Re-conceptualising television advertising typologies
|dc.contributor.author||Aitken, Robert Walter||en_NZ|
|dc.identifier.citation||Aitken, R. W. (2004, December). Re-conceptualising television advertising typologies (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1468||en|
|dc.description.abstract||This thesis presents a new typology of television advertising that re-orientates existing research into advertising effectiveness and more accurately reflects new directions in communication theory. The typology provides a consumer-centric approach to analysing television advertisements and a different conceptualisation of the advertising response process. Conventional research into advertising effectiveness has examined almost every aspect of the advertising mix to identify what makes an advertisement effective. The research is based on a number of assumptions. For example, mass communication is seen as a linear process with the advertiser at one end of a communication continuum and the consumer at the other. The function of advertising, in this reception paradigm, is to inform and then to influence the consumer and measures of its success include accuracy of recall and recognition. This process of persuasion comprises a number of hierarchical steps that should lead to purchase or to a positive propensity to purchase. The power of persuasion is related to the level of involvement between the advertised product and the potential customer and with the appropriateness of the advertised message and its execution. For example, elements such as music, humour and the use of celebrities have been studied to assess their persuasive powers and to understand their communication effects. This thesis takes a different approach to understanding how advertising works and makes a number of different assumptions. According to this thesis, before it is possible to study the effects of advertising, it is necessary to find out how people respond to it. This introduces the three key concepts that underpin this thesis. These are reader-response theory, personal construct theory and uses and gratifications theory. Reader-response theory suggests that the meaning and significance of any form of communication is co-created at the point of engagement. The meaning of a television advertisement, for example, is located, not in the advertisement itself, as in conventional research, but in the interaction between the advertisement and the viewer. The meanings that result in this process of negotiation are as much a reflection of personal, social and cultural experience as they are a response to particular executional and message strategies. To understand how consumers make sense of these communication texts it is necessary to study them at the point of reception. The second key concept, personal construct theory, proposes that the way individuals make sense of their experiences and understand the world is determined by the personal constructs that they hold. Identifying these constructs will enable researchers to understand the meanings that consumers attach to communication messages and to focus more fundamentally on the psychological basis of the response process than on its individual components. Studying advertising effectiveness in the context of personal construct theory places the consumer at the centre of the response process and focuses attention on how meaning is negotiated. This has a number of important implications for practioners both in relation to the construction of television advertisements and in understanding consumers' responses to them. For example, practioners need to recognise the importance of producing television advertisements that address their audience as readers of media texts rather than merely as consumers of media products. This re-conceptualising of the audience is clearly articulated in uses and gratifications theory, the third key concept in this study. Uses and gratifications theory, suggests that it is as important to understand what consumers do with advertising as it is to study what advertising does to consumers. This is in contrast to the emphasis on persuasion strategies in conventional advertising research. Reader-response theory, personal construct theory and uses and gratifications theory suggest a more dynamic relationship between an advertisement and a consumer than is recognised by conventional research. These theories are encapsulated in a new typology of television advertising presented in this thesis.||en_NZ|
|dc.subject.lcsh||H Social Sciences (General)||en_NZ|
|dc.title||Re-conceptualising television advertising typologies||en_NZ|
|thesis.degree.name||Doctor of Philosophy|
|thesis.degree.grantor||University of Otago|
|dc.description.references||Alwitt, Linda F . & Prabhaker, Paul R . (1994) Identifying who dislikes television advertising : Not by demographics alone. Journal of Advertising Research, November/ December 1994, pp . 17-29 . Allor, M. (1988) Relocating the site of the audience . Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 5, pp . 217-33 . Amabile, T .M . (1982) The Social Psychology of Creativity : A Consensual Assessment Technique . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, (5), pp . 997-1013 . Ambler, Tim & Burne, Tom (1999) The Impact of Affect on Memory of Advertising . Journal of Advertising Research March/April 1999, pp . 25-34 . Anderson, W.T. (1990) Reality isn't what it used to be. San Francisco : Harper and Row. Anderson J..A. & Meyer, T .P. (1988) Mediated Communication : A Social Action Perspective. Beverley Hills, CA., Sage. Andrews, J .C . ; Durvasula, S . & Akhter, S.H. (1990) A framework for conceptualizing and measuring the involvement construct in advertising research . Journal of Advertising, 19, pp.27-40. Ang,I. (1985) Watching Dallas: Soap Opera and the Melodramatic Imagination . London, Methuen . Arnold, J ., & Nicholson, N . (1991). Construing of self and others at work in the early years of corporate careers . Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 12, pp . 621-639 . Assael, H. & Leon, J . (1982) Nonsampling versus Sampling Errors in Survey Research . Journal of Marketing, 46, (Spring) pp . 114-23 . Atherton, J .S . (2002) Learning and Teaching . Personal Construct Psychology . Bagozzi, R .P. (1994) Measurement in Market Research, in Principles of Marketing Research, R.P. Bagozzi (ed.), Blackwell Business, Oxford, England . Baker, Michael J . (2000) Writing a Research Proposal . The Marketing Review, 1 (1), pp. 61-76. Bailey, Kenneth D . (1994) Typology and Taxonomies . An Introduction to classification techniques . Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Series No. 07.102 . Thousand Oakes ; London ; New Delhi:Sage. Bannister, D . (1963) The genesis of schizophrenic thought disorder : re-test of theserial invalidation hypothesis . British Journal of Psychiatry, (109), pp . 680-686 . Bannister, D . & Fransella, F. (1986) Inquiring Man : The Psychology of Personal Constructs . Croom Helm, London . Alwitt, Linda F. & Prabhaker, Paul R . (1994) Identifying who dislikes television advertising : Not by demographics alone . Journal of Advertising Research, November/ December 1994, pp . 17-29. Allor, M. (1988) Relocating the site of the audience . Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 5, pp. 217-33 . Amabile, T.M. (1982) The Social Psychology of Creativity : A Consensual Assessment Technique . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, (5), pp. 997-1013. Ambler, Tim & Burne, Tom (1999) The Impact of Affect on Memory of Advertising . Journal of Advertising Research March/April 1999, pp. 25-34 . Anderson; W.T. (1990) Reality isn't what it used to be, San Francisco : Harper and Row. Anderson,J.A. & Meyer, T .P. (1988) Mediated Communication : A Social Action Perspective. Beverley Hills, CA., Sage . Andrews, J .C. ; Durvasula, S . & Akhter, S .H. (1990) A framework for conceptualizing and measuring the involvement construct in advertising research . Journal of Advertising, 19, pp .27-40. Ang,I. (1985) Watching Dallas : Soap Opera and the Melodramatic Imagination. London, Methuen. Arnold, J ., & Nicholson, N . (1991). Construing of self and others at work in the early years of corporate careers . Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 12, pp . 621-639 . Assael, H. & Leon, J . (1982) Nonsampling versus Sampling Errors in Survey Research . Journal of Marketing, 46, (Spring) pp. 114-23 . Atherton, J .S . (2002) Learning and Teaching . Personal Construct Psychology . Bagozzi, R .P. (1994) Measurement in Market Research, in Principles of Marketing Research, R.P. Bagozzi (ed.), Blackwell Business, Oxford, England . Baker, Michael J . (2000) Writing a Research Proposal . The Marketing Review, 1 (1), pp. 61-76. Bailey, Kenneth D . (1994) Typology and Taxonomies . An Introduction to classification techniques . Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Series No . 07-102 . Thousand Oakes ; London ; New Delhi: Sage. Bannister, D . (1963) The genesis of schizophrenic thought disorder : re-test of the serial invalidation hypothesis . British Journal of Psychiatry, (109), pp . 680-686. Bannister, D . & Fransella, F. (1986) Inquiring Man : The Psychology of Personal Constructs . Croom Helm, London. Banniser, D.; Bell, R. & Fransella, F. (2004) A Manuel for Repertory Grid Technique (Second Edition). New York: John Wiley & Son, Ltd . Banister, P . ; Burman E. ; Parker I . ; Taylor M . & Tindall C. (1994) Qualitative Methods in Psychology : A Research Guide . Buckingham, Philadelphia : Open University Press . Barnes, M. (1982) Public Attitudes to Advertising . Journal ofAdvertising . 1 pp . 119- 28 . Barry, Thomas E. (1993) Comparative Advertising : What have we learned in two decades? Journal of Advertising Research March/April 1993, pp . 19-29 . I Barry, Thomas E . & Howard, Daniel J . (1990) A Review and Critique of the Hierarchy` of Effects in Advertising . International Journal of Advertising 9, pp . 121- 135. Barry, Thomas E. & Weilbacher, William M . (2002) In defence of the hierarchy of effects: A rejoinder to Weilbacher/ Comment . Journal ofAdvertising Research May/June, pp .44-49. Bartels, Betsy Charles & Malhotra, Naresh K . (2002) Overcoming the attribute prespecification bias in international marketing research by using non-attribute based correspondence analysis . International Marketing Review 19 (1), pp. 65-79 . Barthes, Roland (1973) Mythologies. St. Albans, Paladin . Barthes, Roland (1977) Image-Music-Text . London, Fontana. Barthes, Roland (1990) The Fashion System . Berkeley : University of California Press . Barton, Allen H . (1955) The Concept of Property Space in Social Research, in Paul Lazarsfeld and Morris Rosenberg (eds .), The Language of Social Research, New York: Free Press . Barwise, Paddy ; Brodin, Karolina & Ritson, Mark (2003) The Act of Advertising Interpretation : An Ethnographic Analysis of Eight British Households . Department of Marketing, London Business School . Batra, Rajeev & Ray, Michael L . (1986) Affective Responses Mediating Acceptance of Advertising . Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (September), pp . 234-49 . Bauer, Raymond A. and (geyser, Stephen A . (1968) Advertising in America : The Consumer View. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press . Beail, N. (1985) An Introduction to Repertory Grid Technique, in Repertory Grid Technique and Personal Constructs, N . Baeil (ed.), Brookline Books, Cambridge, MA., pp . 1-26. Beard, Fred K . (2002) Peer Evaluation and Readership of Influential Contributions to the Advertising Literature . Journal of Advertising 31 (4), pp. 65-75 . Bedell, C . (1940) How to write advertising that sells . New York, London, McGraw- Hill Book Company Inc. Belch, George E. & Belch, Michael A . (2004) Advertising and Promotion : An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective (6 th Edition) . McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY. Belk, Russell (1985) An Uninvolving Look at Consumer Involvement . Irish Marketing Review, 8, pp 146-148 . Bell, R. C. (1990) Analytic issues in the use of repertory grid technique . Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, pp . 25-48 . Bell, J.A. (1992) Creativity, TV Commercial Popularity, and Advertising Expenditures . International Journal of Advertising, 11, (2), pp. 165-73 . Bell, R. C. & Keen, T . (1980) . A statistical aid for the grid administrator . International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology, 6 , 79-98. Beltramini, Richard F . (1982) Advertising Perceived Believability Scale . Proceedings of the Southwest Marketing Association, (1-3) Southeast Missouri State University . Bennett, Tony (1981) Popular Television and Film . British Film Institute, Open University Press . Bennett, R. (1996) Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets : transactional analysis versus the behaviourist approach . Journal of Marketing Management, 12, pp . 417-36 . Benton, Ted & Craib, Ian (2002) Philosophy of Social Science-The Philosophical Foundations of Social Thought . Palgrave. Berelson, B . & Steiner, G.A. (1964) Human Behaviour : An Inventory of Scientific Findings. Harcourt, Brace & New World, New York. Bernstein, B. B. (1971) Class, Codes and Control . Paladin, St . Albans . Besser, Donna; Lewis, Loren E . & Stone, Gerald (2000) Recall, Liking, and Creativity in TV Commercials : A New Approach . Journal ofAdvertising Research 40 (3), pp. 7-18. Bettman, James R . & Escalas, Jennifer Edson (2000) Using narratives to discern selfidentity related consumer goals and motivations . (eds.), S. Ratneshwar, David Glen Mick, and Cynthia Huffman . The Why of Consumption Contemporary perspectives on consumer motives, goals, and desire . London & New York : Routledge . Biel, A. (1985) Does Likeable Television Advertising Help Sell the Product? San Francisco: The Olgivy Centre for Research and Development . Biel, A. (1997) Discovering Brand Magic : the hardness of the softer side of branding . International Journal of Advertising, 16, pp . 199-210 . Biel, A.L & Bridgewater, C .A. (1990) Attributes of Likeable Television Commercials. Journal ofAdvertising Research 19, (1), pp. 34-51 Bird, Alexander (1998) Philosophy of science-Fundamentals of Philosophy . UCL Press. Bloom, Paul N ., Edell, Julie & Staelin, Richard (1994) The Impact of Feelings on Ad- Based Affect and Cognition. Journal of Marketing Research, 26, (February), pp . 69- 83 . Bobo, J. (1988) The Color Purple : Black Women as Cultural Readers . London: Verso. Boeree, C . George Qualitative Methods : Part Five . Retrieved 11/11/2003 from the World Wide Web : http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/q ualmethfive.html Bohm, David (1996) On Dialogue . London : Routledge. Boller, G.W. & and Jerry Olson (1991) Experiencing ad meanings : Crucial aspects of narrative/drama processing . In Advances in Consumer Research, 18, (ed.), Rebecca H . Holman acid Michael R . Soloman, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, pp. 172-175 . Bond, G. and Brace, I. (1997) Segmenting by Attitudes to TV advertising-eye opener or blind alley? Journal of the Market Research Society, July, 39, 3, pp. 481-507 . Bonnal, F. (1990) Attitudes to Advertising in Six European Countries . Admap (December), pp . 19-23 . Boshoff, C . & du Plessis, A.P. (1992) South African Consumer Sentiment towards Marketing . South African Journal of Business Management 23 (2), pp. 33-39 Boshoff, C. & du Plessis, A.P. (1995) Revisiting the South African Marketing Index. South African Journal of Business Management 26 (2), pp . 49-57 Boshoff, C. & Powell, C.M. (1996) Measuring Consumer Sentiment Towards Marketing: The New Zealand Marketing Index. University of Otago, Department of Marketing Working Paper Series No 2/96 (October), 24 pages . Botella, Luis Personal Construct Psychology, Constructivism, and Postmodern Thought. Retrieved 06/06/2003 from the World Wide Web : http ://www.massey.ac .nz/~alock//virtual/Constuc .htm Brace, Ian; Edwards, Louise & Nancarrow, Clive (2002) 1 hear you knocking . . . can advertising reach everybody in the target audience? International Journal of Marketing Research 44 (2), pp. 193-202 . Brenner, M ., Brown, J . & Canter, D . (1987) The Research Interview : Uses and Approaches . London, The Academic Press. Britt, Stuart Henderson (2000) Are So-called Successful Advertising Campaigns Really Successful? Journal ofAdvertising Research November/December 2000, pp. 25-31 . Brown, Stephen (1995) Postmodern Marketing . London: Routledge . Brown, Stephen & Maclaran, Pauline (2001) The Future Perfect Declined : Utopian Studies and Consumer Research . Journal of Marketing Management 17, pp . 367-390. Brown, Steven P. & Stayman, Douglas M . (1992) Antecedents and Consequences of Attitude Toward the Ad: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 19, (June), pp . 34-51 . Brownstein, Rachel (1982) Becoming a Heroine : Reading about Women in Novels, New York: Viking . Brunsdon, C. (1981) Crossroads : Notes on a Soap Opera. Screen, 22, (4), pp. 52-7 . Bruner, J (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds . Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press. Bruner, J (1990) Acts of Meaning . Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press . Bruner II, G.C. & Hensel P .J. (1996) Marketing Scales Handbook Vol. II Chicago : American Marketing Association . Bruzzone, Donald E . & Tallyn, Deborah J. (1997) Linking Tracking to Pretesting with an "ARM" Journal of Advertising May/June 1997, pp.74-79 . Buchholz, Laura M. & Smith, Robert E . (1991) The Role of Consumer Involvement in Determining Cognitive Response to Broadcast Advertising . Journal of Advertising 20 (1), pp. 4-17. Buckingham, D . (1987) Public Secrets : Eastenders and its Audience . London: British Film Institute. Burke, Jeffrey & Stanton, John L. (1998) Comparative Effectiveness of Executional Elements in TV Advertising : 15- versus 30-second Commercials . Journal of Advertising Research November/December 1998, pp . 