Sports events and risk management in New Zealand: How safe is safe enough?
|dc.identifier.citation||Eisenhauer, S. (2005, July). Sports events and risk management in New Zealand: How safe is safe enough? (Thesis, Master of Tourism). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1333||en|
|dc.description.abstract||Along with the growth in sports events, an increasing concern over risk and safety management strategies and other legal issues within the New Zealand events industry has been observed in recent years. Various issues that lead to lawsuit continue to plague the sporting event industry. Risk management is the primary tool for reducing the incidence of injury and managing an organisation's potential exposure to loss and legal liability. The significant increase in the amount of litigation in sports has created an additional dimension in managing risk for today's sports event organisers. Along with the growing controversy and uncertainty about legal liability issues in New Zealand, there is a large gap in literature, particularly relating to event risk management in sports. Thus, this thesis critically examines the risk and safety management strategies of sports event organisers in New Zealand. A sample of twelve sporting event organisers in Otago were personally interviewed about the current level of risk management. Their perceptions and responses concerning the importance of risk and safety management strategies were discussed. Indepth qualitative interviews have been conducted including commercial and non-commercial venue and non-venue based organisations. Despite a recent movement towards more formal organisation and planning, the results indicate that only few sporting event organisers use strategic risk management plans. The main hindrance appears to be a lack of information and expertise available on risk management for sporting events. Risk management plans varied to a large extent, which may be due to the absence of accepted national standards for managing risk for sporting events and to the heterogeneous nature of sporting events. Another reason may be that 'risk' is variously defined and is characterised by its subjectivity, multidimensionality and complexity, and is hard to operationalise. Therefore, more support from government organisations, industry associations and local authorities is required, that may include information on legal issues and specific information on event risk management in sport. It was also discovered that policy-makers should reconsider the extension of regulatory codes of practice and standards to specifically serve the sporting event sector. Nevertheless, sports event organisers must become much more risk aware and proactive, both from a physical and a legal perspective, as they were mainly unaware of guidelines for risk management in sport, legal issues and safety standards. Moreover, they seem to be ignorant towards the changing legal environment, which requires them to change current general attitudes towards legal obligations and to adopt a more realistic view and not regard lawsuits as a personal attack. A distinct need for further research has been identified, encompassing not only sporting event organisers but also other relevant stakeholders such as government organisations, industry associations, sport participants and volunteers in order to gain better insights in the dilemma of risk management in New Zealand.||en_NZ|
|dc.subject||safety management strategies||en_NZ|
|dc.subject||New Zealand events industry||en_NZ|
|dc.subject.lcsh||GV Recreation Leisure||en_NZ|
|dc.subject.lcsh||H Social Sciences (General)||en_NZ|
|dc.title||Sports events and risk management in New Zealand: How safe is safe enough?||en_NZ|
|thesis.degree.name||Master of Tourism|
|thesis.degree.grantor||University of Otago||en_NZ|
|dc.description.references||Anon. 2004, Court quashes conviction against Anderson, http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/0.2106304I765al0_00.html (Accessed 23 September 2004) Accident compensation Cooperation (ACC) nd.a, Health and Safety in Employment Regulations 1995, ACC, Wellington, http://www.acc.co.nz/injury-prevention/safe-at-work/legislation/hse-laws/Aproved_ Codes_of_Practice (ACOP) (Accessed 11 October 2004) Accident Compensation Cooperation (ACC) nd.b, Standards, ACC, Wellington, http://www.acc.co.nz/iniury-prevention/safe-at-work/legislation/standards/ (Accessed II October 2004) Accident Compensation Cooperation (ACC) 2000, What is ACC SportSmart?, ACC, Wellington, http:/www.acc.co.nz/sportsmart (Accessed 8 November 2004) Accident Compensation Cooperation (ACC) 200I, A national tragedy. Happening every day, ACC, Wellington Accident Compensation Cooperation (ACC) 2002, Consequences. What Accidents are doing to New Zealanders, ACC, Wellington Accident Compensation Cooperation (ACC) 2004a, National Safety Audit, ACC, Wellington Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) 2004b, Preamble, ACC, Wellington, http://www.acc.co.nz/injury-prevention/acc-injury-statistics/20-sport-claim/preamble.html (Accessed 25 September 2004) Allen, S. 1980, 'Risk and recreation: a literature review and conceptual model', pp. 52-81 cited in J. Meier, T. Morash & G. Welton (Eds.), High adventure outdoor pursuits, Brighton Publishing Company, Salt Lake City Allen, J., O'Toole, W., McDonnel, I. & Harris, R. 2002, Festival and special event management, 2n Ed ditron, John Wiley & Sons, Queensland Alston, G. 2003, How safe is safe enough? Leadership, safety & risk management, Ashgate Publishing, Hampshire Anderson M. 2000, Quality standards in tourism, Tourist Industry Association of New Zealand, Wellington AON Limited 2004, Discussion paper on private sector competition for Accident Compensation Insurance, AON, Auckland Appenzeller, H. (Ed.) I998, Risk management in sport. Issues