is suggested to comprehend travellers’ and members of the tourism industries’ response to crisis over time.en_NZ
dc.subjectpoliticsen_NZ
dc.subjectterrorismen_NZ
dc.subjecttourist behaviouren_NZ
dc.subjectsafety issuesen_NZ
dc.subjectTourismen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF Commerceen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF5601 Accountingen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshH Social Sciences (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshJA Political science (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshE11 America (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshD839 Post-war History, 1945 onen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHM Sociologyen_NZ
dc.titleTerrorism, tourism, and the issue attention cycle: An exploratory and longitudinal investigation of student perceptions of travel to the US post September 11en_NZ
dc.typeDissertationen_NZ
dc.description.versionUnpublisheden_NZ
otago.date.accession2007-04-17en_NZ
otago.schoolTourismen_NZ
thesis.degree.disciplineTourismen_NZ
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Tourism
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Otagoen_NZ
thesis.degree.levelMasters Dissertationsen_NZ
otago.interloanyesen_NZ
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
dc.identifier.eprints643en_NZ
otago.school.eprintsTourismen_NZ
dc.description.referencesAlesina, A. and Perotti, R. 1996, 'Income distribution, political instability, and investment', European Economic Review, vol.40, 1203-1241. Alhemoud, A.M. and Armstrong, E.G. 1996, 'Image of tourism attractions in Kuwait', Journal of Travel Research, vol.34, no.4, 76-80. Anson, C. 1999, 'Planning for Peace: The Role of Tourism in the Aftermath of Violence', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 57-61. APEC 2003, APEC: Tourism risk management strategy for the Asia-Pacific http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2003&res_id=xri:pqd&rft_val_fmt=ori:fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&rft_id=xri:pqd:did=000000349440641&svc_dat=xri:pqil:fmt=text&req_dat=xri:pqil:pq_clntid=18927 (Accessed 12 July 2003) Armstrong, E.M., Carpenter, D. and Hojnacki, M.E. 1994, Whose deaths matter? Attention to disease in the public arena, Harvard University, Boston. Ashworth, G. and Goodall, B. 1990, Marketing Tourism Places, Routledge, London. Aziz, H. 1995, 'Understanding attacks on tourists in Egypt', Tourism Management, vol.16, no.2, 91-95. Baloglu, S. 1999, 'A path analytic model of visitation intention involving information sources, socio-psychological motivations, and destination image', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, vol.8, no.3, 81-90. Baloglu, S. and Brinberg, D. 1997, 'Affective Images of Tourism Destinations', Journal of Travel Research, vol.35, no.4, 11-15. Baloglu, S. and Mangaloglu, M. 2001, 'Tourism destination images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as perceived by US-based tour operators and travel agents', Tourism Management, vol.22, 1-9. Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K. 1999, 'A Model of destination Image Formation', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.26, no.1, 868-897. Bar-On, R.R. 1996, 'Measuring the effects on tourism of violence and of promotion following violent acts', pp.159-174 in Pizam, A. and Mansfeld, Y. Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Beirman, D. 2002, 'Marketing of tourism destinations during a prolonged crisis: Israel and the Middle East', Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol.8, no.2, 167-176. Beirman, D. 2003, Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis, Allen and Unwin, Sydney. Berno, T. and King, B. 2001, 'Tourism in Fiji after the coups', Travel and Tourism Analyst, vol.2, 75-92. Bodensteiner, C.A. 1995, 'Predicting public and media attention span for social issues', Public Relations Quarterly, vol.40, no.2, 14-23. Bollard, A. 2001, Reform and Challenge: Further Economic development of New Zealand www.treasury.govt.nz/speeches/challenge/default.asp (Accessed 23 March 2002) Boyd, S. 2000, ''Heritage' tourism in Northern Ireland: opportunity under peace', Current Issues in Tourism, vol.3, no.2, 150-174. Brunt, P., Mawby, R. and Hambly, Z. 2000, 'Tourist victimization and the fear of crime on holiday', Tourism Management, no.21, 417-424. Buckley, P.J. and Klemm, M. 1993, 'The decline of tourism in Northern Ireland', Tourism Management, June, 184-94. Buhalis, D. 2000, 'Marketing the competitive destination of the future', Tourism Management, vol.21, 97-116. Burns, P. 1999, An Introduction to Tourism and Anthropology, Routledge, London. Butler, R. 1980, 'The Concept of a Tourist Area Cycle of Evolution: Implications for Management of Resources', Canadian Geographer, vol.24, no.1, 5-12. Butler, R. 1990, 'The Influence of the Media in Shaping International Tourist Patterns', Tourism Recreation Research, vol.15, no.46-53, Butler, R. 1999, 'The Tourism Potential of the Peace Dividend', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 24-29. Butler, R. and Capper, D. 2003, 'Awareness and effects of terrorist events on tourist destination choice', International Academy for the study of tourism, Savonlinna, 29 June - 5 July 2003. Butler, R. and Pearce, D. (eds) 1995, Change in Tourism - People, Places, Processes, Routledge, London. Bywater, M. 1993, 'The youth and student travel market', Travel and Tourism Analyst, vol.3, 35-50. Canadian Tourism Commission 2002, Tourism, travel and economy in the aftermath of September 11, 2001 (Part A) http://www.geog.nau.edu/courses/alew/ggr346/wtc4.html (Accessed 28 October 2002) Canadian Tourism Commission 