7-13. Burkit, I. (1991) Social Selves. London: Sage Burman, E. (1994) Identities, Experiences and Alliances . Feminism and Psychology, 4, (1), pp. 155-78 . Burman E . & Parker I . (1993) Discourse Analytic Research : Repertoires and Readings of Texts in Action . London : Routledge. Burr, V. & Butt, T . (1992) Invitation to Personal Construct Psychology . London. Burton, M.L. & Nerlove, S .B. (1976) Balanced Design for Triad Tests: Two Examples from English . Social Science Research, 5, pp . 247-267 . Buttle, F . (1995) Marketing communication theory : what do texts teach our students? International Journal of Advertising, 14, pp . 297-313 . Cacioppo, John T . & Petty, Richard E. (1985) Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion : The Role of Message Repetition, in Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects, Andrew A . Mitchell and Linda F . Alwitt (eds.), Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp . 91-12. Caldwell, Niall & Coshall, John (2002) Measuring brand associations for museums and galleries using grid analysis. Management Decision . 40 (4), pp. 383-392 . Caldwell,Niall (2002) (Rethinking) the measurement of service quality in museums and galleries', International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 7 (2), pp. 161-171 . Caputi, P . & Reddi, P. (1999) A comparison of triadic and dyadic methods of personal construct elicitation . Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 12, pp . 253-263 . Carr, D (1986), Time, Narrative and History, Bloomington, IN : Indiana Press . Carson David; Gilmore Audrey; Grant Ken ; Laney Richard & Pickett, Bill (2001), "Experiential" research methodology : an integrated academic practitioner "team" approach. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 4 (2), pp. 66-75 . Chalmers, A. F. (1991) V/hat is this thing called science? UCL Press, University of Queensland. Chandy, Rajesh K . ; Tellis, Gerard J & Thaivanich, Pattana (2000) Which Ad Works, When, Where, and How Often? Modeling the Effects of Direct Television Advertising Journal of Marketing Research 37, pp . 32-46 . Chattopadhyay, Amitava & Nedungadi (1992) Does Attitude toward the Ad Endure? The Moderating Effects of Attention and Delay . Journal of Consumer Research 19, pp. 26-33. Chen, Hong C.; Harris, William D . & Moore, David J. (1995) Affect Intensity : An Individual Difference Response to Advertising Appeals . Journal of Consumer Research 22, pp. 154-164 . Chiari, Gabriele & Nuzzo, M. Laura (1993) Personal construct theory within psychological constructivism precursor or avant-garde? Tenth International Congress of Personal Construct Psychology, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia, July 12-17, 1993 . Chisnall, P.M. (1992) Marketing Research (Fourth Edition) . McGraw-Hill, London . Christensen, Ole & Rohde, Carl C . (1999). Understanding Youth : Their Culture and Language Results from Qualitative and Quantitative Tracking Studies Among Young European Opinion Leaders . European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research . Churchill, Jr., Gilbert A. (1979) A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16, (February), pp . 64-73 . Churchill, Jr ., Gilbert A. (1983) Marketing Research : Methodological Foundations (Third Edition) . Holt Saunders International Editions, Japan . Cohen, Joel B (1983) Involvement and you : 1000 great ideas, in Advances in Consumer Research, Ann Arbor, Association for Consumer Research, pp . 325-328 . Cohen, L. & Manion, L . (1987) Research Methods in Education . London : Croom Helm. Colley, R.H. (1961) Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results . New York: Association of National Advertisers . Cook, G. (1992) The Discourse of Advertising . London : Routledge. Cossette, P . & Audet, M. (1992) Mapping of an idiosyncratic schema . Journal of Management Studies, 29, pp. 325-347. Coulter, Robin A., Gerald Zaltman and Keith S . Coulter (2001), "Interpreting Consumer Perceptions of Advertising : An Application of the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique," Journal of Advertising, 30, 4, (Winter), pp. 1- 21 . Coxon, A.P.M. & Jones, C .L. (1977) Multidimensional scaling, vol. 1: Exploring Data Structures. CA, O'Muircheartaigh, C . Payne, Wiley, New York. Coxon, A.P.M. & Jones, C .L. (1980) Multidimensional scaling : Exploration to confirmation . Quality and Quantity . Cramphorne, S . (2004) What Advertising Testing Might Have Been, If We Had Only Known. Journal of Advertising Research, June, pp . 170-180 . Crisell, Andrew (1986) Understanding Radio . London, Methuen. Cronje, Johannes (2000) Paradigms Lost Towards Integrating Objectivism and Constructivism . Retrieved 07/05/2003 from the World Wide Web : http://it.coe .uga.edu/itform/paper48/paper48 .htm Crosier, K. (1983) Towards a Praxiology of Advertising . International Journal of Advertising, 2, pp. 215-32 . Culler, Jonathan (1976) Structuralist Poetics : Structuralism, Linguistics and the Study of Literature. New York: Cornell University Press . Culler, Jonathan (1983) Barthes. London, Fontera. Curd, Martin & Cover, J .A. (1998) Philosophy of Science, Norton and Co . New York/London . Daniels, K., de Chernatony, L . & Johnston, G. (1995) Validating a Method for Mapping Manager's Mental Models of Competitive Industry Structures . Human Relations, 48, (9), pp. 975-991 . Day, E. ; Stafford, M.R. & Camacho, A (1995) Opportunities for Involvement Research : A scale development approach . Journal of Advertising, 24 (Fall), 3, pp . 69- 75. Deighton, John, Henderson, Caroline M . & Neslin, Scott A . (1994) The Effects of Advertising on Brand Switching and Repeat Purchasing . Journal ofMarketing Research 31, pp. 24-43 . Deighton, John, McQueen, Josh & Romer, Daniel (1989) Using Drama to Persuade . Journal of Consumer Research 16, pp . 335-343 . Deighton, John (1985), Rhetorical Strategies in Advertising, in Advances in Consumer Research, 12, (eds.) Morris Holbrook and Elizabeth Hirschman, Ann Arbor, MI : Association for Consumer Research, pp . 432-436 . De Pelsmacker, P . & Geuens, M. (1998) Feelings Evoked by Warm, Erotic, Humorous or Non-Emotional Print Advertisements for Alcoholic Beverages . Academy of Marketing Science Review . Retrieved 22/08/2000 from the World Wide Web: http://www.amsreview.org/amsrev/theory/geuensOl-98 .html Derrida, J. (1984). Languages and the institutions of philosophy . Researches Semiotiques/Semiotic Inquiry, 4, pp. 91-154 . Derry & Potts (1998) How tutors model students : A study of personal constructs in adaptive tutoring. American Educational Research Journal 35 (1), pp. 65-99 . Dervin, B . & Frenette, M . (2001) Applying sense making methodology : Communicating communicatively with audiences as listeners, learners, teachers, confidantes, in R .E. Rice and C.K. Atkin (eds .), Public Communication Campaigns, Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage, pp . 69-87. Devoe, Merrill (1956) Effective Advertising Copy . New York, The MAcMillan Company. Diamantopoulos, Adamantios (2000) Getting Started with Data Analysis : Choosing the Right Method . The Marketing Review 1 (1), pp . 77-88 . Diamond, Daniel S (1968) A quantitative advertisement format selection . Journal of Advertising Research 5, pp . 376-86 . Dick, Penny & Jankowicz, Devi (2001) A social constructionist account of police culture and its influence on the representation and progression of female officers . Policing : An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 24 (2), pp. 181-199. Dillion, William R . ; Madden, Thomas J. & Firtle, Neil H. (1987) Marketing Research in a Marketing Environment, (Third Edition) Irwin : Illinois . Doty, D. Harold & Glick, William H. (1994) Typologies as a unique form of theory building: Toward improved understanding and modelling . Academy of Management Review 19 (2), pp . 230-250. Dubow, Joel S . (1994) Recall Redux . Journal of Advertising Research 35, (5), pp . 92- 108. Duck, S . (1994) Meaningful Relationships. London: Sage . Dunn, W.N. ; Cahill, A.G. ; Dukes, M .J. & Ginsberg (1986) The policy grid. A cognitive_ methodology for assessing policy dynamics, in W .N. Dunn (ed.), Policy Analysis: Perspectives, Concepts and Methods, JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp . 355- 375. Du Plessis, Erik (1994) Understanding and Using Likeability. Journal of Advertising Research 34 (5), pp.3-16. Durand, R.M., Guffey, H .J . & Planchon, J .M . (1983) An Examination of the Random versus Nonrandom Nature of Item Omissions. Journal of Marketing Research, 20, (August), pp . 