Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorSchneider, Viktoriaen_NZ
dc.identifier.citationSchneider, V. (2006, March). A bioeconomic analysis of marine reserves for paua (abalone) management at Stewart Island, New Zealand (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). Retrieved from
dc.description.abstractMarine reserves have increasingly been recognised for their potential to address the pervasive problem of unsustainable harvest of fisheries worldwide. Biologists advocate the benefits of increased spawning biomass, larger modal sizes and greater densities of fish within marine reserves, and the possibility of spillover to adjacent fishable areas. Bioeconomic studies, however, find that pay-offs from stand-alone marine reserves rarely compete with sustainable yield management schemes, but that they can be beneficial when stocks are heavily exploited. Most of these bioeconomic models are analytical and deterministic in nature, and therefore ignore the redistribution of effort in response to closure and the inherent uncertainty of the marine environment. We present a bioeconomic analysis of a network of no-take areas around Stewart Island in New Zealand applied to the shellfish species paua (abalone) that incorporates both predicted redistribution and reduction in effort, as well as stochastic recruitment. A nested logit model is applied to spatially recorded catch and effort data by the Ministry of Fisheries between 1998 and 2003 to capture the two level decision-making process of divers. On any given day, divers decide whether to go diving at all, and if so, which of the 16 statistical areas around Stewart Island to visit. Weather conditions, spatially varying levels of catch per unit of effort and distance are used as explanatory variables to select areas for closure according to the 'least economic impact' in terms of loss of diving trips. An age-structured biological model is developed with parameters specifically applied to paua stocks around Stewart Island. Virgin paua biomass as of 1974 is estimated on the basis of growth, survival, post-larval recruitment and egg production in the absence of fishing. Historic catch rates are then applied to find overall and area-specific levels of exploitation rates, spawning biomass, egg production, legal biomass and numbers of paua. In a final step, the economic model is linked to the biological model to simulate the imposition of no-take areas when taking account of the initial disproportional shift of harvest to fished areas in the first year, and the increase in overall pressure on legal biomass in the years thereafter. We contribute to the marine reserve debate by showing that in the very long run, the overall yield under closure of a relatively small area approaches and even slightly surpasses the yield under no closure for an assumed spillover gradient of 40% despite the redistribution of effort. The most important benefits of marine reserves emerge when stochastic recruitment is included in the recruitment function. In practice, predictions about the stock status and the impact of different harvest levels become much more difficult when acknowledging the inherent variability of the marine environment. The likelihood of stock collapse depends on the assumed value of two recruitment parameters, which highlights the effects of parameter uncertainty and emphasizes the role of marine reserves for population persistence. We also show that under uncertainty average yields under a management regime of a network of notake areas in addition to the quota system can equal yields under no closure for an assumed spillover gradient of 40%, despite the increased pressure on areas adjacent to the closed areas. Our findings have significant implications for the management of the paua fishery at Stewart Island. For a heterogeneously abundant species, such as paua, spatial management in addition to quota limits could be vital in ensuring the long-term sustainability of the fishery given the inherent variability of the marine environment.en_NZ
dc.subjectMarine reservesen_NZ
dc.subjectbioeconomic modelsen_NZ
dc.subjectbioeconomic analysisen_NZ
dc.subjectStewart Islanden_NZ
dc.subjectNew Zealanden_NZ
dc.subjectspatial managementen_NZ
dc.subjectmarine environmenten_NZ
dc.subject.lcshQ Science (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF Commerceen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF5601 Accountingen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHC Economic History & Conditionsen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshH Social Sciences (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshGE Environmental Sciencesen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshGeography en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshGeology en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshGC Oceanographyen_NZ
dc.titleA bioeconomic analysis of marine reserves for paua (abalone) management at Stewart Island, New Zealanden_NZ
otago.schoolEconomicsen_NZ of Philosophyen_NZ
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