2002, Tourism, travel and economy in the aftermath of September 11, 2001 (Part B) http://www.geog.nau.edu/courses/ggr346/wtc4b.html (Accessed 28 October 2002) Carr, N. 1998, 'The young tourist: a case of neglected research', Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol.4, no.4, 307-318. Carr, N. 1999, 'A study of gender differences: young tourist behaviour in a UK coastal resort', Tourism Management, vol.20, no.2, 223-228. Cassedy, K. 1991, Crisis Management Planning in the travel and tourism industry: A study of three destinations and a crisis management planning manual, Pacific Asia Travel Association, San Francisco. Cavlek, N. 2002, 'Tour operators and destination safety', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.29, no.2, 478-496. Chadee, D. and Cutler, J. 1996, 'Insights into international travel by students', Journal of Travel Research, vol.35, no.2, 75-80. Chan, A., Choi, W.M. and Wu, J. 1999, 'A qualitative and quantitative assessment of Hong Kong's images as a tourist destination', Tourism Management, vol.20, 361-365. Chaudhary, M. 2000, 'India's image as a tourist destination - a perspective of foreign tourists', Tourism Management, vol.21, 293-297. Chen, R.J.C. 2002, 'Effects of Terrorism on Recreation and Tourism: Safety, Security, and Marketing', International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE), vol.14, 47-54. Chen, R.J.C. and Noriega, P. 2004, 'The Impacts of Terrorism: Perceptions of Faculty and Students on Safety and Security in Tourism', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, vol.15, no.4, In press. Cheron, E. and Ritchie, J.R.B. 1982, 'Leisure activities and perceived risk', Journal of Leisure Research, no.14, 139-154. Chomsky, N. 2001, 9-11, Seven Stories Press, New York. Chomsky, N. 2003, Power and Terror: post 9-11 talks and interviews, Seven Stories Press, New York. Chon, K.S. 1990, 'The role of destination image in tourism', The Tourist Review, vol.2, 68-72. Chon, K.S. 1991, 'Tourism destination image modification process', Tourism Management, vol.11, 2-7. Cloke, P. and Perkins, H.C. 2002, 'Commodification and adventure in New Zealand tourism', Current Issues in Tourism, vol.5, no.6, 521-549. Cohen, E. 1973, 'Nomads from affluence: notes on the phenomenon of drifter tourism', International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol.14, 89-103. Cohen, L. and Manion, L. 1994, Research Methods in Education, Routledge, London. Conant, J.S., Clark, T., Burnett, J.J. and Zank, G. 1988, 'Terrorism and Travel: Managing the Unmanageable', Journal of Travel Research, vol.26, no.4, 16-20. Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Gilbert D. and Wanhill S. 1999, Tourism Principles and Practice, 2nd ed, Longman Ltd, Harlow. Cossens, J. 1994, The Application of Branding and Positioning to Destination Marketing, Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin. Crompton, J. 1979, 'An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon image', Journal of Travel Research, 18-23. Crompton, J. 1992, 'Structure of vacation destination choice set', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.19, 420-434. Crompton, J.L., Fakeye, P.C. and Lue, C.C. 1992, 'Positioning: the example of the lower Rio Grande Valley in the winter long stay destination market', Journal of Travel Research, vol.31, no.2, 20-26. D'Amore, L.J. and Anunza, T.E. 1986, 'International terrorism: Implications and challenge for global tourism', Business Quarterly, 20-29. Dann, G. 1995, 'A socio linguistic approach towards changing tourist imagery', pp.114-136 in Butler, R. and Pearce, D. Change in tourism - People, Places, Processes, Routledge, London. Dann, G. 1996, 'Tourists' images of a destination - an alternative analysis', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, vol.5, no.1/2, 41-55. Davidoff, P.G. and Davidoff D.C. 1983, Sales and Marketing for Travel and Tourism, Prentice, London. De Grauve, P. and Skudelny, F. 1999, Social conflict and growth in Euroland, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London. Dettmer, J. 2002, Political Notebook Supplying Terrorists the 'Oxygen of Publicity' http://www.insightmag.com/main.cfm/include/detail/storyid/256316.html%20 (Accessed 6 July 2003) Dichter, E. 1985, 'What is an Image?' Journal of Consumer Research, vol.13, 455-472. Dimanche, F. and Lepetic, A. 1999, 'New Orleans Tourism and Crime: A Case Study', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 19-23. Downey, K. 2003, Report Details Travel, Tourism Industry Woes SARS Is Adding To Post-9/11 Slump, Washington Post 15 May 2003, Washington, D.C. Downs, A. 1972, 'Up and down with ecology - the issue attention cycle', The Public Interest, vol.28, 38-50. Drabek, T.E. 1995, 'Disaster Responses within the tourism industry', International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.13, no.1, 7-23. Duval, D. and Hall, C.M. 2002, '"People may finally realise just how important we are" New Zealand Student Perceptions of Future Career Opportunities in the Tourism Industry Following the Events of September 11, 2001', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education, vol.1, no.2, Echtner, C. 1999, 'The semiotic paradigm: implications for tourism research', Tourism Management, vol.20, 44-57. Echtner, C.M. and Ritchie, J.R.B. 1991, 'The meaning and measurement of destination image', The Journal of Tourism Studies, vol.2, no.2, 2-12. European Commission 2003, Tourism and the European Union http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/services/tourism/tourismeu.htm#top (Accessed 26 April 2002) Fakeye, P.C. and Crompton, J. 1991, 'Image differences between prospective, first time, and repeat visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley', Journal of Travel Research, vol.30, 10-16. Faulkner, B. 1999, Tourism Disasters: Towards a Generic Model, Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism Participants (CRC), Canberra. Faulkner, B. 2001, 'Towards a framework for tourism disaster management', Tourism Management, vol.22, no.2, 135-147. Faulkner, B. and Vikulov, S. 2001, 'Katherine, washed out one day, back on track the next: a post-mortem of a tourism disaster', Tourism Management, vol.22, no.4, 331-344. Federation of International Youth Travel Organisation 2002, FIYTO conference documents http://www.fiyto.org/ (Accessed 15 May 2003) Fink, S. 1986, Crisis Management, Association of Management, New York. Fisher, K. 2003, 'Terrorism and tourism', Leisure Management, vol.23, no.2, 36-38. Flaherty, J. 2001, 'Five questions to Marylin Carlson Nelson: Now make the traveler want to travel', New York Times Fleischer, A. and Buccola, S. 2002, 'War, terror, and the tourism market in Israel', Applied Economics, vol.34, no.11, 1335-1343. Floyd, M.F., Gibson, H., Pennington-Gray, L. and Thapa, B. 2003, 'The Effect of Risk Perception on Intentions to Travel', Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, in press. Formica, S. and Uysal, M. 1996, 'The revitalisation of Italy as a tourist destination', Tourism Management, vol.17, no.5, 323-331. Freudenburg, W.R., Coleman, C.L., Gonzales, J. and Helgeland, C. 1996, 'Media coverage of hazard events - analysing the assumptions', Risk Analysis, vol.16, no.1, 31-42. Gallarza, M.G., Gil Saura, I. and Calderón García, H. 2002, 'Destination image: towards a conceptual framework', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.29, no.1, 56-78. Garrod, B. 2003, Marine ecotourism: issues and experiences, Channel View Publications, Clevedon. Gartner, W.C. 1986, 'Temporal influences on image change', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.13, no.4, 635-644. Gartner, W.C. 1989, 'Tourism image: Attribute measurement of state tourism products using multidimensional scaling techniques', Journal of Travel Research, vol.28, no.16-20 Gartner, W.C. 1996, Tourism Development - Principles, Processes, and Policies, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester. Gartner, W.C. and Hunt, J.D. 1987, 'An analysis of state image change over a twelve-year period (1971-1983)', Journal of Travel Research, vol.26, no.2, 15-19. Gartner, W.C. and Shen, J. 1992, 'The impact of Tiananmen Square on China's tourism image', Journal of Travel Research, vol.30, no.4, 47-52. Glaesser, D. 2003, Crisis management in the tourism industry, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Goodall, B. and G., A. 1988, Marketing in the tourism industry, Croom Helm, London. Goodrich, J.N. 1977, 'Benefits bundle analysis: An empirical study of international travelers', Journal of Travel Research, vol.16, 6-9. Goodrich, J.N. 2001, 'September 11, 2001 attack on America: impact on tourism security', Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, vol.11, no.4, 1-12. Goodrich, J.N. 2002, 'September 11, 2001 attack on America: a record of the immediate impacts and reactions in the USA travel and tourism industry.' Tourism Management, vol.23, no.6, 573-580. Gough, J.D. 1991, Risk communication: The implications for risk management, Lincoln University Centre for Resource Management, Lincoln. Groves, D.L. and Timothy, D.J. 2001, 'Photographic techniques and the measurement of impact and importance attributes on trip design: a case study', Loisir et Societe, vol.24, no.1, 311-317. Gunn, C.A. 1988, Vacationscape - Designing Tourist Region, 2nd, Macmillian Inc, Toronto. Gunn, C.A. 1997, Vacationscape - Developing Tourist Areas, 3rd, Taylor & Francis, Bristol. Haber, S. and Razo, A. 2002, 'Political instability and economic performance: Evidence from revolutionary Mexico', World Politics, vol.51, no.1, 99-144. Hague, P. 1994, Questionnaire Design, Kogan Page, London. Hall, C.M. 1994, Tourism and politics: policy, power and place, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Hall, C.M. 1994, 'Tourism and political stability: the implications of revolution, terrorism and political violence for tourism.' pp.92-107 in Hall, C.M. Tourism and politics: policy, power and place, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Hall, C.M. 1994, 'Tourism and the local state: development, image and interests at the community level', pp.151-173 in Hall, C.M. Tourism and politics: policy, power and place, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Hall, C.M. 1994, 'Tourism, government and the state: tourism and the policy making process', pp.20-58 in Hall, C.M. Tourism and politics: policy, power and place, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Hall, C.M. 1997, Tourism in the Pacific Rim: developments, impacts and markets, Longman Publishing, Melbourne. Hall, C.M. 2001, 'Crisis in the country', Leisure Management, vol.21, no.7, 42-45. Hall, C.M. 2002, 'Travel safety, terrorism and the media: the significance of the issue-attention cycle', Current Issues in Tourism, vol.5, no.5, 458-466. Hall, C.M. 2003, 'Politics and place: an analysis of power in tourism communities', pp.99-113 in Singh, S., Timothy, D.J. and Dowling, R.K. Tourism in destination communities, CABI Publishing, Wallingford. Hall, C.M. and O'Sullivan, V. 1996, 'Tourism, political stability and violence', pp.103-122 in Pizam, A. and Mansfeld, Y. Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Han, C.M., Lee, B.W. and Ro, K.K. 1994, 'The choice of a survey mode in country image studies', Journal of Business Research, vol.29, 151-162. Henry, G.T. and Gordon, C.S. 2001, 'Tracking issue attention', Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.65, no.2, 157-177. Hester, G. and Gonzenbach, W. 1997, 'The environment: TV news, real world cues, and public opinion over time', Mass Communication Review, vol.22, no.1, 5-20. Holloway, J.C. and Plant, R.V. 1993, Marketing for tourism, Pitham Publishing, London. Houghton, B.K. and Pollard, N.A. 2002, The Media and Terrorism http://www.terrorism.com/terrorism/media.shtml (Accessed 16. October 2002) Hovinen, G.R. 2002, 'Revisiting the Destination Lifecycle Model', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.29, no.1, 209-230. Hunt, J.D. 1975, 'Image as a factor in tourism development', Journal of Travel Research, vol.13, 1-7. Ioannides, D. and Apostolopoulos, Y. 1999, 'Political instability, war, and tourism in Cyprus: effects, management, and prospects for recovery', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 51-56. Jenkins, O.H. 1999, 'Understanding and measuring tourist destination images', International Journal of Tourism Research, vol.1, 1-15. Jobst, C. 1987, 'The Issue Attention Cycle: A Question of Impact on Energy Conservation Policy in West Germany', Energy Policy, vol.15, no.6, 567-571. Johnson, K. 2001, A City changed forever? Maybe not, New York October 7, 2001. Johnston, M.E. 1989, Peak experiences: Challenge and danger in mountain recreation in New Zealand, Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch. Keeley, R.V. 2002, 'Trying to Define Terrorism', Middle East Policy, vol.9, no.1, 33-40. Kotler, P. 1997, The Marketing of Nations - A strategic approach to Building National Wealth, The Free Press, New York. Kotler, P. and Andreasen, A.R. 1996, Strategic Marketing for Non Profit Organizations, 5th, Prentice Hall, New York. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Sauders, J. and Wong, V. 1999, Principles of Marketing, 2nd, Prentice Hall, London. Kotler, P., Haider, D.C. and Rein, I. 1993, Marketing Places - Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations, Macmillian Inc, Oxford. Krippendorf, J. 1994, The Holiday Makers, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Laws, E. 1995, Tourist Destination Management - Issues, analysis and policies, Routledge, London. Lawson, F. and Baud-Bovy, M. 1977, Tourists and Recreational Development, Architectural Press, London. Lea, J. and Small, J. 1988, 'Cyclones, riots and coups: tourist industry responses in the South Pacific', Frontiers in Australian tourism, Canberra, Leiper, N. 1979, 'The framework of tourism: towards a definition of tourism, tourist, and the tourist industry', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.6, no.4, 390-407. Leiper, N. 1990, 'Tourist attraction systems', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.17, no.3, 367-384. Leiper, N. 1990, 'The partial industrialization of tourism systems', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.17, 600-605. Lennon, J. and Foley, M. 2000, Dark tourism: the attraction of death and disaster, Continuum, London. Lepp, A. and Gibson, H. 2003, 'Tourist roles, perceived risk and international tourism', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.30, no.3, 606-624. Leslie, D. 1999, 'Terrorism and tourism: the Northern Ireland situation - a look behind the veil of certainty', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 37-40. Litvin, S.W. and Alderson, L.L. 2003, 'How Charleston got her groove back: a Convention and Visitors Bureau's response to 9/11', Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol.9, no.2, 188-197. Loker-Murphy, L. and Pearce, P.L. 1995, 'Young budget travellers: Backpackers in Australia', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.22, no.4, 819-843. MacKay, K.J. and Fesenmaier, D.R. 1997, 'Pictorial Element of Destination in Image Formation', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.21, no.3, 537-565. MacKay, K.J. and Fesenmaier, D.R. 2000, 'An exploration of cross-cultural destination image assessment', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.4, 417-423. Mandela, N. 1994, Long walk to freedom: the autobiography of Nelson Mandela, Little, Brown and Company, London. Mansfeld, Y. 1996, 'Wars, tourism and the "Middle East" factor', pp.265-279 in Pizam, A. and Mansfeld, Y. Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Mansfeld, Y. 1999, 'Cycles of war, terror, and peace: determinants and management of crisis and recovery of the Israeli tourism industry.' Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 30-36. Maslow, A.H. 1973, Motivation and personality, Haper and Row, New York. Mayo, E.J. 1973, 'Regional images and regional travel behaviour', The Travel Research Association Fourth Annual Conference Proceedings, Sun Valley, Idaho Mayo, E.J. and Jarvis, L.P. 1981, The psychology of leisure travel. Effective marketing and selling of travel services, CBI Publishing Company, Boston. McComas, K. and Shanahan, J. 1999, 'Telling stories about global climate change: Measuring the impact of narratives on issue cycles', Communication Research, vol.26, no.1, 30-57. McCombs, M.E. and Shaw, D.L. 1972, 'The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media', Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.36, no.2, 176-87. McDermott Fairgray Group Ltd 2001, New Zealand Outbound and Domestic Forecast http://www.tourism.govt.nz/policy/pol-reports/pol-str-outbound.pdf (Accessed 15 February 2003) McKercher, B. 1998, 'The effect of market access on destination choice', Journal of Travel Research, vol.37, no.1, 39-47. McKercher, B. 1999, 'A chaos approach to tourism', Tourism Management, vol.20, no.4, 425-434. McWilliams, E.G. and Crompton, J.L. 1997, 'An expanded framework for measuring the effectiveness of destination