305-13 . Durkheim, E (1893) The Division of Labour in Society . New York: Free Press . Dutton, J . E. ; Walton, E. J. & Abrahamson, E . (1989) Important dimensions of strategic issues : Separating the wheat from the chaff, Journal of Management Studies, 26, 4, pp. 379-396 . Dyer, Richard (1993) The Matter of Images : Essays on Representation . London: Routledge . Eagleton, T (1983) Literary Theory: An Introduction . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press . Easterby-Smith, M . (1980) The design, analysis and interpretation of repertory grids . International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 13, pp . 3-24 . Easthope, Gary & Rayner, Lisa (2001) Postmodern consumption and alternative medications . Journal of Sociology 37 (2), pp . 157-176 . Eco, Umberto (1965) Towards a semiotic inquiry into the television message, in Corner and Hawthorne (eds .), pp . 131-50 . Eco, Umberto (1973) Social life as a sign system, in Robey, D. (ed.), Structuralism : An Introduction, Clarendon Press, London . Eco, Umberto (1980) The Role of the Reader. London, Hutchinson . Eco, U. (1984). Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language . Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press . Edell, Julie E . & Staelin, Richard (1983) The Information Processing of Pictures in Print Advertisements . Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (June), pp. 45-61 . Edell, Julie E. & Burke, Marion C . (1987) The Power of Feelings in Understanding Advertising Effects . Journal of Consumer Research, 14, (December), pp . 421-33 . Edell, Julie E. & Burke, (1989) The Impact of Feelings on Ad-Based Affect and Cognition . Journal ofMarketing Research, 26, (February), pp . 69-83. Edell, Julie E. & Keller, Kevin L . (1989) The Information Processing of Coordinated Media Campaigns. Journal ofMarket Research, 26, (May), pp . 149-63 . Eden, C. & Spender, J .C. (eds.) (1998) Managerial and Organisational Cognition : Theory, Methods and Research . London: Sage. Ehrenberg, Andrew S . C. (2000) Repetitive Advertising and the Consumer . Journal of Advertising Research November/December 2000, pp . 39-48. Einstein, Albert (1945) The Meaning of Relativity. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. Elliot, P . (1974) Media organisations and occupations : an overview, in Curran, J ., Gurevitch, M. and Woollacott, J ., Culture, Society and the Media, London: Routledge . Elliot, Richard (1996) Discourse analysis : exploring action, function and conflict in social texts. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 14/6, pp . 65-68 . Elliot, Richard ; Goulding, Christina & Shankar, Avi (2001) Understanding Consumption: Contributions from a Narrative Perspective Journal of Marketing Management 17, pp. 429-453 . Ellis, J. (1992) Visible Fictions . London: Routledge . El-Murad, Jaafar & West, Douglas C . (2004) The Definition and Measurement of Creativity : What Do We Know? Journal ofAdvertising Research June 2004, pp . 188- 201 . Elpers, J.W. ; Mukherjee, Ashesh & Hoyer, Wayne D (2004) Humor in Advertising . Journal of Consumer Research, Gainesville: Dec 2004. Vol . 31, 3, pp . 592-9 . Ephron, Erwin (1999) Comments on the Lynch/Stipp Paper . Journal of Advertising Research May/June 1999, pp . 17-19. Epting, F . R ., Suchman, D . L, & Nickeson, K. J. (1971). An evaluation of elicitation procedures for personal constructs . British Journal of Psychology, 62, pp . 513-517 . Escalas, Jennifer Edson (1998) Advertising Narratives . What are they and how do they work? Representing Consumers, Routledge, London and New York, pp .267-288. Escalas, Jennifer Edson & Stern, Barbara B . (2003) Sympathy and Empathy : Emotional Responses to Advertising Dramas . Journal of Consumer Research 29 . Evans, William (1990) The Interpretive Turn in Media Research ; Innovation, Iteration or Illusion? Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7,(2), pp. 147-168 . Eves, Anmarie & Tom, Gail (1999) The Use of Rhetorical Devices in Advertising . Journal ofAdvertising Research 39 (4), pp. 39-43 . Feixas, G ., Saul, L. A., & Sanchez Rodriguez, V . (2000) . Detection and analysis of implicative dilemmas : Implications for the therapy process . In J. W. Scheer (Ed.), The person in society: Challenges to a constructivist theory, pp . 391-399 . Feixas, G ., Geldschlager, H . & Neimeyer, R .A. (2002) Content analysis of personal constructs . Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 15, pp . 1-19 . Feltham, T.S . (1994) Assessing Viewer Judgement of Advertisements and Vehicles : Scale Development and Validation . In C .T. Allen and D . Roedder-Jones (eds .), Advances in Consumer research, 21,Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, pp . 531-535 . Ferster, C.., Culbertson, S. & Boren, B . (1975) Behavioural Principlies, Behavioral Principles (Second Edition), Prentice-Hall . Feyeraband, P . (1975) Against Method: outline of an anarchistic theory of knowledge . New Left Books, London . Fill, Chris (2002) Marketing Communications: Contexts, Strategies and Applications (Third Edition) . Financial Times, Prentice Hall . Fish, Stanley (1980) Literature in the Reader : Affective Stylistics . in Reader- Response Criticism : From Formalism to Poststructuralism, (ed) Jane P . Tompkins, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press . Fish, Stanley (1989) Interpreting the Vaporium, in Contemporary Literary Criticism, Robert Con Davis and Ronald Schleifer (eds), New York : Longman, pp . 101-117 . Fisk, Raymond P. & Grove, Stephen J . (1996) Applications of impression management and the drama metaphor in marketing : an introduction . European Journal ofMarketing 30 (9), pp. 6-12 . Fiske, J. (1982) Introduction to Communication Studies . London, Methuen. Fiske, J. (1989) Reading Popular Culture. Boston, MD: Unwin Hyman . Fiske, J. (1990) Ethnosemiotics : Some personal and theoretical reflections . Cultural Studies, 4, (1), pp. 85-99 . Fiske, J. (1994) Media Matters : Everyday Culture and Political Change . Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota . Fjeld, S. P., & Landfield, A . W. (1961). Personal construct theory consistency . Psychological Reports, 8, pp . 127-129 . Fletcher, Alan D & Zeigler, SK (1978) Creative strategy and magazine readership . Journal ofAdvertising Research 18, pp . 29-33. Fletcher, W. (1990) The Management of Creativity . International Journal of Advertising, 9, (1), pp. 1-37 . Foucault, M . (1988) Politics and reason . In L .D. Kritzman (Ed .), Michel Foucault:Politics, philosophy, culture interviews and other writings . London, New York:Routledge, pp . 57-85 . Fowles, J . ,.(1996) Advertising and Popular Culture . Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Foxall, Gordon R. (2000) The contextual stance in consumer research . European Journal of Marketing 34 (7), pp. 768-779 . Foxall, Gordon & Szmigin, Isabelle (2000) Interpretive Consumer Research : How far have we come? Qualitive Market Research : An International Journal 3 (4), pp . 187- 197 . Fransella, F ., Bell, R. & Bannister, D . (2004) A Manual for Repertory Grids (Second Edition) . Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. Franzen, G . (1994) Advertising Effectiveness ; findings from empirical research. UK: NTC Publications Limited . Frazer, Charles C (1983) Creative strategy : A management perspective . Journal of Advertising 21 (4), pp . 36-41 . Freud, Sigmund (1904) On Psychotherapy . in The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud Volume XVI, London, Hogarth Press . Frith, Simon (1983) Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure and the Politics of Rock'n'roll . Constable, London . Gaines, Brian R . & Shaw, Mildred L . G. (1992) Kelly's "Geometry of Psychological Space" and its Significance for Cognitive Modeling . Retrieved 16/06/2003 from the World Wide Web: http://repRrid.com/reports/PSYCH/NewPsych92/index .html Gaines, Brian R . & Shaw, Mildred L . G. (1992) Comparing Constructions through the Web. Retrieved 17/06/2003 from the World Wide Web : http://ksi.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/articles/CSCL95WG / Gardner, M .P. (1985) Mood States and Consumer Behaviour : A Critical Review . Journal of Consumer Research, 12, (December), pp . 281-300 . Gaski, J .F. & Etzel, M.J . (1986) The Index of Consumer Sentiment Toward Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 50, pp . 71-81 . George, Jennifer M . (1989) Mood and Absence, Journal of Applied Psychology 74 (2), pp . 317-24. Gerbner, G . (1956) Toward a General Model of Communication . Audio-Visual Communication Review (4) pp . 