dc.description.referencesAgardy, T., Bridgewater, P., Crosby, M.P., Day, J., Dayton, P.K., Kenchington, R., Laffoley, D., McConney, P., Murray, P.A., Parks, J.E. and L. Peau (2003). "Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13: 353-367. Alcala, A.C. and G.R. Russ (1990). "A direct test of the effects of protective management on abundance and yield of tropical marine resources." Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 46: 40-47, Alice, W.C., Emerson, A.E., Park, 0., Park, T. and K.P. Schmidt (1949). "Principles of Animal Ecology." Saunders, Philadelphia. 837 p. Allen, K.R. (1966). "Some methods for estimating exploited populations." Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 23: 1553-1574. Allison, G.W., Lubchenco, J. and M.H. Carr (1998). "Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation." Ecological Applications, 8 (1), Supplement: S79-S92. Amemiya, T. (1994). "Qualitative response models." Introduction to Statistics and Econometrics, Harvard University Press, Section 13.5. Anderson, L.G. (1995). "Privatising open access fisheries: individual transferable quotas." The Handbook of Environmental Economics, Blackwell. Anderson, L.G. (2002) "A bioeconomic analysis of marine reserves." Natural Resource Modeling, 15 (3): 311-334. Andrew, N.L., Naylor, J.R. and S.W. Kim (2002). "Fishery independent surveys of the relative abundance and size-structure of paua (Haliotis iris) in PAU 5B and PAU 5D." New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2002/41, August 2002. Annala, J.H., Sullivan, K.J., O'Brien, C.J. and N.W.McL. Smith (2001). "Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 2001: stock assessments and yield estimates." Ministry of Fisheries, May 2001. Annala, J.H., Sullivan, K.J., Mace, P.M., Smith, N.W.McL., Griffiths, P.R., Livingston, M.E., Harley, S.J., Key, J.M. and A.M. Connell (2005). "Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 2005: stock assessments and yield estimates." Ministry of Fisheries, May 2005. Attwood, C.G. and B.A. Bennett (1994). "Variation in dispersal of Galjoen (Coracinus capensis) (Teleostei: Coracinidae) from a marine reserve." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51: 1247-1257. Babcock, R.C., Kelly, S., Shears, N.T., Walker, J.W. and T.J. Willis (1999). "Large-scale habitat change in a temperate marine reserve." Marine Ecology Progress Series, 189: 125- 134. Ballantine, W.J. (1991). "Marine Reserves for New Zealand." University of Auckland, Leigh Laboratory Bulletin No. 25, University of Auckland, NZ. Ballantine, W.J. (1995). "Networks of 'no-take' marine reserves are practical and necessary." Marine Protected Areas and Sustainable Fisheries. N.L. Shackell and J.H.M. Willson (Editors). Acadia University, Wolf vile, Nova Scotia, pp. 13-20. Ballantine, W.J. (1997). "Design principles for systems of 'no-take' marine reserves." Presented as keynote address at workshop on the Design and Monitoring of Marine Reserves, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, February 1997. Batstone, C.J. and B.M.H. Sharp (1999). "New Zealand's quota management system: the first ten years." Marine Policy, 23 (2): 177-190. Bell, J.D. (1983). "Effects of depth and marine reserve fishing restrictions on the structure of a rocky reef fish assemblage in the north-western Mediterranean sea." Journal of Applied Ecology, 20: 357-369. Ben-Akiva, M. and S.R. Lerman (1985). "Discrete choice analysis: theory and application to travel demand." MIT Press Series in Transportation Studies, M.L. Mannheim, editor, 1985. Bennett, B.A. and C.G. Attwood (1991). "Evidence for recovery of a surf-zone fish assemblage following the establishment of a marine reserve on the southern coast of South Africa." Marine Ecology Progress Series, 75:179-181. Bertalanffy, L. von (1938). "A quantitative theory of organic growth (Inquiries on growth laws. II)." Human Biology, 10: 181-213. Bertness, M.D., Gaines, S.D., Stephens, E.G. and P.O. Yund (1992). "Components of recruitment in populations of the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus)." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 156: 199-215. Beverton, R.J.H. and S.J. Holt (1957). "On the dynamics of exploited fish populations." Fishery Investigations (Series II), 19: 1-533. Bockstael, N., McConnell, K. and I. Strand (1991). "Measuring recreation benefits with random utility models." Selection from 'Recreation', Ch. 8 in Measuring the Demand for Environmental Quality, edited by J. Braden and C. Kolstad, North-Holland, pp. 256-263 Bockstael, N.E. and J.J. Opaluch (1983). "Discrete modelling of supply response under uncertainty: the case of the fishery." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 10: 125-137. Bohnsack, J.A. (1998). "Application of marine reserves to reef fisheries management." Australian Journal of Ecology, 23: 298-304. Botsford, L.W., Morgan, L.E,. Lockwood, D.R. and J.E. Wilen (1999). "Marine reserves and management of the northern California red sea urchin fishery." CalCOFI Report, 40: 87- 93, Breen, P.A. (1992). "A review of models used for stock assessment in abalone fisheries." Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries, and Culture. Shepherd, S.A., M.J. Tegner, and S.Guzman del Proo (eds.), Blackwell Scientific. Breen, P.A., Andrew, N.L. and T.H. Kendrick (2000a). "Stock Assessment of PAU 5B for 1998-99." NZ Fisheries Assessment Report, 2000. Breen, P.A., Andrew, N.L. and T.H. Kendrick (2000b). "Stock assessment of paua (Haliotis iris) in PAU 5B and PAU 5D using a new length-based model." New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report, 2000/33, September 2000. Breffle, W.S. and E.R. Morey (2000). "Investigating preference heterogeneity in a repeated discrete-choice recreation demand model of Atlantic salmon fishing." Marine Resource Economics, 15: 1-20. Brown, G. and J. Roughgarden (1997). "A metapopulation model with private property and a common pool." Ecological Economics, 22: 65-71. Buxton, C.D. and M.J. Smale (1989). "Abundance and distribution patterns of three temperate marine reef fish (Teleostei: Sparidae) in exploited and unexploited