and strategies, Carolina Academic Press, Durham Appenzeller, H. 2003, Managing sport and risk management strategies, 2nd Edition, Carolina Academic Press, Durham Arcodia, C. 2005, 'Public liability insurance its impact on Australian rural festivals', Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, vol.6, no.3, 101-Il0 Ashworth, J. I999, The changing nature of sport tourism and its effects on cultural landscapes in Southern New Zealand, New Zealand, unpublished Diploma of Tourism Dissertation, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin Australian Sports Commission 2000, Volunteer management program managing event volunteers, Australian Sports Commission, Canberra Baillie, R 1986, 'Hazarding the lives of others: How can we justify it?', p.I3 cited in C. Haddock 1993, Managing risks in outdoor activities, l st Edition, New Zealand Mountain Safety Council, Wellington Ballantyne, R., Carr, N. & Hughes, K. 2004, 'Between the flags: An assessment of domestic and international university students' knowledge of beach safety in Australia', Tourism Management, l-6 Bambooveb Dictionary (nd.), Steps in the risk management process, (http://www.bambooweb.com/articles/r/i/Risk management.html) (Accessed 2 May 2005) Barrett, J. & Getz, A. 2004, Risky business, http://www.keepmedia.com/Register.do?oliID=225 (Accessed 24 September 2004) BBC News 22 November 2000, Safety plan for Roskilde festival http:/news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1035733.stm (Accessed 18 March 2004) Bentley, T.A., Page, S.J. & Laird, LS. 2000, 'Safety in New Zealand's adventure tourism industry: The client accident experience of adventure tourism operators', Journal of Travel Medicine, vol.7, 239-245 Bernstein, P.L. 1996, Against the gods: The remarkable story of risk, John Wiley & Sons, New York Bickerstaff, K. 2004, 'Risk perception research: Socio-cultural perspectives on the public experience of air pollution', Environment International, vol. 30, 827-840 Braddell, R. 2004, New Zealand's injury and death toll no cause for celebration, ACC, Wellington, http://www.acc.co.nz/about-acc/press-releases/nz-injury-and-death-toll-nocause-for-celebration-25aug/ (Accessed 10 September 2004) Bramwell, B. 1997, 'Strategic planning before and after a mega-event', Tourism Management, vol.I8, no.3, 167-I76 Brown, I. 1989, 'Managing for adventure recreations', Australian Parks and Recreations, vol.25, no.4, 37-40 Brown, T. 1995, 'Adventure risk management: A practical model', Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, vol.1. no.2, I6-24 Brown, T.J. I998, 'Risk Management: Research needs and status report', Journal of Experiential Education, vol. 2I, no. 2, 71 – 85 Bruton, V. 2004, 'Legally speaking – with Bookfields Lawyers', Inside Tourism, no.523, 8 Bryman, A. & Bell, E. 2003, Business research methods, l st Edition, Oxford, New York Business and Economic Research Limited (BERL) 2000, The growing business of sport and leisure. Impact of the physical leisure industry in New Zealand. An update to the 1998 Report, BERL, Wellington Callander, M. & Page, S.J. 2003, 'Managing risk in adventure tourism operations in New Zealand: A review of the legal case history and potential for litigation', Tourism Management, vol.24, no.l, I3-23 Campbell, I. I996, Compensation for personal injury in New Zealand its rise and fall, Auckland University Press, Auckland Canty, E. 1988, Sports and the courts. Proceedings of the 17th ACHPER National Biennial Conference, ACHPER, Adelaide Cavana, R.Y., Delahaye, B.L. & Sekaran, U. 2001, Applied business research: Qualitative and quantitative methods, John Wiley & Sons, Sydney Chicken, J.C. & Posner, T. 1998, The philosophy of risk, Thomas Telford Publishing, London Christchurch City Council 2000, Events strategy October 2000, Christchurch City Council, Christchurch, 1 Clarke, K.S. 1998, 'On issues and strategies', pp. I1-22 cited in H. Appenzeller, Risk management in sport. Issues and strategies, Carolina Academic Press, Durham Cliff, S. & Page, S.J. (Eds.) 1996, Health and the international tourist, Routledge, London Coates, J.F., Jarratt, J. & Ragunas, L. I992, 'Reviving rural life', The Futurist, no.3, 21-28 Coffin, B. 2004, 'As relevant as ever', Risk management, vol.5I, no.l, 4 Collin, J. & Hussey R. 2003, Business research: A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students, Second edition, Palgrave Macmillan, New York Conference Report I993, 'Festivals and events', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.20, no.4, 777-778 Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (Eds.) 200I, Business research methods, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York Creswell, J.W. I994, Research design: Qualitative & quantitative approaches, Sage Publication, London Crompton, J.L. 1995, 'Economic impact analysis of sports facilities and events: Eleven sources of misapplication', Journal of Sports Management, vol.9, I4-35 Crompton, J.L. & McKay, S.L. I997, 'Motives of visitors attending festival events', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.24, no.2, 425-439 Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Csikszentmihalyi I.S. 1990, 'Adventure and the flow experience', pp.I49-156 cited in JC. Miles & S. Priest, Adventure education, Venture Publishing, PA Curtis, J. 1996, 'Pumping up the volume' (music festival sponsorship), Marketing, June 13, 30-33 Cuskelly, G. & Auld, C.J. I989, 'Retain, reduce, transfer or avoid? Risk management in sport organisations', ACHPER National Journal, no.I23, 17-20 Cuskelly, G. & Auld, C.J. I999, 'An investigation of selected risk management practices among local government park and recreation departments', Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, vol.7, no.l, 26 – 40 Davidson, G. 2003, 'The public liability solution?', Australian