171-99 . Gergen, K .J. (1982) Toward transformation in social knowledge . New York: Springer- Verlag. London : Sage. Gergen, K.J & Gergen, M.M. (1988) Narrative and the Self as Relationship . Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 1, pp .17-56 . Gibson, L. (1996) What Can One TV Exposure Do? Journal of Advertising Research, 36, pp . 9-17. Ginsberg, *A . (1989) Construing the business portfolio: A cognitive method of diversification . Journal of Management Studies, 26,(4), pp. 417-438 . Glaser, B .G. & Strauss, A .L. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory : Strategies for Qualitative Research. Aldine, Chicago, IL . Goffin, Keith (1994) `Understanding customers' views : An example of the use of repertory grid technique . Management Research News, 17, (10), pp. 17-24. Goldberg, M .E. & Gorn, G.J . (1987) Happy and Sad TV Programs : How They Effect Reactions to Commercials . Journal of Consumer Research, 14, December, pp. 387- 403 . Goleman, Daniel (1995) Emotional Intelligence : Why it can matter more than IQ . Bloomsbury, London . Goleman, Daniel (1998) Working with Emotional Intelligence . Bloomsbury, London. Goodwin, C . James (2003) Research in Psychology : Methods and Design (3rl Edition). John Wiley and SonsInc . Goodwin, A . & Whannel, G . (1990) Understanding Television . London: Routledge. Goulding, C . (2003) Issues in Representing the Postmodern Consumer . Qualitative Marketing Research : An International Journal, 6 (3) pp. 152-159 . Goulding, Christina & Shankar, Avi (2001) Interpretive Consumer Research : two more contributions to theory and practise . Qualitative Market Research : An International Journal 4 (1), pp. 7-16 . Gossage, Howard Luck (1994) Public Assessment of TV advertising : faint praise and harsh criticism Journal of Advertising Research 34 (1), pp . 35-53 . Grafton-Small, R, & S Linstead, S (1 .989) Advertisements as Artefacts : Everyday Understanding and the Creative Consumer . International Journal of Advertising . Gray, A. (1992) Video Playtime : The Gendering of a Leisure Technology. London : Routledge. Greenwald, Anthony G. & Leavitt, Clark (1984) Audience Involvement in Advertising : Four Levels . Journal of Consumer Research, 11, (February), pp . 581-92 . Grossberg, L. (1988) Wandering Audiences, Nomadic Critics . Cultural Studies, 2, (3), pp. 377-92 . Grunert, Klaus G. & Grunert, Suzanne C . (1995) Measuring subjective meaning structures by the laddering method : Theoretical considerations and methodological problems . International Journal in Marketing 12, pp . 209-225. Gummess®n, Evert (2001) Are current research approaches in marketing leading us astray . Marketing Theory Articles 1 (1), pp .27-48 . Gupta, A . & Ferguson, J . (1997) Anthropological Locations : Boundaries and Grounds ofa Field Science. Berkeley : University of California Press . Hackley, Christopher E . (1998) Social constructionism and research in marketing and advertising . Qualitative Market Research : An International Journal 1 (3), pp . 125- 131 . Hackley, Christopher E . (2001) Looking at me, looking at you : qualitative research and the politics of knowledge representations in advertising . Qualitative Market Research, 4, 1, pp. 42-53 . Hadley, Gregory Stuart (1996) Bridging the Cross-cultural gap with personal construct repertory grids . Retrieved 18/06/2003 from the World Wide Web : http://www.nuis .ac .jp/~hadley/publication/dissertation/dissertation .htm Haley, R.I. & Baldinger, A .L. (1991) The ARF Copy Research Project . Journal of Advertising Research, 31,2, pp . 11-32 . Hall, Bruce F . (2004) On Measuring the Power of Communications . Journal of Advertising Research June 2004, pp . 181-187 . Hall, Stuart (1974) Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse . Stencilled Paper, Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, pp . 128-38 . Hall, Stuart ; Hobson, Dorothy ; Lowe, Andrew & Willis, Paul (1980) Culture, Media, Language. London: Hutchinson . Halloran, J .D. (1977) Mass media effects : a sociological approach . Study Unit 7, OU : DE 353, Mass Communication and Society, Milton Keynes, Open University . Hallsworth A. G. (1988) . Repertory grid methodology and the analysis of group perceptions in retailing. International Journal of Retailing, 3(4), 43-54 . Harre, R. & Steams, P . (1995) Discursive psychology in practice. London: Sage. Hamel, Jacques (2001) The focus group method and contemporary French sociology . Journal of Sociology 37 (4), pp. 341-353 . Hartley, John (1982) Understanding News . London, Methuen. Hawkins, Scott A . & Hoch, Stephen J . (1992) Low-Involvement Learning : Memory Without Evaluation . Journal of Consumer Research 19, no . 2 (September), pp . 212- 225 Hergenhahn, B.R. & Olson, M.H. (1999) An Introduction to Theories of Personality, 5th Edition ., Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall Inc . Hermes, J. (1995) Reading Women's Magazines : An Analysis ofEveryday Media Use . Cambridge, Polity Press. Heyder, H. ; Musiol, K. and Peters, K . (1992) Advertising in Europe: Attitudes Towards Advertising in Certain Key West European Countries Marketing and Research Today . (March), pp. 58-67 . Heylighen F. (1993) Epistemology : An Introduction . Retrieved 04/05/2003 from the World Wide Web : http ://pespmc1 .vub.ac.be/EPISTEMI.html Hill, R.R. (1993) A Primer for Ethnographic Research with a focus on Social Policy Issues Involving Consumer Behaviour, in Advances in Consumer Research, 20, Leigh McAlister and Michael L. Rothschild (eds.), Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, pp . 224-230 . Hill, R.A. (1995) Content analysis for creating and depicting aggregated personal construct derived maps, in R .A. Neimeyer and G .J. Neimeyer(eds .), Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, Greenwich, CN : JAI Press, pp . 101-132 . Hillier, Yvonne (2002) Personal Construct Theory: A Popperian Approach . Karl Popper Conference 2002 : Vienna. Hinkle, D .N. (1965). The change of personal constructs from the viewpoint of a theory of implications . PhD Thesis . Ohio State University Hirschheim, Rudy & Zinkhan, George M . (1992) Truth in Marketing Theory and Research : An Alternative Perspective . Journal of Marketing 56 (2), pp. 80-89 . Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1986) Humanistic inquiry in marketing research : philosophy, method and criteria . Journal of Marketing, 23, pp.237-49 . Hirschman, Elizabeth C . & Holbrook, Morris B . (1982) Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods and Propositions . Journal of Marketing, 46, (Summer), pp.92-101 . Hjelle, L.A. & Ziegler, D .J. (1992) Personality Theories : Basic Assumptions, Research and Applications (4 th Edition) . McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Hobson, D. (1982) Crossroads : The Drama of a Soap Opera . London, Methuen. Holbrook, Morris B & Batra, Rajeev (1987) Assessing the Role of Emotions as Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising . Journal of Consumer Research, 14 December, pp . 404-420 . Holbrook, Morris B & Lehmann, Donald R (1980) Form versus content in predicting starch scores . Journal of Advertising Research 20 (4), pp . 53-62. Holland, N . (1975) Readers Reading. New Haven, CT : Yale University Press . Hollis, Nigel S . (1995) Like it or not, Liking is not Enough . Journal ofAdvertising Research September/October 1995, pp . 7-17. Holsti, O .R. (1968). Content analysis . In G. Lindzey & E . Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (2nd edition), 2, Reading, MA : Addison- Wesley, pp . 595- 692 . Hood, Stuart (1987) On Television . London, Pluto Press . Hopkinson, Gillan C . & Hogarth-Scott, Sandra (2001) "What happened was . . ." Broadening the Agenda for Storied Research . Journal of Marketing Management 17, pp . 27-47 . Hopper, Tim & Rossi, Tony (2001) Using personal construct theory and narrative methods to facilitate reflexive constructions of teaching physical education . Australian Educational Researcher, 12, November, pp . 35-43. Horley, J . (1991) Values and Beliefs as Personal constructs . International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology, 4, pp . 1-14 . Howard, Daniel J. & Sawyer, Alan G . (1991) Effects of Omitting Conclusions in Advertisements to Involved and Uninvolved Audiences . Journal of Marketing Research 28, pp. 467-74. Howard, J . Sheth, J (1969) The Theory of Buyer Behaviour. New York, John Wiley . Hunt, Shelby D ., Sparkman, R .D. & Wilcox, J.B. (1982) The Pretest in Survey Research : Issues and Preliminary Findings . Journal of Marketing Research, 19, (May), pp . 269-73. Hunt, Shelby D . (1994) On Rethinking Marketing : Our Discipline, Our Practice, Our Method. European Journal of Marketing 28 (3), pp . 13-25 . Hunter, M. G. (1997) The use of RepGrids to gather interview data about information systems analysts . Information Systems Journal, 7, pp. 67-81 . Hunter, M. Gordon & Tan, Felix B . (2002) The Repertory Grid Technique : A Method for the Study of Cognition in Information Systems . MIS Quarterly 26 (1), pp . 