advertising', Tourism Management, vol.18, no.3, 127-137. Middleton, V.T.C. 1988, Marketing in Travel and Tourism, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Mihalic, T. 1993, 'The competitiveness of long haul destinations: case study of Slovenia and its capital city Ljubljana', Revue de Tourisme, vol.48, no.4, 21-26. Mills, A.S. 1985, 'Participation motivation for outdoor recreation: a text of Maslow's theory', Journal of Leisure Research, vol.17, no.3, 184-199. Morgan, N. and A., P. 2000, Advertising in Tourism and Leisure, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Mouhinto, L. 1987, 'Consumer Behaviour in Tourism', European Journal of Marketing, vol.21, no.10, 3-44. Muehsam, M.J. and Tarlow, P.E. 1995, 'Involving the police in tourism', Tourism Management, vol.16, no.1, 9-14. Murphy, P.E. and Bayley, R. 1989, 'Tourism and disaster planning', Geographical Review, vol.79, no.1, 36-46. Neuman, W.R. 1990, 'The Threshold of Public Attention', Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.54, no.2, 159-176. Otago Daily Times 28. April 2001, 'Terrorist exercise to involve PM'. Otago Daily Times 23. August 2001, 'Fiji must respect results of election if it it to avoid sparking another coup'. Otago Daily Times 18 September 2001, 'Glum view for Australian Tourism'. Otago Daily Times 20 September 2001, 'Fear is the key to a vulnerable international tourism industry'. Otago Daily Times 20 September 2001, 'Restraint essential, expert tells open forum on US response'. Otago Daily Times 20 September 2001, 'Granting of non-notified consents queried'. Otago Daily Times 22 September 2001, 'Life goes on'. Otago Daily Times 22 September 2001, 'Waiting to see'. Otago Daily Times 22 September 2001, 'Oliver facing a different challenge'. Otago Daily Times 24 September 2001, 'Mayoral candidates respond'. Otago Daily Times 24 September 2001, 'US has warned of further attacks, sources claim'. Otago Daily Times 24 September 2001, 'US rewards allies while Taleban starts to dig in'. Otago Daily Times 29 September 2001, 'US rallies round Stars and Stripes'. Otago Daily Times 1 October 2001, 'New world, new life'. Otago Daily Times 4 October 2001, 'Court rules against night flights'. Otago Daily Times 5 October 2001, 'Bailout good news for Queenstown; confidence expected to be restored'. Otago Daily Times 8 October 2001, 'Biological warfare'. Otago Daily Times 10 October 2001, 'Tour's security monitored'. Otago Daily Times 11 October 2001, 'Air NZ lifts market share'. Otago Daily Times 12 October 2001, 'Terrorists take advantage of the double-edged sword of globalisation'. Otago Daily Times 15 October 2001, 'Front Page News Digest'. Otago Daily Times 15 October 2001, 'Isolation from terrorism could have benefits, Cullen says'. Otago Daily Times 15 October 2001, 'Annan secures superstar title'. Otago Daily Times 16 October 2001, 'Front Page News Digest'. Otago Daily Times 18 October 2001, 'CHH looks to China, cuts costs after loss'. Otago Daily Times 19 October 2001, 'Woods may alter plans'. Otago Daily Times 19 October 2001, 'Israel warns of retaliation'. Otago Daily Times 22 October 2001, 'World economy hurt by terrorism, China says'. Otago Daily Times 22 October 2001, 'Pessimism grows as Israel seeks revenge'. Otago Daily Times 23 October 2001, 'Front Page News Digest'. Otago Daily Times 23 October 2001, 'Wellington Promotion in London creates huge interest'. Otago Daily Times 24 October 2001, 'US demands Israel withdraw'. Otago Daily Times 24 October 2001, 'Hospitable Morocco still safe'. Otago Daily Times 25 October 2001, 'Recalled Wiseman must impress Fleming for test spot'. Otago Daily Times 29 October 2001, 'Downturn in NZ tourism still to hit home'. Otago Daily Times 30 October 2001, 'Front Page News Digest'. Otago Daily Times 2 November 2001, 'In brief'. Otago Daily Times 2 November 2001, 'Israel continues 'targeted killings''. Otago Daily Times 2 November 2001, 'B52 bombers pound Taleban front lines'. Otago Daily Times 5 November 2001, 'US forces target Mazar-i-Sharif'. Otago Daily Times 7 November 2001, 'Trophy left shocks bungy company staff'. Otago Daily Times 8 November 2001, 'Israel troops withdraw as toll mounts'. Otago Daily Times 9 November 2001, 'Concorde roars back'. Otago Daily Times 13 November 2001, 'More tourists in September'. Otago Daily Times 13 November 2001, 'Cuba may be just the ticket for a getaway'. Otago Daily Times 13 November 2001, 'Front Page News Digest'. Otago Daily Times 15 November 2001, 'To win, we must do as we have always done'. Otago Daily Times 5 December 2001, 'US pressure on Russia'. Otago Daily Times 15 December 2001, 'Opportunities for Dunedin'. Otago Daily Times 12 January 2002, 'Greg Turner'. Otago Daily Times 15 January 2002, 'Grim times for Australian tourism'. Otago Daily Times 21 January 2002, 'NZ SIS may security check airport staff'. Otago Daily Times 2 February 2002, 'Resort increases share in record tourist year'. Otago Daily Times 18 February 2002, 'Peacekeepers under fire as Afghan minister buried'. Otago Daily Times 18 February 2002, 'Marketing alliance folds'. Otago Daily Times 20 February 2002, 'EU observers leaving Zimbabwe'. Otago Daily Times 27 February 2002, 'McPherson questions situation'. Otago Daily Times 28 February 2002, 'First real proof of effects of September 11'. Otago Daily Times 16 March 2002, 'Two books, two very different faces of Afghanistan'. Otago Daily Times 9 April 2002, 'Bush prevailed upon to adopt multilateral view'. Otago Daily Times 27 April 2002, 'Pressure on US to make Israel pull out Army still rounding up Palestinians'. Otago Daily Times 3 May 2002, 'Insurance at a premium'. Otago Daily Times 7 May 2002, 'Myanmar military frees