Leisure Management, December 2003, 26-28 Deloitte, Touche & Tohmatsu 2002, '2002 Interim Insurance Survey', Financial Review, afr.com/specialreports/ report3/2002/06/13/FFXDK9Q892D.html - 42k (Accessed 17 March 2005) Department of Conservation (DOC) 2000, Sporting and other events, Canterbury CMS, Christchurch Department of Conservation (DOC) 2003, Draft General Policy Conservation Act 1987 and related legislation, DOC, Wellington Department of Conservation (DOC) 2004, Concessionaire safety plans guidelines for applicants, DOC, Wellington Department of Sport and Recreation Australia 2002a, Business support centre: Fact sheet. Risk management for sport, Department of Sport and Recreation Australia, Canberra, http://www.ausport.gov.au/bsc/factsheet28.asp (Accessed 23 August 2004) Department of Sport and Recreation Australia 2002b, Sport innovation and best practice - Risk management. Australian/New Zealand standard for risk management, Department of Sport and Recreation Australia, Canberra, http://www.ausport.gov.au/ibp/riskstandard.asp (Accessed 23 August 2004) Department of Sport and Recreation Australia 2005, Risky business. A club guide to risk management, Government of Western Australia, Wembley Dewar, K. 200I, 'Harbin, Lanters of ice, sculptures of snow', Tourism Management, vol.22, no.5, 523-532 Dickson, T.J. 2004, 'If the outcome is predictable, is it an adventure? Being in, not barricaded from, the outdoors', World Leisure Journal, vol.46, no.4, 48-58 Downes, J.J. I993, 'Occasional studies: Legal liability and the travel trade: The EC package travel directive Part II', Travel and Tourism Analyst, vol.2, no.l, 81- 87 Dudley Safety Advisory Group nd., Event safety: A guide for event organisers, Dudley Safety Advisory Group, London, http://www.dudley.gov.uk/public/safetyadvice/eventsafety.htm (Accessed 8 November 2004) Dunedin City Council (DCC) nd., Organising community events: A guide for community groups, DCC, Dunedin Dunedin City Council (DCC) 2002, A sport and recreation plan for the Dunedin City Council, DCC, Dunedin Dunedin City Council (DCC) 2004, Dunedin leads Otago growth, http://www.cityofdunedin.com/city/?pag,e=citydesk breaking&breaking=950 (Accessed 9 May 2004) Easterby-Smith, M., Braiden, E.M. & Ashton, D. 2002 (I991), Management research, SAGE Publications, London Elstad, B 1996, 'Volunteer perception of learning and satisfaction in a mega-event: the case of the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer', Festival Management and Event Tourism, vol.4, 75-83 Emory, W.C. I976. Business research methods, Irvin Inc., Washington Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) 2003, Risk Management Standards, ERMA, Wellington, http://www.ermanz.govt.nz/about/riskmgm-stands.asp (Accessed 8 November 2004) Espiner S.R. I999, The use and effect of hazard warning signs. Managing visitor safety at Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers, Department of Conservation, Wellington Ewart, A. & Boone, T. I987, 'Risk management: Defusing the dragon', Journal of Experiential Education, vol.I0, no.3, 28 – 34 Ewert, A.W. I989, Outdoor adventure pursuits: Foundations, models, and theories, Publishing Horizons, Scottsdale Fairlie, H. I989, 'Fear of flying', The New Republic, vol. 862, I4-19 Farley, F. 1986, 'The big T in personality', Psychology Today, pp.63-64 cited in A.W. Ewert I989, Outdoor adventure pursuits: foundations, models, and theories, Publishing Horizons, Scottsdale Faulkner, B. 200I, 'Towards a framework for tourism disaster management', Tourism Management, vol.22, 135-147 Fisher, K. 2003, 'The claim's up', Insurance, July\August, 62-65 Fischoff, B., Lichtenstein, S. Slovic, P., Derby, S. &. Keeney, R. I981, Acceptable risk, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Flora, C. 1990, 'Rural peoples in a global economy', Rural Sociology, vol.55, no.2, I57 – 177 Franks, S. 2004a, 'Human sacrifices for the safety god', Kiwinews, http://www.kiwinews.co.nz/cgi-bin/editor/print.pl?article=4830 (Accessed 9 May 2005) Franks, S. 2004b, 'Astrid Anderson fallout', http://www.act.org.nz/iteni.aspx/24977 (Accessed 9 May 2005) Franks, S. 2004c, 'Anderson's' judgement helps all sports people', http://www.act.org.nz/item.aspx/26138 (Accessed 9 May 2005) Frey J.H. I991, 'Social risk in the meaning of sport', Sociology of Sport Journal, vol.8, 136-I45 Frisby, W. & Getz, D. I989, 'Festival management: A case study perspective', Journal of Travel Research, vol.28, no.l, 7-11 Furedi, F. 1997, Culture of fear, Cassell, London Galston, W.A. & Baehler, K.J. 1995, Rural development: Connecting theory, practice and possibilities, Island Press, Washington D.C. Gammon, S. & Robinson, T. I997, 'Sport and tourism: a conceptual framework', Journal of Sport Tourism, vol.4, no.3, l-6 Gammon, S. & Kurtzman, J. (Eds.) 2002, Sport tourism: principles and practice, Leisure Studies Association, Eastbourne Garbarino, E. & Strahilevitz, M. 2004, 'Gender differences in the perceived risk of buying online and the effects of receiving a site recommendation', Journal of Business Research, vol.57, 768-775 Gates, S. & Haxter, E. 2005, 'Beyond compliance: The future of risk management', Conference Board, no.132, New York Getz, D. 1989, 'Special events: Defining the product', Tourism Management, vol.I0, no.2, 125-268 Getz, D. 199I, Festivals, special events, and tourism, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York Getz, D. 1997a, Event management and event tourism, Cognizant. Communication Corporation, New York, USA Getz, D. 1997b, 'Trends and issues in sport event tourism', Tourism Recreation Research, vol.22, no.2, 61-74 Getz, D. & Frisby, W 1998, 'Evaluating management effectiveness in community run festivals', Journal of Travel Research, vol.27, no.l, 22-27 Gibson, H.J. 1998, 'Sport tourism: a critical analysis of research', Sport