39-57 . Isaacs, William (1999) Dialogue and the Art of Thinking . Doubleday, Random House, New York. Icer, Wolfgang (1974) The Implied Reader . Baltimore : John Hopkins University Press. Iser, Wolfgang (1980) The reading process : A phenomenological approach . Reader- Response Criticism: From Formalism to Poststructuralism . Jane P . Tomkins (ed .), Baltimore : John Hopkins University Press, pp . 50-69. Jacoby, Jacob (1978) Consumer Research : A State of the Art Review, Journal of Marketing 42, pp.87-96 . James, M . (1995) An International Study on Attitudes to Advertising Proceedings of the 1995 Market Research Society Conference, Brighton, London : Market Research Society, pp . 15-22. James, W.L & Sonner, B . (2001) Just Say No to Traditional Student Samples . Journal of Advertising Research 41 (5), pp. 63-7 1 . Janiszewski, Chris & Warlop, L. (1993) The Influence of Classical Conditioning Procedures on Subsequent Attention to the Conditioned Brand . Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (September), pp . 171-59 . Jankowicz, Devi (1990). Applications of personal construct psychology in business practice. Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, pp . 257-287 Jankowicz, Devi (2004) The Easy Guide To Repertory Grids . John Wiley and Sons Ltd. ; Chichester, England. Jelinek, M . & Litterer, J .A. (1994) Toward a Cognitive Theory of Organisations, in Advances in Managerial Cognition and Organisational Information Processing, C . Stubbart, J.R. Meindl and J . F. Porac (eds .), JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp . 3-41 . Jensen, K.B . (1990) Television Futures . Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7, (2), pp. 1-18. Jensen, K.B . (1995) The Social Semiotics of Mass Communication, London : Sage . Johar, J.S . ; Shavitt, Sharon & Sirgy, M. (1992) Evidence for Predicting the Effectiveness of Value-Expressive versus Utilitarian Appeals : A Reply to Johar and Sirgy; Comment Journal ofAdvertising 21 (2) . Johnstone, B . (2002) Discourse Analysis. Oxford, Blackwell . Jorgensen, Peter F.; Levinson, David & Ponzetti Jr, James J . (1999) Advertising Encyclopaedia of Human Emotions . Macmillan References USA: New York, pp . 17- 24. Judkins, M . (1976) Introspective dialogue technique . Unpublished manuscript, Royal Free Hospital, in Fransella, F ., Bell, R. & Bannister, D . (2004) A Manual for Repertory Grid Technique,Wiley and Sons, London . Kamp, Edward & Macinnis, Deborah J . (1995) Characteristics of Portrayed Emotions in Commercials : When Does What is Shown in Ads Affect Viewers? Journal of Advertising Research, (November/December), pp . 19-28 . Kandel, Eric R .; Schwartz, James H . and Jessell, Thomas M . (2000) Introduction to Language, Thought, Mood and Learning and Memory. Principles of Neural Science, (Fourth Edition), McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY Kassarjian, Harold H . (1981) Low involvement-a second look, in Advances in Consumer Research, Kent B . Munroe (ed), 8, Ann Arbor, Michigan : Association for Consumer Research, pp . 31-34. Katz, D. (1960) The Functional Approach to the study of Attitudes . Public Opinion Quarterly, 24 . Katz, E., Gurevitch, M. & Haas, H . (1973) On the uses of the mass media for important things . American Sociological Review, 38, pp . 164-181 . Keller, Kevin Lane (1987) Memory Factors in Advertisng : the Effect of Advertising Retrieval Cues on Brand Evaluations, Journal of Consumer Research 14, pp . 316-33 . Kelly, G .A. (1955) The Psychology of Personal Constructs, Vol 1 ; A Theory of Personality. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc . Kinnear, Thomas C . and Taylor, James R . (1996) Marketing Research : An Applied Approach. McGraw-Hill Inc . Kirson, Donald ; O'Connor, Cary; Schwartz, Judith & Shaver, Philip (1987) Emotion Knowledge: Further Exploration of a Prototype Approach . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (6), pp. 1061-1086 . Kitchen, Philip J. & Spickett-Jones, Graham (2003) Information processing : a critical literature review and future research directions . International Journal of Market Research 45, pp. 73-98 . Klein, D.M. & Lewis, R .C . (1985) Personal construct theory : a foundation for deriving tangible surrogates in services marketinf, in T. Bloch (ed .) Proceeding Series, Services Marketing in a Changing Environment, AMA, pp . 107-1 l . Kluge, Susan (2000) Empirically Grounded Construction of Types and Typologies . Qualitative Social Research, Forum : Qualitative Social Research (On-line Journal) 1 (1), pp . 1-9 . Koslow, Scott ; Riordan, Edward A . & Sasser, Sheila L . (2003) What is Creative to Whom and Why? Perceptions in Advertising Agencies . Journal of Advertising Research March 2003, pp . 96-110 . Kosslyn, S .M. (1994) Mental Imagery. Issues in Cognitive Modelling . Hove, East Sussex: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp .54-68 . Kover, Arthur J. (1995) Copywriters Implicit Theories of Communication : An Exploration. Journal of Consumer Research 21, pp . 596-611 . Kover, Arthur J . & Abruzzo, Joseph (1993) The Rossiter-Percy Grid and Emotional Response to Advertising : An Initial Evaluation . Journal ofAdvertising Research November/ December 1993, pp. 21-27. Dover, Arthur J . ; Goldberg, Stephen M . & James, William L . (1995) Creativity vs . Effectiveness? An integrating Classification for Advertising . Journal of Advertising Research November/ December 1995, pp. 29-39. Dover, Arthur J. ; James, William L . & Sonner, Brenda S . (1997) To whom do Advertising Creatives Write? An Inferential Answer . Journal ofAdvertising Research January/ February, pp . 41-53. Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy & Sivaraman, Anuradha (2002) Counterfactual Thinking and Advertising Responses Journal of Consumer Research 28, pp . 650-658 . Kristeva, Julie (1980) Desire in Language : A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. New York, Columbia University Press . Krugman, Herbert E . (1965) The Impact of Television Advertising : Learning Without Involvement. Public Opinion Quarterly, 29 (Fall), pp . 349-56 . Krugman, Herbert E (1967) The Measurement of Advertising Involvement . Public Opinion Quarterly, 30, (Winter), pp. 583-96 . Krugman, Herbert E (1972) Why Three Exposures May Be Enough . Journal of Advertising Research, 12, (November/December), pp . 11-14. Kuhn, Thomas S . (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. Kuhn, Thomas S. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . 2nd Edition University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL . LaBarbera, Priscilla A. ; Weingard, Peter & Yorkston, Eric A . (1998) Marching the Message to the Mind : Advertising Imagery and Consumer processing Styles . Journal of Advertising Research September/October 1998, pp . 29-43 . Lacan, J. (1977) The function and field of speech and language, in Ecrits : A Selection . London, Tavistock . Lacey, Nick (2000) : Narrative and Genre. Key Concepts in Media Studies, Houndmills : Macmillan. Landfield, A. W. (1971) . Personal Construct Systems in Psychotherapy . Chicago : Rand-McNeIIy . Laskey, Henry A; Day, Ellen, & Crask, Melvin R (1989) Typology of main message strategies for television commercials . Journal of Advertising 18 (1) pp . 36-41 . Laskey, Henry A. & Crask, Melvin R . (1990) A Positioning-based Decision Model for Selecting Advertising Messages . Journal of Advertising Research August/September 1990, pp . 32-38 . Laskey, Henry A; Fox, Richard J & Crask, Melvin R (1994) Investigating the impact of executional style on television commercial effectiveness Journal of Advertising Research 34 (6), pp . 9-16 . Laskey, Henry A; Fox, Richard J . & Crask, Melvin R . (1995) The Relationship between Advertising Message Strategy and Television Commercial Effectiveness . Journal of Advertising Research March/April 1995, pp . 35-39. Laskey, Henry A. ; Nicholls, J .A.F. & Seaton, Bruce (1994) Effects of Strategy and Pictures in Travel Agency Advertising . Journal of Travel Research Spring 1994, pp. 13-19. Lasswell, H .D . (1948) The structure and function of communication in society, in Bryson, (ed.), The Communication of Ideas, New York: Harper and Brothers . Lastovicka, John L. (1983) Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Television Commercial Rating Scales . Journal of Advertising, 12 (2), pp . 14-23 . Latta, G .F. & Swigger, K. (1992) Validation of the Repertory Grid for use in Modelling Knowledge. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, (2), March, pp .-115-129. Laurent, G. & Kapferer, J . (1985) Measuring Consumer Involvement Profiles . Journal of Marketing Research, 22, pp . 