dissident'. Otago Daily Times 7 May 2002, 'Protest at bus services again'. Otago Daily Times 9 May 2002, 'Tour called off after blast'. Otago Daily Times 15 May 2002, 'Logan Park pupil wins contest and Australian trip'. Otago Daily Times 1 June 2002, 'A vision shared prosperity'. Otago Daily Times 6 June 2002, 'Indian, Pakistani students delay plans'. Otago Daily Times 4 June 2002, '2002 fringe festival registrations open'. Otago Daily Times 5 June 2002, 'Neither side gives ground in Kashmir standoff'. Otago Daily Times 11 June 2002, 'Problems remain with 'people smuggling' Bill'. Otago Daily Times 12 June 2002, 'West mostly shuns UN hunger summit'. Otago Daily Times 15 June 2002, 'Cheeky Air New Zealand advertisements to stay'. Otago Daily Times 18 August 2002, 'Former US base part of Vietnam's tourism plans'. Otago Daily Times 5 July 2002, 'Saddam's stepson detained in Miami'. Otago Daily Times 21 August 2002, 'Airlines in decline before terrorism'. Otago Daily Times 22 August 2002, 'Sneak fees put sting in stay for unwary traveller'. Otago Daily Times 3 September 2002, 'Domestic economy forecast to ease'. Otago Daily Times 11 September 2002, 'A year on from September 11, NZ comes off a roll'. Otago Daily Times 11 September 2002, 'Customs workload increasing'. Otago Daily Times 1 October 2002, 'Cautious optimism after THL's horror year'. Otago Daily Times 15 October 2002, 'Austin has music at heart'. Otago Daily Times 15 October 2002, 'Bomb blasts hole in fragile Indonesian economy'. Otago Daily Times 15 October 2002, 'PM to travel regardless'. Otago Daily Times 16 October 2002, 'Blasts will kill off Bali tourism industry'. Otago Daily Times 17 October 2002, 'Indonesia rushing anti-terrorism laws'. Otago Daily Times 18 October 2002, 'Effect of Bali bombings'. Otago Daily Times 28 October 2002, 'Security essential'. Otago Daily Times 30 October 2002, 'Jordan security tight'. Pacific Asia Travel Association 2001, The post-September 11 outlook for travel and tourism in East Asia and the Pacific: STRATFOR special report, Pacific Asia Travel Association, San Francisco. Palmer, C. 1999, 'Tourism and the symbols of identity', Tourism Management, vol.20, 313-321. Pearce, D. 1989, 'International and domestic tourism: interfaces and issues', Geojournal, vol.19, no.3, 257-262. Pearce, D. 1992, Tourist Organisations, Longman Ltd, Harlow. Peters, B.G. and Hogwood, B.W. 1985, 'In Search of the Issue-Attention Cycle', Journal of Politics, vol.47, 239-53. Peterson, R.T. 1998, 'The depiction of seniors in international tourism magazine advertisements: a content analysis', International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, vol.1, no.4, 3-17. Peterson, R.T. 2000, 'The utilization of ecological themes in state and local government tourism magazine commercials: an assessment', Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, vol.6, no.4, 5-16. Phelps, A. 1986, 'Holiday destination image - the problem of assessment', Tourism Management, vol.9, 168-180. Pike, S. 2002, 'Destination image analysis - a review of 142 papers from 1973 to 2000', Tourism Management, vol.23, no.5, 541-549. Pizam, A. 1999, 'A comprehensive approach to classifying acts of crime and violence at tourism destinations', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 5-12. Pizam, A. and Fleischer, A. 2002, 'Severity versus frequency of acts of terrorism: which has a larger impact on tourism demand?' Journal of Travel Research, vol.40, no.3, 337-339. Pizam, A. and Mansfeld, Y. 1996, Tourism, crime and international security issues, Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Pizam, A. and Smith, G. 2000, 'Tourism and terrorism: a quantitative analysis of major terrorist acts and their impact on tourism destinations.' Tourism Economics, vol.6, no.2, 123-138. Plog, S. 1974, 'Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity', The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, vol.14, no.4, 55-58. Plog, S. 1987, 'Understanding psychographics in tourism research', pp.203-213 in Ritchie, J.R.B. and Goeldner, C.R. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Wiley and Sons, New York. Prideaux, B.R. 1996, 'Korean outbound tourism: Australia's response', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, vol.7, no.1, 93-102. Prideaux, B.R. 2003, 'The need to use disaster planning frameworks to respond to major tourism disasters: analysis of Australia's response to tourism disasters in 2001', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, in press. Prideaux, B.R. and Master, H. 2002, 'Reducing risk factors for international visitors in destinations', Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, vol.6, no.2, 24-32. Priest, S. 1990, 'The semantics of adventure education', in Miles, J.C. and Priest, S. Adventure Education, Venture Publishing, State College Pa. Pritchard, A. and Morgan, N. 1995, 'Evaluating vacation destination brochure images: the case of local authorities in Wales', Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol.2, no.1, 23-37. Quarantelli, E.L. 1984, 'Organisational behaviour in disasters and implications for disaster planning', Monographs of the National Emergency Training Centre, vol.1, no.2, 1-13. Richter, L.K. 1983, 'Tourism Politics and Political Science: a case of not so benign neglect', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.10, 313-335. Richter, L.K. 1992, 'Political instability and tourism in the Third World', pp.35-46 in Harrison, D. Tourism and the Less Developed Countries, Wiley and Sons, New York. Richter, L.K. 1999, 'After Political Turmoil: The Lessons of Rebuilding Tourism in Three Asian Countries', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 