Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorRountree, Janeten_NZ
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:16:51Z
dc.date.copyright2004-01en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationRountree, J. (2004, January). A framework for virtual artifacts: Digital images as teaching tools in classical art (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1473en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/1473
dc.description.abstractThis thesis explores the problem of how to present digital images of ancient artifacts in a manner that supports the task of visual analysis. The real object presents the "truth”: exact scale, colour, and fine details. An original work of art provides the viewer with the opportunity to react directly with the object, is closest to the impact intended by the artist, and provides a tangible physical link with the past. Digital images limit and alter the experience of a work of art (1) with regard to the amount of data available (resolution), and (2) through the interpretation of the object by the producers the digital copy (mediation). A new framework is developed to improve the understanding and presentation of virtual artifacts. This Fidelio-Mediation framework provides a continuum for considering the effects of design strategies on media used in teaching Classical archaeology. Two small-scale experiments and follow-up interviews were undertaken to assess the usefulness of the Fidelity-Mediation framework as a descriptive model. During the experiments, quantitative analysis could detect no statistical difference in the effectiveness of different types of presentation (real object, VR object, and still digital images). This is a surprising result as it might be expected that there is nothing like seeing the real thing. Digital images provide less visual integrity. However, the digitised artifacts make up for the loss of excitement and authenticity by providing the advantage of mediated focus. Digitised artifacts thus turn out to be useful, effective study tools in the analysis of Classical art. Findings from this research are expected to generalise only to learning situations which support task orientation-situations conducive to developing personal skills and mastery-in contrast to performance orientation where the goal is to display performance relative to others. The distinction between task orientation and performance orientation is discussed in Chapter Eight of this thesis.en_NZ
dc.subjectdigital imagesen_NZ
dc.subjectancient artifactsen_NZ
dc.subjectvisual analysisen_NZ
dc.subjectresolutionen_NZ
dc.subjectinterpretationen_NZ
dc.subjectmediationen_NZ
dc.subjectFidelio-Mediation frameworken_NZ
dc.subjectClassical archaeologyen_NZ
dc.subjectFidelity-Mediation framework, real objecten_NZ
dc.subjectVR objecten_NZ
dc.subjectstill digital imagesen_NZ
dc.subjectdigitised artifactsen_NZ
dc.subjectmediated focusen_NZ
dc.subjectClassical arten_NZ
dc.subjectlearningen_NZ
dc.subjecttask orientation-situationsen_NZ
dc.subjectperformance orientationen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshT Technology (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshQ Science (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshCC Archaeologyen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshD051 Ancient Historyen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshAM Museums (General). Collectors & collecting (General)en_NZ
dc.titleA framework for virtual artifacts: Digital images as teaching tools in classical arten_NZ
dc.typeThesisen_NZ
dc.description.versionUnpublisheden_NZ
otago.bitstream.pages15en_NZ
otago.date.accession2006-09-15en_NZ
otago.schoolInformation Scienceen_NZ
thesis.degree.disciplineInformation Scienceen_NZ
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen_NZ
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Otagoen_NZ
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral Thesesen_NZ
otago.interloanyesen_NZ
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
dc.identifier.eprints395en_NZ
otago.school.eprintsInformation Scienceen_NZ