Management Review, vol.l, no.l, 45-76 Gibson, H.J. 2002, 'Sport tourism at a crossroad? Considerations for the future', pp. 3-I8 cited in S. Gammon, & J. Kurtzman (Eds.) 2002, Sport tourism: principles and practice, Leisure Studies Association, Eastbourne Gibson, H.J., Willming, C. & Holdnak, A. 2003, 'Small-scale event sport tourism: Fans as tourists', Tourism Management, vol.24, I81-190 Gnoth, J. & Anwar, S.A. 2000, 'New Zealand bets on event tourism', Cornell Hotel and Restaurant and Administration Quarterly, vol.4I, no.4, 72-84 Gofton, K. 2001, 'Living the brand at corporate events: The corporate bash is becoming a full-blown 'brand experience', Marketing, no.l, 35 Goldblatt, J. I997, Special events, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York Goldblatt, J. 2002, Special events, 3 rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York Gray, G.R. 1991, 'Risk management planning: conducting a sport risk assessment to enhance program safety', Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, vol.62, no.6, 29-32 Green, C. B. & Chalip, L. 1998, "Sport tourism as the celebration of subculture', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.25, no.2, 275-29I Greenaway, R. 1996, 'Thrilling not killing: Managing the risk tourism business', Management May, 46-49 Grieve, S. 2003, Criminal liability for event organisers – The Le Race 2001 case, SPARC, Wellington Gummesson, E. 2000, Qualitative methods in management research, 2nd Edition, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks Gursoy, D°., Kim, K. and Uysal. M. 2004, 'Perceived impacts of festivals and special events by organisers: An extension and validation', Tourism Management, vol.25, no.2, 171-181 Haddock, C. I993, Managing risks in outdoor activities, 1st Edition, New Zealand Mountain Safety Council, Wellington Hall, C.M. 1989, 'The definition and analysis of hallmark tourist events', Geo Journal, vol.I9, no.3, 263-268 Hall, C.M. (Eds.) 1992a, 'Review. Adventure, sport and health tourism', pp. 14I-I58 cited in B. Weiler & C.M. Hall, Special Interest Tourism, Belhaven & Halsted Press, London Hall, C.M. 1992b, Hallmark tourist events: Impacts management and planning, John Wiley & Sons, New York Hall, C.M. & Kearsley G. (Eds.) 2001, Tourism in New Zealand, Oxford University Press, Melbourne Hall, C.M., Timothy, D.J., Duval, D.T. (Eds.) 2003, Safety and security in tourism, Haworth Press, New York Hanna, G. I991, Outdoor pursuits programming: Legal liability and risk management, The University of Alberta Press, Canada Head, G.L. 2004, 'The duality of risk', Risk Management, vol.5I, no.l, 20 Health and Safety Executive 1999, The event safely guide: A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events, Health and Safety Executive, Norwich Healy M.J. & Rawlinson M.B. I993, 'Interviewing business owners and managers: A review of methods and techniques', Geofbrum, vol.24, no.3, 339-355 Higham, J.E.S. 1997, 'The Bledisloe Cup: Quantifying the direct economic benefits of event tourism, with ramifications for a city in economic transition', Festival Management and Event Tourism, vol.4, no.3/4, 107-116 Higham, J.E.S. (Ed) 2004, Sport tourism destinations: Issues, opportunity and analysis, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford Higham, J.E.S. & Hinch, T.D. 2001, 'Sport and tourism in Dunedin: The case of Rugby Super I2', pp. I49-152 cited in M.C. Hall & G. Kearsley Tourism in New Zealand, Oxford University Press, Melbourne Higham, J.E.S. & Hinch, T.D. 2002, 'Tourism, sport and the seasons: The challenges and potential of overcoming seasonality in the sport and tourism sectors', Tourism Management, vol. 23, 175-185 Higham, J.E.S. & Hinch, T.D. 2003, 'Sport, space, and time: Effects of the Otago Highlanders franchise on tourism', Journal of Sport Management, vol.17, 235-257 Higham, J.E.S. & Ritchie, B. 200I, 'The evolution of festivals and other events in rural southern New Zealand', Event Management, vol.7, 39-49 Hinch, T.D. & Higham, J.E.S. 2004, Sport tourism development, Channel View Publications, Clevedon Hillary Commission 2000, The growing business of sport and leisure. The impact of the physical leisure industry in New Zealand. An update to the 1998 report, Business and Economic Research Limited, Wellington Hillary Commission 200I, Legal obligations of sports, Running Sport, Wellington Hoffman, D., Beverland, M. & Rasmussen M. 200I, 'The evolution of wine events in Australia and New Zealand: A proposed model', International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol.13, no.l, 54-72 Hogan, R. 2002, 'The crux of risk management in outdoor programs – minimising the possibility of death and disabling injury', Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, vol.6, no.2, 7I-79 Holloway, .T. & Robinson, C. I995, Marketing for tourism, Longman, London House of Representatives New Zealand 2004, 2003/2004 Financial review of Accident Compensation Cooperation. Report of the Transport and Industrial Relations Committee, House of Representatives New Zealand, Wellington Hoyle, L.H. 2002, Event marketing, John Wiley & Sons, New York Howe, D.P. 2004, Sport, professionalism and pain. Ethnographies of injury and risk, Routledge, London Hronek, B.B. & Spengler, J.O. 1997, Legal liability in recreation and sport, Sagamore Publishing, Champaign Hudson, S. 2003, Sport and adventure tourism, Haworth Hospitality Press, New York Inside Tourism 2004, 'International lawyers astounded by ACC, says Andreef, no.521, 8 Industrial & Commercial Insurance Brokers Limited 2002-2005, News: Sporting event organisers, http://www.icib.co.nz/issues.asp (Accessed Il March 2005) Insurance Council of Australia 2002, Submission to the law of review of the law of negligence, http://www.ica.com.au/tortreform.htm (Accessed 9 September 2004) Insurance Council