41-45. Richter, L.K. and Waugh, W.L. 1986, 'Terrorism and tourism as logical companions', Tourism Management, vol.7, no.4, 230-238. Ritchie, B.W., Carr, N. and Cooper, C. 2003, Managing educational tourism, Channel View Publications, Clevedon. Roberts, V. 1994, 'Flood Management: Bradford Paper', Disaster Prevention and Management, vol.3, no.2, 44-60. Roehl, W.S. 1990, 'Travel agent attitudes toward China after Tiananmen Square', Journal of Travel Research, vol.29, no.2, 16-22. Roehl, W.S. and Fesenmaier, D.R. 1992, 'Risk perceptions and pleasure travel: an exploratory analysis', Journal of Travel Research, vol.30, no.4, 17-26. Rolston, B. 1995, 'Selling Tourism in a Country at War', Race and Class, vol.27, no.1, 23-40. Roy, A. 2003, Power politics, South End Press, Cambridge. Ryan, C. 1992, 'Crime, violence, terrorism and tourism. An accidental or intrinsic relationship?' Tourism Management, vol.14, no.3, 173-183. Said, E. 2001, Power, Politics and Culture: interviews with Edward W. Said, Pantheon Books, New York. Salomon, M. 2002, 'After the 11th of September 2001. Do we need global or local tourism strategies?' WTO-ETC Promotion of the tourist image of European destinations on competitive international markets, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 9-10 May 2002. Santana, G. 2001, 'Globalisation, safety and national security', pp.213-241 in Wahab, S. and Cooper, C. Tourism in the age of globalisation, Routledge, London. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 1997, Research Methods for Business Students, Pitman Publishing, London. Schiffman, L.G. and Kanuk, L.L. 1994, Consumer Behaviour, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Schindlmayr, T. 2001, 'The Media, Public Opinion and Population Assistance: Establishing the Link', Family Planning Perspectives, vol.33, no.3, 128-132. Schneider, I. and Sönmez, S. 1999, 'Exploring the touristic image of Jordan', Tourism Management, vol.20, 539-542. Schroeder, T. 1996, 'The relationship of residents' image of their state as a tourist destination and their support for tourism', Journal of Travel Research, vol.14, 71-73. Seddighi, H.R., Nuttall, M.W. and Theocharous, A.L. 2001, 'Does cultural background of tourists influence the destination choice? An empirical study with special reference to political instability', Tourism Management, vol.22, no.2, 181-191. Selby, M. and Morgan, N.J. 1996, 'Reconstructing place image - A case study of its role in destination market research', Tourism Management, vol.17, no.4, 287-294. Selwyn, T. (ed) 1996, The tourist image - myths and myths making in tourism, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Shirvastava, P. and Mitroff, I.I. 1987, 'Strategic management of corporate crisis', Columbia Journal of World Business, Spring, 5-11. Simmons Market Research Bureau 2001, Americans divided on air travel says nationwide poll http://www.smrb.com (Accessed 12 February 2002) Sirakaya, E., Sasidharan, V. and Soenmez, S. 1999, 'Redefining ecotourism: the need for a supply-side view', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.2, 168-172. Sirakaya, E. and Soenmez, S. 2000, 'Gender images in state tourism brochures: an overlooked area in socially responsible tourism marketing', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.4, 353-362. Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B. and Lichtenstein, S. 1982, 'Why study Risk Perception?' Risk Analysis, vol.2, 83-93. Smith, G. 1999, 'Towards a United States Policy on Traveler Safety and Security: 1980-2000', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 62-65. Smith, V.L. 1989, Hosts and Guests - The anthropology of tourism, 2nd ed., University of Pennsylvania Press, Pennsylvania. Smith, V.L. 1996, 'War and its tourist attractions', pp.247-264 in Pizam, A. and Mansfeld, Y. Tourism, Crime, and International Security Issues, Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Smith, V.L. 2001, 'Hostility and hospitality: war and terrorism', pp.367-379 in Smith, V.L. and Brent, M. Hosts and guests revisited: tourism issues of the 21st century, 2001, Cognizant Communication Corporation, Elmsford. Smith, V.L. 2001, 'Tourism issues of the 21st century', pp.333-353 in Smith, V.L. and Brent, M. Hosts and guests revisited: tourism issues of the 21st century, Cognizant Communication Corporation, Elmsford. Sönmez, S. 1998, 'Tourism, Terrorism, and Political Instability', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.25, no.2, 416-456. Sönmez, S.F., Apostolopoulos, Y. and Tarlow, P. 1999, 'Tourism in crisis: managing the effects of terrorism', Journal of Travel Research, vol.38, no.1, 13-18. Sönmez, S.F. and Graefe, A.R. 1998, 'Influence of terrorism risk on foreign tourism decisions', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.23, no.1, 112-144. Sönmez, S.F. and Sirakaya, E. 2002, 'A distorted destination image? The case of Turkey', Journal of Travel Research, vol.41, no.2, 185-196. Stabler, M.J. 1991, The tourism industry - an international analysis, C.A.B. International, Wallingford. Stafford, G., Yu, L. and Armoo, A.K. 2002, 'Crisis management and recovery: how Washington, D.C. hotels responded to terrorism', Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, vol.43, no.5, 27-40. Swain, M.B., Brent, M. and Long, V.H. 1998, 'Annals and tourism evolving. Indexing 25 years of publication', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.25, 991-1014. Swarbrooke, J. and Horner, S. 1998, Consumer behaviour in tourism, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Tarlow, P. and Muehsam, M.J. 1995, 'Involving the police in tourism', Tourism Management, vol.16, no.1, 9-14. Tate, P. 2002, 'The impact of 9/11: Caribbean, London