dc.description.referencesAnderson, J. M. (1955). Greek Vases in the Otczgo Museum. Otago Museum Handbook No. 2. Dunedin, New Zealand: Coulls Somerville Wilkie Ltd. Apple Computer, Inc. (2002). QuickTime VR. http://developer.apple.corn/documentation/QuickTime/19sideQTTQTVR. Amheim, R. (1970). Visual Thinking. London: Faber and Faber. Avgerinou, M. and Ericson, J. (1 997). A Review of the Concept of Visual Literacy. British Journal of Educational Technology, 28(4). Bardes, C. L., Gillers, D., and Herman, A. E. (2001). Learning to Look: developing Clinical Observational Skills at an Art Museum. Medical E'ucation, 35, 1 157-1 16 1. Baxandall, M. (1995). Patterns of lntention. London: Yale University Press. Biers, W. R. (1992). Art, Artefacts, and Chronology in Classical Archaeology. London: Routledge. Biocca, F. and Kim, T. (1995). The Vision of Virtual Reality. In F. Biocca and M. R. Levy (Eds.), Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality, 3-14. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Boardman, J. (1 995). Greek Sculpture: The Late Classical Period. London: Thames and Hudson. Boardman, J. (1996). Greek Art (fourth, revised and expanded ed.). London: Thames Hudson. Brittain, M., Chambers, M., and Marriott, E? (1998). Design Considerations in the Development and Delivery of Digital Learning Media. In ED-MEDIA, 238-242. Brunner, J. (1975). Shockwave Rider. New York: Harper and Row. Bryson, N. (1983). Esion and Painting: The Logic of the Gaze. Hong Kong: MacMillan Press. Chavez, R. E (2000). Generating and Reintegrating Geospatial Data. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, San Antonio, Texas, 252-253. Clark, S., Ng, B. P., and Wong, W B. L. (2000). QTVR Support for Teaching Operative Procedures in Dentistry. In S. McDonald, U. Waren, and G. Cockton (Eds.), People and Computers XIV: Usability or Else, Proceedings of Human Computer Interaction 2000, 287-298. Springer. Coates, G. (1992). Program from Invisible Site-a virtual sho. A multimedia performance work presented by George Coates Performance Works, San Francisco, CA. Collins, A. (1991). Cognitive Apprenticeship and Instructional Technology. In L. Idol and B. E Jones (Eds.), Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction: Implications for Reform, 12 1-1 38. Lawerence Erlbaum Associates. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., and Hollum A, . (1991). Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible. American Educator, 6(11), 38-46. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., and Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching the Crafts of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), &owing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert (;laser, 453494. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cook, A. B. (1 941). A New Metope frorn the Parlhenon. Journal of Hellenic Studies, LXI, 6-13. Cook, R. M. (1997). Greek Painted Pottery (third ed.). London: Routledge. Covington, M. V: (2000). Goal Theory, Motivation, and School Achievement: An Integrative Review. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 17 1-200. Covington, M. V. and Mueller, K. J. (2001). Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation: An Approach/Avoidance Reformulation. Educational Psychology Review, 13(2), 157-17 6. Crane, G. (2001). Building a Hypertextual Digital Library in the Humanities: A Case Study on London. In Proceedings of the First ACM and I E Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, Roanoke, VA, 426434. Cupchik, G. C. (1999). The Thinking-I and the Being-I in the Psychology of the Arts, Creativity Research Journal, 12(3), 165-1 73. Cupitt, J., Marlinez, M., and Saunders, D. (1996). A Methodology for Art Reproduction in Colour: The MARC Project. Computers and the History ofArt, 6(2), 1-19, Debes, J. and Williams, C. M. (1978). Visual Literacy, Languaging and Learning. Gallaudet College, Washington D.C.: Center for Visual Literacy. DeLong, M. R. (1987). The 1"Vny We Look: A framework for Visual Analysis of Dress. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Douglas J, D . (1985). Creative Interviewing. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications. Duensing, S. (2002). The Object of Experience. In S. C. Paris (Ed.), Perspectives on Object- Centered Learning in Museums, 35 1-363. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Eby, D. W. and Braunstein, M. L. (1995). The Perceptual Flattening of Three-Dimensional Scenes Enclosed by a Frame. Perception, 24,981-993. Eiteljorg, H. (1995). Virtual Reality and Rendering. CSA Newsletter, 7(4). http://www.csanet.org/newsletter/feb95/n1029508~html. Eiteljorg, H. (1998). Photorealistic Visualizations May Be Too Good. CSA Newsletter, 11(2). http://csanet.org/newsEetter/fall98/nEf9804.html. Fernie, E. (1995). Art History and its Methods. Hong Kong: Phaidon. Fontana, A. and Frey, J. H. (2000). The Interview: From Structured Questions to Negotiated Text. In N. K. Denzin and U. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, 645- 672. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Frost, C. 0. (2002). When the Object is Digital: Properties of Digital Surrogate Objects and Implications for Learning. In S. G. Paris (Ed.), Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums, 79-94. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Gibson, J. J. (1971). The Information Available in Pictures. Leonardo, 4, 24-35. Gibson, W. (1984). Neuromancer. New Vork: Ace Books. Grau, 0 . (1999). Into the Belly of the Image. Leonardo, 32(5), 365-371. Greenhalgh, N. (1978). The Classical Tradition in Art. London: Duckworth. Gregory, R. L. (1970). The Intelligent Eye. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. Gunkel, D. (2000). Rethinking Virtual Reality: Simulation and the Deconstruction of the Image. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 67(1), 45-62. Haanstra, E (1996). Effects of Art Education on Visual-Spatial Ability and aesthetic Perception: A Quantitative Review. Studies in Art Ed~~catio3n7, (4). Hamitt, F: (1993). Virtual Reality and the Exploration of Cyberspace. Sams Publishing. Hedberg, J. (1994). Virtual Reality in Education: Defining Researchable Issues. Educational Media International, 3 1 (4), 2 14-220. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. D., and Smaldino, S. E. (1999). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning (sixth ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Hill, Jr., F: S. (2001). Computer Graphics Using Open GL (second ed.)., Chapter 8: Rendering Faces for Visual Realism. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Hornblower, S. and Spawforlh, A. (Eds.) (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (third ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. Wurlbert, A. (1998)- Illusions and Reality-Checking on the Small Screen. Perception, 27, 633-636. Jacobson, L. (1993). Welcome to the Virtual World. In R. I(. Swadley (Ed.), On the Cutting Edge o f Technology. Sams Publishing. Johnson, C. W. (1998). Evaluating the Contribution of Desktop VR to Computer Aided Learning. In 6. Hand, H. Istance, K. Kaur, A. Steed, and J. Tromp (Eds.), Workshop on Usability Evaluation for Virtual Environments, 69-78. Jonassen, D. and Tessmer, M. (1996-1997). An Outcomes-Based Taxonomy for Instructional Systems Design, Evaluation, and Research. Training Research Journal, 2, 11-46. Jonassen, D. H., Tessmer, M., and Hannum, W. H. (1999). Task Analysis Methods for Instructional Design. New Jersey, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kennedy, M., Fisher, M. B., and Ennis, R. H. (1991). Critical Thinking: Literature Review and Needed Research. In L. Idol and 13. F. Jones (Eds.), Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction: Implications for Reform, 1 1-40. Lawrence Erlbaum. Kitchens, S. A. (1998). The QuickTime VR Book. U.S.A.: Peachpit Press. Klein, G. (1995). The Value Added by Cognitive Task Analysis. Pn Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 339th Annual Meeting, 530-533. Klein, G . A., Calderwood, R., and MacCregor, D. (1989). Critical Decision Method for Eliciting Knowledge. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 19(3), 462- 472. Kreuger, M. (1991). Artificial Realty Reading: MA: Addison T;Vesley. Lavroff, N. (1992). The Virtual Reality Playhouse. Emeryville CA: Waite Group Press. Leinhardt, G . and Crowley, K. (2002). Objects of Learning, Objects of Talk: Changing Minds in Museums. In S. 6 . Paris (Ed.), Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums, 301-324. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lincoln, Y. S. and Guba, E. 6 . (1989). Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications. Lullies, R. (1960). Greek Sculpture (revised and enlarged ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. Lyons, P. D. and Head, L. (1998). QuickTime VR: A Powerful New Illustrative Tool for Micropaleontological Research. Palaeontologia Electronica, 1(2), http: // palaeo-electronica,osg/%998-2/main.htm. Maehr, M. L. (1984). Meaning and Motivation: Personal Investment. In Research on Motivation in Education Volume 1 Student Motivation, 1 15-1 44. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, Inc. Maehr, M. L. (2001). Coal Theory is Not Dead-Not Yet, Anyway: A Reflection on the Special Issue. Educational Psychology Review, 13(2), 177-1 85. Mahoney, A. (2000). Creating an infrastructure for scholarly publication on line. In In Ancient Studies-New Technology, Newport, RI. Manetta, C. and Blade, R. (1995). Glossary of Virtual Reality Terminology. International Journal of Virtual Reality 1(2), 35-39. Marshall, C. and Rossman, G . B. (1995). Designing Qualitative Research (second ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Martinez K, ., Cupitt, J., Saunders, D., Abbood, A., and Chalainne, H. (1997). Applications of High Quality Digital Images of Art. Computers and the History ofArt, 7(2), 87-96. Martinez, K., Cupitt, J., Saunders, D., and Pillay, R. (2002). Ten Years of Art Imaging Research. Proceedings of the IEEE, 90(1), '28-4 1. Mason, J. (2002). Qualitative searching (second ed.). London: Sage Publications. McInerney, D. M. (2004). A Discussion of Future Time Perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 16(2), 141-15 1. Miles, M. B. and Hubeman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook (second ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Mills, S. and de Ariiujo, M. M. T. (1999). Learning Through Virtual Reality: A Preliminary Investigation. Interacting with Computers, 11(4), 453462. Mills, S. and Noyes, J. (1999). Virtual Reality: An Overview of User-related Design Issues. Interacting with Computers, 11(4), 375-386. Morrissey, M. A. (2002). Pathways Among Objects and Museum Visitors. In S. G. Paris (Ed.), Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums, 285-299. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Myers, B. (1996). Strategic Directions in Human Computer Interaction. ACM Computing Suweys, 28(4). Najjar, L. J. (1998). Principles of Educational Multimedia User Interface Design. Human Factors, 40(2), 3 1 1-323. Neal, G. (1990). What has Athens to do with Silicon Valley? Computers and Education, 15(1--3), 11 1-1 17. Nieder, G. L., Scott, J. N., and Anderson, M. D. (2000). Using QuickTime Virtual Reality Objects in Computer-Assisted Instruction of Gross Anatomy: Yorick the VR Skull. Clinical Anatomy, 13(4), 287-293. Noordink, P J. and Naidu, A. (1994). Analysis of Instruction for Critical Thinking in Distance Learning Materials. Distance Education, 15(1), 43-69. Oettermann, S. (1998). The Panorama: History of a Mass Medium. New Jersey: Zone Books. O’Hare, D., Wiggins, M., Williams, A., and Wong, W- (1998). Cognitive 'Task Analyses for Decision Centred Design and Training. Ergonomics, 41(1 I), 1698-1 7 B 8. Patton, M. Q. (1 990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (second ed.). Newbury Park, Calif. : Sage Publications. Pedley, J. 6. (1998). Greek Art and Archaeology(second ed.). London: Laurence King. Plato (1955). The Republic. Translated by Desmond Lee, in Penguin Classics, Penguin Group, London. Pliny (1952). Natural History IX. Books XXXIII-XXXV, Translated by H. Rackham, in Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, London. Plutarch (1971). Life of Alexander. Translated by K. J. Maidment, Auckland University Press, New Zealand. Pollitt, J. J. (1990). The Art of Ancient Greece: Sources and Documents. Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge University Press. Regian, J. W., Shebilske, W. L., and Monk, J. M. (1992). Virtual Reality: An Instructional Medium for Visual-Spatial Tasks. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 136-149. Rheingold, H. (1991). Virtual Reality. New York: Summit Books. Richter, G. M. A. (1969). A Handbook of Greek Art (sixth ed.). London: Phaidon Press. Ridgway, B. S. (1981). Fifth Century in Greek Sculpture. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Robertson, M. (198 I). A Shorter History of Greek Art. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. Robertson, M. and Beard, M. (1991). Adopting an Approach. In T. Rasmussen and N. Spivey (Eds.), Looking at Greek Vases, Chapter 1, 1-35. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. Rogers, S. (2003). Truth and Meaning in Pictorial Space. In H. Hecht, R. Schwarlz, and M. Athedon (Eds.), Looking into Pictures, 301-320. MIT Press. Rountree, J., Hannah, R., and VVong, W. (2003). Digitised Artefacts in Teaching Classical Ad: Some Educational Considerations. In XVI International Congree of Classical Archaeology of the Associazione lnternazionale di Archaeologica Classica (AIAC). Rountree, J., Hannah, R., and Wong, W. B. E. (2002). Learning with Digital Artifacts: Gaining a Sense of the Object. VINE, 130. Rountree, J., Hannah, R.,and Wong, W. B. L. (2004). A Fidelity-Mediation Framework for Virtual Objects. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1(2), 163-178. Rountree, J., Wong, W. B. L., and Hannah, R. (2001). Learning to Look: Real and Virtual Artifacts. Educational Technology and Society, 5(1), 129-1 34. Russell, A. (1997). Non-expert Conceptions of Virtual Reality. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 30( I), 53-67. Ryan, M.-L. (1995). Virtual Reality and Art Appreciation. Semiotica, 103(3/4), 349-367 Rydberg-Cox, J. A. (2002). Mining data from the Electronic Greek Lexicon. Classical Journal, 79(4), 183-1 88. Schellingerhout, D., Chew, F. S., Mullins, M. E., and Gonzalez, R. G. (2002). Projected Digital Radiologic Images for Teaching. Academic Radiology, 9(2), 157-162. Schwartz, D. D. (1995). Reasoning About the Referent of a Picture Versus Reasoning About the Picture as Referent: An Effect of Visual Realism. Memory and Cognition, 23(6), 709-722. Schwier, R. A. and Misanchuk, E. R. (1997). An Investigation of the Perceived Quality of Digital Media: research and Design Issues. Canadian Journal of Educational Communication, 26(2), 87-1 06. Seamster, T. L., Redding, R. E., and Kaempf, G. L. (1997). Applied Cognitive Task Analysis in Aviation. England: Avebury. Sharpies, M. (1991). Computer-based tutoring of visual concepts: from novice to expert. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 7, 123-1 32. Simons, J., Dewitte, S., and Lens, W. (2000). Wanting to Have vs. Wanting to Be: The Effect of Perceived Instrumentality on Goal Orientation. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 335- 351. Simons, J., Dewitte, S., and Lens, W. (2004). The Role of Different Types of Instrumentality in Motivation, Study Strategies, and Performance: Know Why You Learn, So You'll Know What You Learn! British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(3), 343-360. Simpson, J. A. and Weinea; E. S. C. (Eds.) (1989). The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Smith, D. A., Mahoney, A., and Rydberg-Cox, J. A. (2000). Management of XML Documents in an Integrated Digital Library. 11; Proceedings of Extreme Markup Languages, Montreal, 2 19-224. Sutherland, I. (1965). The Ultimate Display. Proceedings of the International Federation of Information Processing Congress, 2,506-508. Taylor, M. and Saarinen, E. (1994). Imagologies: Media Philosophy. New York: Routlege. Thompson, C. (1982). Why Do You Need to See the Original Painting Anyway? Visual Resources, 11(1-3), 21-36. Trelease, R., Nieder, G. L., Drup, J., and Hansen, M. S. (2000). Going Virtual with Quick- Time VR: New Methods and Standardized Tools for Interactive Dynamic Visualization of Anatomical Structures. The Anatomical Record, 261, 64-77. Tressel, G. (1996). Visualizing the Ancient World. CSA Newsletter, 9(3). http://www.csanet.osg/newsletter/nov96/nl119606.html. Vadnal, J. (1995). Virtual Antiquity. Archaeology, 48(5), 67-70. Walton, M. L. (1984). Transparent Pictures: On the Nature of Photographic Realism. Critical Inquiry, 11,246-277. Walton, K. L. (1990). Mimesis as 1Mnke-Believe: On the Foundations of the Representational Arts. London: Harvard University Press. Weimann, G. (2000). Communicating Unreality: Modem Media and the Reconstruction of Reality. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Weiner, B. (1990). History of Motivational Research in Education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82,6 16-622. Weismann, D. L. (1970). ;The Visual Arts as a Human Experience, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Wineburg, S. S. (1991). Historical Problem Solving: A Study of the Cognitive Processes Used in the Evaluation of Documentary and Pictorial Evidence. Journal of educational Psychology, 83(1), 73-87. Winn, W. and Jackson, R. (1999). Fourteen Propositions About Educational Uses of Virtual Reality. Educational Technology, 39(4), 5-14. Wong, W. B., Ng, B. I?., and Clark, S. A. (2000). Assessing the Effectiveness of Animation and Virtual Reality in Teaching Operative Dentistry. Journal of Dentistry: Educational Technology Section. http://www.elsevier.com/homepage/sab/jdent/contentsindex.html. Wong, W. B. L., Sallis, P. J., and O'Hare, D. (1997). Eliciting Information Portrayal Requirements: Experiences with the Critical Decision Method. In H. Timbleby, B. O’Conaill, and P. J. Thomas (Eds.), People and Computers XII, London, 397-415. Springer. Woodford, S. (1986). An Introduction to Greek Art. Ithaca, N.U.: Cornell University Press.en_NZ
 Find in your library

Files in this item

FilesSizeFormatView

There are no files associated with this item.

This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.

If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.

If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record