of New Zealand 2000, New Zealand Official Yearbook 2000, http://www.icnz.org.nz (Accessed 9 September 2004) International Federation of Risk and Insurance Management Associations (IFRIMA) I994, International risk management lexicon, IFRIMA, Nundah Jago, L.K. & Shaw, R.N. 1998, 'Special events: A conceptual and definitional framework', Festival & Event Tourism, vol.55, 2I-32 Jamal, T.B. '& Getz, D. 1995, 'Collaboration theory and community tourism planning', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.22, no.l, I86-204 Jamieson, D. 2003, 'Cyclist's death brings warnings', Otago Daily Times, http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-online-new?date=10Sep2003&obie... (Assessed 18 March 2003) Janiskee, R.L. 1996, 'Historic houses and special events', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.23, no.2, 398-414 Jankowicz, A.D. 1995, Business research projects, 2nd Edition, International Thomson Business Press, London Jankowicz, A.D. 2000, Business research projects, 3rd Edition, International Thomson Business Press, London Jones, I. 1997, 'Practising qualitative research, mixing qualitative and quantitative methods in sports fan research', The Qualitative Report, vol.3, no.4, l-7 Kaiser, R.A. 1986, Liability and law in recreation, parks and sports, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs Kelly, I. & Nankervis, T. 200I, Visitor destination, John Wiley & Sons, Sydney Kim, N.S. & Chalip, L. 2004, 'Why travel to the FIFA World Cup? Effects of motives, background, interests and constraints', Tourism Management, vol.25, 695-707 Klap, A. 2002, Up with the play, SPARC newsletter for sport officials, http:/www.sparc.org.nz/news/110803 events.php-lok (Accessed 3 May 2004) Kurtzman, J. & Zauhar, J. I994, Agency reports, Tourism Sport International Council, Otawa Lee, C. & Spisto, M. 2001, 'The provision of travel advice to tourists and travellers: Legal implications to New Zealand', Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, vol.6, no.l, 1.2- I9 Lee, C.K., Lee, Y.K. & Wicks, B.E. 2004, 'Segmentation of festival motivation by nationality and satisfaction'. Tourism Management, vol.25, no.l, 61-70 Lee, H. & Graefe, A.R. 2003, 'Crowding at an arts festival: Extending crowding models to the front-country', Tourism Management, vol.24, no.l, l-1I Jessor, R. (Ed.) 1998, New perspectives on adolescent risk behaviour, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Lewsley, C. 2002, 'Interview with the Australia and New Zealand Runners World Magazine', http://keplerchallenge.co.nz/news (Accessed 9 September 2004) Lieberman, J.K. 1981, The litigious society, Basic Books Inc. Publishers, New York Lynch, P. 2004, 'Cause for concern?', Australian Leisure Management, February/March, 22-24 Maron, B.J. 200I, Recommendations for pre-participation screening and the assessment of cardiovascular disease in master athletes, American Heart Association, Circulation, http://circ.abaiournals.org/cgi/content/full/103/2/327 (Accessed 12 January 2005) Marshall, C. & Rossman G.B. 1999, Designing qualitative research, 3 rd Edition, Sage Publication, Thousand Oaks Mays, N. & Pope, C. (Eds.) I995, 'Qualitative research: Rigour and qualitative research', BMJ Books, vol.311, I09-I22 McKinlay, T. 2003, 'Impact of cycle race case felt', Otago Daily Times, 11 August, http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-online-new?date=1lAug2003&obi (Assessed 18 March 2004) Media Release 11 August 2002, 'SPARC speaks out to defend sport and recreation events', 1-2 Meier, J., Morash, T. & Welton, G. (Eds.) I980, High adventure outdoor pursuits, Brighton Publishing Company, Salt Lake City Mellor, N. & Veno, A. 2002, Planning a safe public event: Practical guidelines, Attorney- General's Department, Canberra Miles, J.C. & Priest, S. (Eds.) I990, Adventure education, Venture Publishing, PA Ministerial Taskforce on Sport, Fitness & Leisure 2001, Getting set for an active nation, Ministerial Taskforce on Sport, Fitness & Leisure, Wellington Ministry of Tourism 2002, Role of government in tourism, Ministry of Tourism, Wellington Money Maker 2002, Types of insurance, http://moneymanager.smh.com.au/tools/factsheets/insuretypes.html2002 (Accessed 23 July 2004) Morford, B. I996, 'Risk management in physical education: What can New Zealand learn from Canada?', Journal of Physical Education New Zealand, vol.29, no.4, 12-13 Morgan, D. 2000, 'Adventure activities in New Zealand: Perceptions and management of client risk', Tourism Recreation Research, vol.25, no.3, 79-89 Motor Sport New Zealand (MNZ) 2003, Legal liability of officials, http://www.motorcyclingnz.co.nz/news2.aspx`?SectionlD=29&ArticleiD=935 (Accessed 11 March 2005) Murdoch, G. 2003, Public liability, New Zealand Recreational Canoeing Association (NZRCA)http://www.rivers.org.nz/article/PublicLiabilit y (Accessed 9 May 2005) Napier, V. 2000, Open canopy fatalities and risk homeostasis: A correlation study, Western Oregon University, http://www.noexcusesrigging.com/EssayArticles.htm. (Accessed I3 April 2004) New Zealand Deerstalkers Association (NZDA) 2003, Issues for event organisers in New Zealand submissions required by 16 February 2004, http://www.deerstalkers.ora.nz/issues/event-oroganisers.htm (Accessed 23 August 2004) New Zealand Deerstalkers Association (NZDA) 2004a, Discussion document – Response to SPARC issues for event organisers, www.derstalkers.org.nz/isues/event-organiser.pdf (Accessed 23 August 2004) New Zealand Deerstalkers Association (NZDA) 2004b, SPARC submission, http://www.deerstalkers.org. issues/ arc-2004-02-13.htm (Accessed 23 August 2004) New Zealand Society for Risk Management 2001, What is risk?. http://risksociety.org.nz/ (Accessed 8 November 2004) New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) 2002, 'That traffic management code. Why has industry