41-53 . Lavidge, R . and Steiner, G . (1961) `A Model For Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness' , Journal of Marketing, 25,(6), pp . 59-62 . Lawson, Robert & Martin, Brett (1998) Mood and Framing Effects in Advertising . Australian Marketing Journal 6 (1), pp . 35-50 . Lawson, Rob ; Todd, Sarah & Boshoff, Christo (2001) Relationships Between Consumer Sentiment Towards Marketing and Consumer Lifestyles. Australasian Marketing Journal 9 (2), pp . 7-22 . Lazarsfeld, Paul F. (1937) Some Remarks on the Typological Procedures in Social Research . The Policy Sciences, Stanford University Press . Leavitt, Clark & McEwen, Willam J . (1976) A Way to Describe TV Commercials . Journal of Advertising Research 16 (6), pp . 35-39 . Leach, C . (1980) Direct Analysis of a Repertory Grid . Recent Advances in Personal Construct Technology, M . Shaw (ed.), Academic Press, London. Leavitt, C . (1970) A Multidimensional Set of Rating Scales for Television Commercials . Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 54 (5) . Lee, Barbara & Lee, Robert S . (1995) How and why people watch TV: Implications for the future of Interactive Television. Journal of Advertising Research November/December 1995, pp . 9-28 . Lee, Jungwoo & Truex, Duane P (2000) Cognitive Complexity and Methodical Training: Enhancing or Suppressing Creativity. Proceedings of the 33 rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences . Lemert, J.B . (1989) Criticising the Media: Empirical Approaches, Newbury Park, CA: Sage . Levi-Strauss, C . (1966) The Savage Mind . Chicago : Chicago University Press . Levi-Strauss, C . (1967) The Scope of Anthropology . Jonathan Cape, London Levi-Strauss, C . (1967) The Structural Study of Myth . Routledge & Degan Paul, London. Lewis, P.M. & Booth, J . (1989) The Invisible Medium . London, MacMillan . Liebes, T . (1984) Ethnocriticism : Negotiating the Meaning of Dallas . Studies in Visual Communication, 10, (3), pp. 46-72 . Lilien, GL & Rangaswamy A . (1998) Marketing Engineering; Computer-Assisted Marketing Analysis and Planning, Addison-Wesley, Inc . Lloyd, G .E.R. (1996) Polarity and analogy . Cambridge, Cambridge University Press . Lipkin A .I. (1994) Permissible Boundaries in the Development of the Natural Sciences. Phistech-Journal 1 (3), pp. 85-96 . Losee, John (2002) A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science . (Fourth Edition) Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York . Louden D.L. & Della Bitta, A .J. (1993) Consumer Behaviour (Fourth Edition), McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Lucas, D.B . & Britt, S .H. (1963) Measuring Advertising Effectiveness . McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963 . Lull, J. (1980) The Social Uses of Television . Human Communication Research, 4, (3), pp. 197-209 . Lull, J. (1990) Inside Family Viewing : Ethnographic Research on Television's Audiences. London: Routledge. Luo, Xueming (2002) Uses and Gratifications Theory and E-Consumer Behaviours : A Structural Equation Modeling Study . Journal of Interactive Advertising 2 (2), pp. 1-13 . Lutz, Richard J . (1985) Affective and Cognitive Antecedents of Attitude towards the Ad: A Conceptual Framework, in Psychological Processess and Advertising Effects : Theory, Research and applications . Linda A. Alwitt and Andrew A . Mitchell (eds), Hillsdale, NJ :Erlbaum Associates, pp . 45-63 . Lutz, Richard J . & Moore, Elizabeth S . (2000) Children, Advertising, and Product Experiences : A Multimethod Inquiry . Journal of Consumer Research 27, pp . 31-48 . Lynch, Kate & Stipp, Horst (1999) Examination of Qualitative Viewing Factors for `Optimal Advertising Strategies' . Journal of Advertising Research May/June, pp .7-16. Lyotard, J . (1984) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press . Lysende & Keane (2000) Knowledge : Propositions and Images . Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook, Psychology Press, pp. 252-257 . MacCabe,Colin (1976) Principles of Realism and Pleasure . Screen, 19, 4, p .13 . Macinnis, Deborah J . & Jaworski, Bernard J . (1989) Infoiniation Processing from Advertisements : Toward an Integrative Framework . Journal of Marketing, 53 (October) pp . 1-23. Macinnis, Deborah ; Christine Moorman, & Bernard J . Jaworski (1991) Enhancing and Measuring Consumers' Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability to Process Brand Information From Ads . Journal of Marketing 55 (October), pp . 32-51 . Machleit & Wilson (1988) Cognitive and effective priming effect . Journal of advertising 19, (2) . Mackenzie, S .B ., Lutz, R .J. & Belch, G.E. (1986) The Role of Attitude towards the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness . Journal of Marketing Research, 23, (May), pp . 130-143 . Macklin, Carole M (1988) The Relationship between advertising and children's responses : An experimental investigation. S . Hecker and DW Stewart (eds.), Nonverbal Communication in Advertising Lexington, M.A. : Lexington Books, pp . 226-251 . Madden, Thomas J . & Weinberger, Marc G . (1984) Humor in Advertising : A Practioner View . Journal of Advertising Research, 24, (August/September),4, pp .23- 26. Maher, B . (1969) Clinical Psychology and Personality: The Selected Papers of George Kelly. New York: John Wiley & Son, Inc . Malhotra, N .K. (1993) Marketing Research : An Applied Orientation . Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London . Mandler, J.M. (1984) Stories, scripts and scenes : Aspects of schema theory . Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. Marsden, David & Littler, Dale (2000) Repertory grid technique-An interpretive research framework . European Journal of Marketing 34 (7) pp . 816-834 . Marsden, David & Littler, Dale (2000) Exploring consumer product construct systems with the repertory grid technique . Qualitative Market Research : An International Journal 3 (3), pp. 127-144 . Martin, Brett (1997) Mood and Framing Effects in Advertising . PhD Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand . Martin, Brett ; Bhimy, A .C. & Agee, T. (2002) Infomercials and Advertising Effectiveness : an empirical study. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19, (6), pp. 468- 480. Martindale, C . (1999) Biological Bases of Creativity, in Handbook of Creativity, R .J . Sternberg (ed.), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press . Maslow, A . H. (1948) Higher and Lower Needs . Journal of Psychology, 25, pp . 433- 36. May, John (1979) Marketing research : illuminating neglected areas . Journal of the Market Research Society 23 (3), pp. 127-136 . Maybury-Lewis, D. & Almagor, U . (1989) (eds.), The Attraction of Opposites. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press . Mayer, Charles S. & Piper, Cindy (1982) A Note on the Importance of Lay-out in Self administered Questionnaires, Journal of Marketing Research 19, pp . 390-1 . Maykut, P . & Morehouse, R . (1994) Beginning Qualitative Research : A Philosophic and Practical Guide . The Farmer Press, London . McCracken, G . (1988) The Long Interview, Qualitative Research Methods, Series 13 . Sage Publications . McGuire, W .J. (1978) `An Information-Processing Approach to Advertising', in H . Davis and A.J. Silk (eds) The Behavioral and Management Sciences in Marketing . New York: Ronald Press . McGuire, William J . (2000) Standing on the Shoulders of Ancients : Consumer Research, Persuasion, and Figurative Language . Journal of Consumer Research, 27, pp. 109-114 . McKinney, John C (1969) Typification, typologies and sociological theory. Social Forces 48 (1), pp . 1-12 . McQuail D . (1969) Uncertainty about the Audience and the Organisation of Mass Communication . in Halmos P. ed., The Sociology of Mass Media Communicators, The Sociology Review Monograph, 13, January, pp . 17-25 . McQuail D. & Windahl S . (1981), Communication Models for the study of mass communications . New York: Longman. McQuail, D. (1984) With the benefit of hindsight : reflections on uses and gratifications research. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 1, (2) . McQuarrie, Edward F . (1998) Have Laboratory Experiment Become Detached from Advertiser Goals? A Meta-Analysis . Journal of Advertising Research November/ December, pp . 15-25. McQuarrie, Edward F & Mick, David Glen (1992) On Resonance: A Critical Pluralistic Inquiry into Advertising. Journal of Consumer Research 19 (2), pp. 180- 197. McQuarrie, Edward F & Mick, David Glen (1996) Figures of Rhetoric in Advertising Language . Journal of Consumer Research, 22, (March), pp. 424-438 . McQuarrie, Edward F . & Mick, David Glen (1999) Visual Rhetoric in Advertising : Text Interpretive, Experimental, and Reader- Response Analyses . Journal of Consumer.Research 26 . McQuarrie, Edward F & Mick, David Glen (2003) Visual and Verbal Rhetorical Figures under Directed Processing versus Incidental Exposure to Advertisng . Journal of Consumer Research, 29, (March), pp . 