and NYC case studies', Travel & Tourism Analyst, vol.5, 1.1-1.25. Timothy, D.J. 2001, Tourism and Political Boundaries, Routledge, London. Tourism New Zealand 2002, Global Situation - Implications for Tourism http://www.tourisminfo.govt.nz/cir_news/index.cfm?fuseaction+newscentre&subaction=news&article_id=37 (Accessed 23 July 2002) Tourism New Zealand 2002, A changing world http://www.tourisminfo.co.nz/cir_news/index.cfm?fuseaction=newscentre&subaction=news&article_id=325 (Accessed 23 July 2002) Tourism New Zealand 2002, Predicted Decrease in Visitor Numbers Realised http://www.tourisminfo.govt.nz/cir_news/index.cfm?fuseaction=newscentre&subaction=news&article_id=30 (Accessed 23 July 2002) Tourism New Zealand 2002, Travellers Regaining Confidence http://www.tourisminfo.govt.nz/cir_news/index.cfm?fuseaction=newscentre&subaction=news&article_id=32 (Accessed 23 July 2002) Tourism New Zealand 2002, September 11 - One Year On http://www.tourisminfo.co.nz/cir_news/index.cfm?fuseaction=newscentre&subaction=news&article_id=403 (Accessed 6 October 2002) Tourism Research Council New Zealand 2002, Tourism Leading Indicators Monitor http://www.trcnz.govt.nz/Topics/Forecasts+and+Trends/Tourism+Leading+Indicators+Monitor/ (Accessed 12 March, 2003) Travel Industry Association of America 2002, US Travel Industry Performance update #12 http://www.tia.org/TRAVEL520INDUSTRY%20ASSOCIATION%20OF%20AMERICA.htm (Accessed 10 October 2002) Tritz, C. 2003, 'Image of a tourist destination. The construction of an imaginary space', Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs, vol.20, 48-54. Turner, D. 1994, 'Resources for disaster recovery', Security Management, 57-61. US Department of State 2001, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2000, US Department of State, Washington, DC. US Department of State 2002, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001, US Department of State, Washington, DC. US Department of State 2003, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, US Department of State, Washington, DC. Uysal, M.C., J. S.; Williams, D. R. 2000, 'Increasing state market share through a regional positioning', Tourism Management, vol.21, no.1, 89-96. Uzzell, D. 1984, 'An alternative structuralist approach to the psychology of tourism marketing', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.11, 79-99. Veal, A.J. 1997, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism - A Practical Guide, 2nd ed, Pitman Publishing, London. Wahab, S. 1996, 'Tourism and terrorism: synthesis of the problem with emphasis on Egypt', pp.175-187 in Pizam, A. and Mansfeld, Y. Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Wall, G. 1996, 'Terrorism and tourism: an overview and an Irish example', pp.143-158 in Pizam, A. and Mansfeld, Y. Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Weirman, G. and Winn, C. 1994, The Theater of Terror: Mass Media and International Terrorism, Longman, New York. Wiener, P.J., Van Hoof, H.B., Mahoney, E. and Foster, T.D. 2003, 'The impact of 9/11 and the recent economic downturn on recruiting in U.S. Hospitality Programs: Administrators' Opinion', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education, vol.15, no.1, 28-35. Williamson, J. 2002, 'Suite Dreams?' Leisure Management, vol.22, no.2, 44-45. Witt, S.F. and Moore, S.A. 1992, 'Promoting Tourism in the Face of Terrorism: The Role of Special Events in Northern Ireland', Journal of International Consumer Marketing, vol.4, 63-75. World Tourism Organization (WTO) 1998, Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism, World Tourism Organization (WTO), Madrid. World Tourism Organization (WTO) 2001, Tourism after 11 September 2001: analysis, remedial actions and prospects, World Tourism Organization (WTO), Madrid. World Tourism Organization (WTO) 2001, The impact of the attacks in the United States on International Tourism http://www.world-tourism.org/newsroom/Releases/more_releases/june2002/data.htm (Accessed 14 November 2001) World Tourism Organization (WTO) 2002, A year after "11-S": climbing towards recovery http://www.world-tourism.org/market_research/recovery/home.htm, (Accessed 12 July 2002) World Tourism Organization (WTO) 2002a, Tourism market trends: Europe 2002, World Tourism Organization (WTO), Madrid. World Tourism Organization (WTO) 2002b, The impact of the September 11th attacks on tourism: the light at the end of the tunnel, World Tourism Organisation(WTO), Madrid. World Tourism Organization (WTO) 2002c, Tourism market trends: Asia and the Pacific 2002, World Tourism Organization (WTO), Madrid. World Travel and Tourism Council 2002, The impact of travel and tourism on jobs and the economy - 2002 plus special report on September 11th impacts http://www.wttc.org/publications/pdf/exec.pdf (Accessed 20 July 2002) World Travel and Tourism Council 2003, Travel and Tourism Security Action Plan http://www.wttc.org/publications/pdf/2.3_exec.pdf (Accessed 12 March 2003) World Travel and Tourism Council 2003, World travel and tourism council lauches security action plan http://www.wttc.org/News10.htm (Accessed 12 June 2003) Yesawich Pepperdine and Brown 2001, A survey by Yesawich, Pepperdine & Brown http://www.internettravelnews.com/article.php?story=2407&mode=print (Accessed 9 August 2002) Zikmund, W.G. 1994, Business Research Methods, The Dryden Press, London. Zinn, H. 2002, Terrorism and War, Seven Stories Press, New York.en_NZ
 Find in your library

Files in this item

FilesSizeFormatView

There are no files associated with this item.

This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.

If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.

If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record