had such little say in it?', no.115, 1 New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) March 2003a, 'SPARC wants to be world leader within three years', no.122, I New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) April 2003b, 'New law could effect you', no.I23, 3-4 New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) May 2003c, 'When an industry is based on risk',no.122, New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) July 2003d, 'Sign of growth', no.I26, 2 New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) December 2003e, 'The importance of festivals', no.131, 4 New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) December 2003f, 'More races cancelled', no.I3I, 6 New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) April 2004a, 'Anderson to appeal', no.134, 1 New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) July 2004b, 'Govt understanding of events shows promise', no.I36, 1-2 New Zealand Events Update (NZEU) May 2005, 'Sporting events now worth US$ 6 billion a year', no.146, 4 Nicholson, R.E. & Pearce, D. 2001, 'Why do people attend events: A comparative analysis of visitor motivations at four south island events', Journal of Travel Research, vol.39, 449- 460 Northy, G. 2003, 'Equestrian injuries in New Zealand, 1993-2001: Knowledge and experience', The New Zealand Medical Journal, vol.1I6, no.Il82, l-8 Occupational Safety and Health Services (OSH) 2002, Safety Lines, Department of Labour New Zealand, Wellington, http://www.acc.co.nz/injury-prevention/safe-atworkilegislation/acop/ (Accessed 11 October 2004) Occupational Safety and Health Service (OSH) 2004, Working safely for your community health and safety guidelines for community and voluntary organisations. Evaluation Report, Department of Labour New Zealand, Wellington Office of Sport and Recreation Queensland I998, Playing it safe: A guide to risk management for sport and recreation organisations, p. 75 cited in R. Hogan 2002, 'The crux of risk management in outdoor programs – minimising the possibility of death and disabling injury', Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, vol.6, no.2, 71-79 Orchard, J.W. & Finch. C.F. 2002, 'Australia needs to follow New Zealand's lead on sport injuries', MJA, vol.177, 38-39 O'Rourke, 2004, 'Standing out from the crowd', Risk Management, vol.51, no.l, 16 Otago Daily Times (ODT) 29 May 2001, 'Car race tragedy was avoidable, hearing told', http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-online-new?date=29May200I&obj... (Accessed 18 March 2004) Otago Daily Times (ODT) 24 July 2002, 'Fund set up for bike-race organiser', http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-online-new?date=24Jul2002&obj... (Assessed 18 March 2004) Otago Daily Times (ODT) I5 August 2003a, 'Sport and risk', http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgibin/ search-display-story-online-new?date=15Aug2003&obj (Accessed 18 March 2004) Otago Daily Times (ODT) 30 August 2003b, 'Race organiser fined $I0,000 over death', http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-disp lay-story-online-new?date=30Aug2003&obj... (Assessed 18 March 2004) Otago Daily Times (ODT) 25 September 2003c, 'Race organiser to appeal conviction', http://www. odt.co.nz/cgi-bi n/search-display-story-online-new?date=25September2003 &obj (Assessed 18 March 2004) Otago Daily Times (ODT) 23 December 2003d, 'Le race is go, but with modifications', http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-online-new?date=23Dec2003&obj... (Assessed 18 March 2004) Outdoor Safety Institute nd.a, A synopsis of relevant legislation and industry practice, that impacts on the provision of risk recreation and adventurous activities, Outdoor Safety Institute, Wellington Outdoor Safety Institute nd.b, The risk analysis and management system (RAMS), Outdoor Safety Institute, Wellington Page, S.J. I997, The cost of accidents in adventure tourism in New Zealand, Report for Tourism Policy Group, Wellington Page, S.J. & Meyer, D. I996, 'Tourist accidents: An exploratory analysis', Annals of Travel Research, vol.23, no.3, 666-690 Page, S.J. & Meyer, D. I997, 'Injuries and accidents among international tourists in Australasia: Scale, causes and solutions', pp. 10I-123 cited in S. Clift & P. Grabowski (Eds.), Tourism health: Risk, research and responses, Pinter, London Patton, M. 1987, How to use qualitative methods in evaluation, Sage Publications, London Pawson, E. & 1995, Changing place: A geography of restructuring in New Zealand, Longman, Auckland Pedoe, T. 2000, 'Sudden cardiac death in sport – spectre or preventable risk?', British Journal Sports Medicine, vol.34, 137-140 Pedoe, T. 2004, 'Sudden death risk in older athletes: Increasing the denominator', British Journal Sports Medicine, vol.38, 67I-672 Perry, M., Foley, P. & Rumpf, P. 1996, 'Events management: An emerging challenge in Australian higher education', Festival Management & Event Tourism, vol.4, 85-93 Plog, S. 199I, Leisure travel, John Wiley & Sons, New York Prentice, R. & Andersen, V. 2003, 'Festival as creative destination', Annuls of Tourism Research, vol.30, no.l, 7-30 Priest, S. I990, 'The adventure experience paradigm', pp. I57-162 cited in J.C. Miles & S. Priest, Adventure education, Venture Publishing, PA Priest, S. 1993, 'A new model for risk taking', Journal of Experiential Education, vol.I6, no.I, 50 – 53 Priest, S. & Baillie, R. I987, 'Justifying the risk to other: The real razors edge', Journal of Experiential Education, vol.I0, no.l, 16-22 Progressive Party 2002a, Progressive sport and recreation policy, http://www.progressive.or2.nz/modules.php?name–Sections&op–viewarticle&artid=50 (Accessed 24 September 2004) Progressive Party 2002b, Jim Anderton's press releases 15 September 2004, Major events strategy to contribute to economic