579-588 . Mehta, Abilasha (2000) Advertising Attitudes and Advertising Effectiveness . Journal of Advertising Research 40 (3), pp. 67-72 . Metz, Christian (1974) Film Language . New York, Oxford University Press . Meyers-Levy, Joan & Malaviaya, Prashant (1999) Consumers' Processing of Persuasive advertisements : Ana Integrative Framework of Persuasion Theories, Journal ofMarketing 63, pp. 45-60. Mick, David G . (1986) Consumer research and semiotics : Exploring the morphology of signs, symbols, and significance . Journal of Consumer Research 13 (September), pp. 196-213 Mick, David Glen & Politi, Laura G . (1989) Consumer' Interpretations of Advertising Imagery: A Visit to the Hell of Connatation, in Interpretive Consumer Research, Elizabeth C . Hirschman (ed.), Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, pp . 85-96. Mick, David Glen & Buhl, C . (1992) A Meaning-based Model of Advertising Experiences . Journal of Consumer Research, 19, December, pp . 317-338 . Mick, David Glen ; Burroughs, James E . ; Hetzel, Patrick & Brannen, Mary Yoko (1999) A Global Review of Semiotic Consumer Research : Progress, Problems, and Prospects . Working Paper, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Business . Miller, Stephen & Berry, Lisette (1998) Brand salience versus brand image : Two theories of advertising effectiveness . Journal of Advertising Research, September/October 38 (5), pp . 77-83. Miller, Jacques-Alain; Oudart, Jean-Pierre & Heath, Stephen (1977) Dossier on Suture . Screen 18, 4 . Mitchell, A. (1978) Involvement : a potentially important mediator of consumer behaviour, in Wilkie (ed), Advances in Consumer Research, 6, Ann Arbor, Association for Consumer Research, pp . 191-196 . Mitchell, Andrew A . & Olson, Jerry C . (1981) The Dimensions of Advertising Involvement, in Advances in Consumer Research, 8, K . Monroe (ed), Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, pp . 25-30. Mittal, Banwari (1989) Measuring Purchase Decision Involvement . Psychology and Marketing, 6, (2), pp. 147-62. Mittal, Banwari (1994) Public assessment of TV advertising : faint praise and harsh criticism . Journal of Advertising Research 34 (1), pp. 35-54. Moldovan, _ S .E. (1985) Copy Factors Related to Persuasion Scores . Journal of Advertising Research, 24, (6). Moore, D.L. & Hutchinson, J .W. (1985) The Influence of Affective Reactions to Advertising, in L. Alwitt and A .A. Mitchell (eds) Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects, Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum, pp . 65-87 . Morley, D. (1980) The Nationwide Audience . London, British Film Institute . Morley, D. (1986) Family Television : Cultural Power and Domestic Leisure . London, Comedia. Morley, D. (1992) Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. London: Routledge . Morley, D. (1992) Populism, Revisionism and the 'New' Audience Research . Poetics: Journal of Empirical Research on Literature, the Media and the Arts, 2, 4, pp . 329- 44. Morley, David (1999) : 'To boldy go' ....The 'Third Generation' of Reception Studies . In Rethinking the Media Audience, ed., Alasuntari, Pertti, Sage, London, pp . 195-207 . Mostyn, S . (1994) How recruitment consultants view their clients, unpublished MBA dissertation, University of Central England Business School, Birmingham . Moynihan, T. (1996). An Inventory of Personal Constructs for Information Systems Project Risk Researchers . Journal of Information Technology, (11), pp. 359-371 . Mulvey, Laura (1975) Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Screen, 16, (3) . Muncy, J.A . (1990) Involvement and Perceived Brand Similarities/Differences : The Need for Process Oriented Models . In R. Pollay and G .J. Gorn (eds) Advances in Consumer Research, 17 Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, pp . 144-148 . Neale, Steve (1993) The Same Old Story : Stereotypes and Difference . In The Screen Education Reader, Manuel Alvarado, Edward Buscombe & Richard Collins (eds.), London: Macmillan, pp . 41-7 . Negus, Keith (1992) Producing Pop : Culture and Conflict in the Popular Music Industry. London, Edward Arnold. Neimeyer, G.J. (1985) The development of personal construct psychology . Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Neimeyer, G.J. (1993) Constructivist Assessment . New York, NJ: Sage . Neuendorf, K .A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook . Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage . Nunan, D . (1992) Research Methods in Language Learning . Cambridge University Press. Obermiller, Carl & Spangenberg, Eric (1998) Development of a Scale to Measure Skepticism Toward Advertising . Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7, (2), pp . 159- 186. O'Donohoe, Stephanie (1992) Towards an understanding of advertising involvement? in K. Grgnertand D . Fulgede(eds) Marketing for Europe- Marketing for the Future . Proceedings of the European Marketing Academy Conference, Aarhus : European Marketing Academy, pp . 905-924 . O'Donohoe, Stephanie (1994) Advertising Uses and Gratifications', European Journal of Marketing 28 (8/9) pp. 52-75 . O'Donohoe, Stephanie (2001) Living with ambivalence : Attitudes to advertising in postmodern times . Marketing Theory Articles 1 (1), pp . 91-108 . O'Donohoe, Stephanie & Tynan Caroline (1998), Beyond Sophistication : Dimensions of Advertising Literacy . International Journal of Advertising, 17, (4), pp . 467-82 . Ogilvy, D . & Raphaelson, J . (1982) Research on advertising techniques that work and don't work. Harvard Business Review, Volume 60, July/August . Ogilvy, D. (1983) Ogilvy on Advertising . London: Orbis. Olney, Thomas J. Batra; Rajeev & Holbrook, Morris B . (1991) Consumer Responses to Advertising : The Effects of Ad Content, Emotions, and Attitude toward the Ad on Viewing Time. Journal of Consumer Research 17, pp. 440-453 . Olson, D.R. (1990) Thinking about Narrative . In B .K. Britton and A .D. Pelligrini (eds) Narrative Thought and Narrative Language, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp .99-112 Oplatka, Izhar (2001) Building a Typology of Self-Renewal : Reflection Upon-Life Story Research, The Qualitative Report, December 6 (4). Osborn, A .F. (1922) A Short Course in Advertising . New York : Scribner's Sons . O'Sullivan, T, Hartley, J, Saunders, D . & Fiske, J. (1998) Key Concepts in Communication, London : Routledge . Palmer, John & Riley, Stuart (1972) Of attitudes and latitudes : a repertory grid study of perceptions of seaside resorts . Journal of the Market Research and Society 17 (2) pp . 74-89. Papasolomou-Doukakis, Joanna ; Proctor, Stella & Proctor, Tony (2001) What are television advertisements really trying to tell us? A postmodern perspective . Journal of Consumer Behaviour 1 (3), pp. 246-255 . Parente, D . (2004) Advertising Campaign Strategy . Southwestern, Thomson, Ohio . Park, C. & Young, M. (1986) Consumer response to television commercials : the impact of involvement and background music, on brand attitude formation . Journal of Consumer Research, 10, pp . 135-146 . Rea, L.M. .. & Parker, R .A. (1992) Designing and Conducting Survey Research : A ComprehensiveGuide . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers . Parkin, F . (1972) Class, Inequality and Political Order . London, Paladin . Patterson, Maurice & O'Malley, Lisa (2000) The Evolution of the Direct Marketing Consumer. The Marketing Review 1 (1), pp . 89-102. Patterson, Maurice & Shankar, Avi (2001) Interpreting the Past, Writing the Future', Journal of Marketing Management 17, pp . 481-501 . Pechmann, Cornelia & Stewart, David W . (1988) Advertising Repetition : A Critical Review of Wear-in and Wear-out . Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 11 (2), 285-329. Peirce, C .S. (1991). Peirce on Signs . James Hoopes, (ed.), Chapel Hill NC : University of N. Carolina Press . Pennington, N. (1992) Explaining the Evidence : Tests of the Story Model, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 2, pp . 189-206 . Perse, Elizabeth M . (1990), Audience selectivity and involvement in the newer media environment . Communication Research, 17, 5, pp . 675-97. Peter, J . Paul (1979) Reliability : A Review of Psychometric Biases and Recent Marketing Practices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, (4), pp. 670- 81 . Peter, J . Paul (1981) Construct Validity : A Review of Basic Issues and Marketing Practices . Journal of Marketing Research, 18, (May), pp . 133-45 . Peter, J. Paul (1992) Realism or Relativism for Marketing Theory an||en_NZ|
Files in this item
There are no files associated with this item.
This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.
If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.
If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.