growth, Progressive Party, Wellington Qualmark 2002, New Zealand's official quality tourism website, http://www.qualmark.co.nz/index.jsp (Accessed 25 March 2004) Quinn, B. 1990, 'The essence of adventure', pp. 145-I49 cited in JC. Miles & S. Priest, Adventure education, Venture Publishing, PA Rankin, J. S. 199I, Preparing recreational sports professional for a litigious society', NIRSA Journal, vol.15, no.3, 8-I0 Renn, O. 2004, 'Perception of risks', Toxicology Letters, vol.I49, 405-413 Riffer, J. I985, Sports and recreational injuries, McGraw Hill, Colorado Springs Roger W. & Riley, R.W. 1996, The state of qualitative tourism research, The 1996 Leisure Research Symposium, Kansas City Ritchie, B.W. I984, 'Assessing the impacts of hallmark event: Conceptual and research issues', Journal of Travel Research, summer, 2-1I Ritchie, B.W. 1997 'How special are special events? The economic impact and strategic development of the New Zealand Masters Games', Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol.4, no.3/4, Il7-126 Ritchie, B.W. & Adair, D. 2002, 'The growing recognition of sport tourism', Current Issues in Tourism, vol.5, no.l, l-6 Robinson, D.W. 1992, 'A descriptive model of enduring risk recreation involvement', Journal of Leisure Research, vol.24, no.l, 52-63 Robson, C. I993, Real world research, Blackwell, Oxford Roche, M. 1994, 'Mega-events and urban policy', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.2I, 1-19 Roehl, W.S. & Fesenmaier, D.R. I992, 'Risk perceptions and pleasure travel: An exploratory analysis', Journal of Travel Research, vol.30, 17-26 Rowe, D. & Lawrence, G. 1998, Tourism, leisure, sport: Critical perspectives, Hodder Education, New South Wales Rutherford-Silver, J. 2004, Professional event coordination, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey Ryan, C., Smee, A. & Murphy, S. 1996, 'Creating a data base of events in New Zealand: Early results', Festival Management and Event Tourism, vol.4, no.3/4, 15I-I55 Ryan, C., Smee, A., Murphy, S. & Getz, D. 1998, 'New Zealand events: A temporal and regional analysis, Festival Management and Event Tourism, vol.5, 7I-84 Ryan, C. 2001, 'Urban events in New Zealand', p. I48 cited in C. M. Hall & G. Kearsley, Tourism in New Zealand, Oxford University Press, Melbourne Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. 1997, Research methods for business students, Pitman Publishing, London Schreyer R. & Roggenbuck J.W. I978, 'The influence of experience expectations on crowding perceptions and social–psychological carrying capacities', Leisure Sciences, vol.l, 373-394 Scott, E. 2004, 'Only human', Australian Leisure Management, February/March, 19-20 Scott, M. 2002, 'Safety first for 60 km mass start road race', Otago Daily Times, http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-online-new?date=14Sep2002&obje... (Assessed 18 March 2004) Scott, M. 2003, 'Conditions too much for classic road race', Otago Daily Times, http:/www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-online-new?date=03sep2003&obje... (Assessed 18 March 2004) Skinner, B.E. & Rukavina, V. 2003, Event sponsorship, John Wiley & Sons, New York Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B. & Lichtenstein, S. I982, 'Why study risk perception?', Risk Analysis, vol.2, no.2, 83-93 Slovic, P. I987, 'Perception of risk,' Science, vol.236, 280-285 Sommez, S.F. & Graefe, A.R. 1998, 'Determining future travel behaviour from past travel experience and perception of risk and safety', Journal of Travel Research, vol.37, 171-177 Sorin, D. 2003, The special events advisor: A business and legal guide for event professionals, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey Sport, Fitness, & Recreation Industry Training Organisation New Zealand (SFRITO) 2000, Insurance and superannuation, New Zealand Official Yearbook 2000, SFRITO, Wellington Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 200la, Liability of sport and recreation Organisations in New Zealand, SPARC, Wellington, http://66.I02.7.104/custom?q=cache:zdj LelyPlIcJ:www.spare.org.nz/publications/pdfs (Accessed 3 May 2004) Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 200lb, Investing in sport, Guidelines for national sports organisations, SPARC, Wellington Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2002a, 'Is health and safety legislation crippling sporting events in New Zealand?', Up with the play, issue no.l, 1 Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2002b, Push and play facts II, SPARC, Wellington Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2003a, Legal issues and risk management for sport officials, SPARC, Wellington, www.sparc.org.nz/officials/pdfs/SPARC Legal.pdf (Accessed 3 April 2004) Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2003b, Issues for event organisers in New Zealand: Discussion paper, SPARC, Wellington, http:1/184.108.40.206/custom?q=cache:zdjLelyPlIcJ:www.sparc.org.nz/publications/pdfs... (Accessed 28 March 2004) Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2003c, 'Should volunteers be liable?', Up with the play, no.1, 3 Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2003d, Yearbook, SPARC, Wellington Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2003e, SPARC trends. Trends in participation in sport and active leisure, SPARC, Wellington Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2003f, Towards an active New Zealand developing a national policy framework for physical activity and sport, SPARC, Wellington Sport & Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) 2004, Statement of intent, SPARC, Wellington Standards Australia 2002, Guidelines for managing risk in sport and recreation, (HB246- 2002), Standards Australia, Canberra Standards New Zealand (SNZ) 1999, Risk management - Don't take a gamble, learn how you can beat the odds, http://www.standards.co.nz/news/archive/index.htm (Accessed 11 October 2004) Standards New Zealand (SNZ) 2004, New Zealand Handbook, Guidelines for risk management in sport and recreation, SNZ, Wellington Standevan, J. 1998, 'Sport tourism: Joint marketing – a starting point for beneficial synergies', Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol.4, 39-51 Standevan J. & Deknop, P. 1999, Sport tourism, Human Kinetics, Champaign Statistics New Zealand 2002, Injury statistics: Background, Statistics New Zealand, Wellington Stone, B.L. 'The self and the play element in culture', Play and Culture, vol.2, 64-79 Strauss, A.L. & Corbin, J. 1998, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and nd Procedures of Developing Grounded Theory, 2 Edition, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks Stuart, A. 2004, 'On risk: Perception and direction', Computers & Security, vol.23, 362- 370 Swarbrooke, J. 2003, Adventure tourism: The new frontier, Elsevier Butterworth– Heinemann, Oxford Tarlow, P E. 2002, Event risk management and safety, John Wiley & Sons, New York Taylor, Si. & Bogdan, R. I984, Introduction to qualitative research methods, John Wiley & Sons, New York The Ministry of Culture Denmark 2000, Rock festival safety, The Ministry of Culture, Denmark Copenhagen Tourism Industry Association New Zealand (TIANZ) 2004a, Quality Tourism Standards, TIANZ, Wellington, http://www.tianz.org.nz/Current- 'Quality-Tourism-Standards.asp, (Acesed 4 August 204) Tourism Industry Association New Zealand (TIANZ) 2004b, Comments to the Inter Agency Events Group on the government support of major events, TIANZ, Wellington Tourism Management 1988, 'Conference Report: Mega-events and mega-attractions', March, 76-77 Tourism New Zealand 200I, Queenstown, http://www.tourisminfo.govt.nz/cir_fuseaction=29&subaction=news&article__id=84 (Accessed 25 March 2004) Tourism New Zealand 2002, Annual report 2001/2002, http://www.oturisminfo.co.nz/pub/annual_report/ce os_report.html (Accessed 25 March 2004) Tourism Policy Group. 1996, Safety management in the adventure tourism industry: Voluntary and regulatory approaches, Ministry of Commerce, Wellington Trimpop, R.M. 1994, 'The psychology of risk taking behaviour', p. 8 cited in S.R. Espiner 1999, The use and effect of hazard warning signs, Managing visitor safety at Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers, Department of Conservation, Wellington Van der Smissen. B. 1990, Legal Liability and Risk Management of Public and Private Entities, Anderson Publishing Co, Cincinnati Van der Smissen, B. 1997, 'Is liability an ogre in the United States?' World Leisure & Recreation, vol. 39, no.l, 4-7 Veal, A.J. I997, Research methods for leisure and tourism: A practical guide, 2nd Edition, Pitman Publishing, London Wade, I.R. 1990, 'Safety management', pp. 299-308 cited in J.C. Miles & S. Priest, Adventure education, Venture Publishing, PA Wallace, N. 2003, `2levents called off due to legal ruling: Sport organisers wary of liability', Otago Daily Times, www.odt.co.nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-onlinenew? date=06Dec2003&obje... (Assessed 18 March 2004) Walle, A.H. 1997, 'Quantitative versus qualitative research', Annals of Tourism Research, vol.24, no.3, 524 – 536 Walo, M., Bull, A. & Breen H. 1996, 'Achieving economic benefits at local events: A case study of a local sports event', Festival Management and Event Tourism, vol.4, 95-106 Watson, R. 1996, 'Abstract: Risk management: A plan for safer activities', ACHPER Journal, vol.62, no. I, 13-17 Watt, D.C. 1998, Event management in leisure and tourism, Addison Wesley Longman, New York Weed, M. & Bull, C. 2004, Sports tourism: Participants, policy and providers, Elsevier Butter-Heinemann, Oxford Welch, B. 1999, Prepare or beware, http//:www.harvestroad.com.au.dsr.wa.gov.au (Accessed 5 December 2004) Wensley, L. 2004, 'Safety management – times have changed', NZTIA Newsletter April Wildaysky, A. I988, Searching for safety, Transaction Books, New Brunswick Wildaysky, A. & Dake, C. I990, 'Theories of risk perception: Who fears what and why?' Daedalus, vol.119, no.4, 41-60 Wilks J., Pendergast, D. & Service, M. I996, 'Newspaper reporting of tourism health and safety issues', Australian Leisure, vol.7, no.3, 45-48 Will, K.E. & Geller, E.S. 2004, 'Increasing the safety of children's vehicle travel: From effective risk communication to behaviour change', Journal of Safety Research, vol.35, 263-274 Williams, P.W., Hainsworth, D. & Dossa, K.B. I995, 'Volunteerism and special event tourism', Journal of Tourism Studies, vol.6, no.2, I1-20 Wilson, R. 2001, 'Time to question safety enforcement', Otago Daily Times, www.odt,co, nz/cgi-bin/search-display-story-online-new?date=10July200I&obje (Assessed 18 March 2004) Workinfo 2002, Contractors, Department of Labour, Wellington Workinfo 2003a, Are you ready? Workplace health and safety and the self-employed, Department of Labour, Wellington Workinfo 2003b, Key changes to the Health and Safety in Employment Act, http://www.workinfogovt.nz/concessionaires/ (Accessed 30 April 2004) Workinfo 2003c, Fact sheet: Taking all practicable steps, Department of Labour, Wellington World Tourism Organisation (WTO) 2001, Sport and tourism world conference, WTO, Barcelona Young, S.J. 2001, 'The importance of legal aspects for new professionals in recreational sports: A perspective of practising professionals', The Cyber Journal of Applied Leisure and Recreation Research, February, l-8 Zikmund, W.G. 2003, Business research methods, 7th Edition, Thomson South Western, Ohio||en_NZ|
Files in this item
There are no files associated with this item.
This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.
If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.
If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.