areas off the southern Cape Coast." Journal of Applied Ecology, 26: 441-451. Campbell, R.A., Mapstone, B.D. and A.D.M. Smith (2001). "Evaluating large-scale experimental designs for management of coral trout on the Great Barrier Reef." Ecological Applications, 11: 1763-1777. Chapman, D.G. (1974). "Estimation of population size and sustainable yield of Sei whales in the Antarctic." Report of the International Whaling Commission, 24: 82-90. Chapman, M.R. and D.L. Kramer (1999). "Gradients in coral reef fish density and size across the Barbados Marine Reserve boundary: effects of reserve protection and habitat characteristics." Marine Ecology Progress Series, 181: 81-96. Chiang, A.C. (1984). "Fundamental methods of mathematical economics." (3rd ed.) McGraw-Hill International Editions, Economic Series. Chiappone, M., Sluka, R. and K.S. Sealey (2000). "Groupers (Pisces: Serranidae) in fished and protected areas of the Florida Keys, Bahamas and northern Carribean." Marine Ecology Progress Series, 198: 261-272. Chiswell, S.M. (1996) "Variability in the Southland Current, New Zealand." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 30: 1-17. Christie, P., White, A. and E. Deguit (2002). "Starting point or solution? Community-based marine protected areas in the Philippines." Journal of Environmental Management, 66: 441-454. Christy, F.T. (1973). "Fishermen quotas: a tentative suggestion for domestic management." Occasional paper 19, Law of the Sea Institute, Rhode Island. Clark, C.W. (1985). "Bioeconomic Modelling and Fisheries Management." New York, Wiley. Clark, C.W. (1990). "Mathematical bioeconomics: the optimal management of renewable resources." (2nd ed.) New York, Wiley Clark, C.W. (1990). "Mathematical Bioeconomics. The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources." A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Clark, C.W. (1996). "Marine reserves and the precautionary management of fisheries." Ecological Applications 6 (2): 369-370. Clark, I.N., Major, P.J. and N. Mollet (1988). "Development and implementation of New Zealand's ITQ management system." Marine Resource Economics, 5: 325-349, Cohen, D. (1966). "Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment." Journal of Theoretical Biology, 12:119-129. Cole, R.G., Ayling, T.M. and R.G. Creese (1990). "Effects of marine reserve protection at Goat Island, northern New Zealand." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 24: 197-210. Cole, R.G., Villouta, E. and R.J. Davidson (2000). "Direct evidence of limited dispersal of the reef fish Parapercis colias (Pinguipedidae) within a marine reserve and adjacent fished areas." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 10: 421-436. Conrad, J.M. (1995). "Bioeconomic models of the fishery." Ch.18 in the Handbook of Environmental Economics, Blackwell. Conrad, J.M. (1999). "The bioeconomics of marine sanctuaries." Journal of Bioeconomics, 1: 205-217. Cote, I.M., Mosqueira, I. and J.D. Reynolds (2001). "Effects of marine reserve characteristics on the protection of fish populations: a meta-analysis." Journal of Fish Biology, 59 (Supplement A): 178-189. Crowder, LB., Lyman, S.J., Figueira, W.F. and J. Priddy (2000). "Source-sink population dynamics and the problem of siting marine reserves." Bulletin of Marine Science, 66 (3): 799-820. Curtis, R. and R.L. Hicks (2000). "The cost of sea turtle preservation: the case of Hawaii's pelagic longliners." American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 82 (5): 1191-1197. Dayton, P.K., Sala, E., Tegner, M.J. and S. Thrush (2000). "Marine reserves: parks, baselines, and fishery enhancement." Bulletin of Marine Science, 66 (3): 617-634. Davidson, R.J. (2001). "Changes in population parameters and behaviour of blue cod (Parapercis colias; Pinguipedidae) in Long Island-Kokomohua Marine Reserve, Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 11: 417-435. Davidson, R.J., Villouta, E., Cole, R.G. and R.G.F. Barrier (2002). "Effects of marine reserve protection on spiny lobster (Jasus edwardsii) abundance and size at Tonga Island Marine Reserve, New Zealand." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12: 213-227. Dawson, R.M. (2000). "The genesis of the New Zealand Parliament's Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act, 1992." International Journal of Water, 1 (1): 80-101. DeLury, D.B. (1947). "On the estimation of biological populations." Biometrics, 3: 145-167. DeMartini, E.E. (1993). "Modeling the potential of fishery reserves for managing Pacific coral reef fishes." Fishery Bulletin, 91: 414-427. Department of Conservation (1995). "Marine reserves." A Department of Conservation information paper, October 1995. Dupont, D.P. (1993). "Price uncertainty, expectations formation and fishers' location choices." Marine Resource Economics, 8: 219-247. Dugan, J.E. and G.E. Davis (1993). "Applications of marine refugia to coastal fisheries management." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 50: 2029-42. Eales, J. and J.E. Wilen (1986). "An examination of fishing location choice in the pink shrimp fishery." Marine Resource Economics, 2: 331-351. Edgar, G.J. and N.S. Barrett (1999). "Effects of the declaration of marine reserves on Tasmanian reef fishes, invertebrates and plants." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 242: 107-144. Fishtech (2000). "World abalone supply, markets and pricing: historical, current and future prospectives." Opening Speech: 4th International Abalone Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa,, accessed November 2003. Fonseca, D.M. and D.D. Hart (1996). "Density-dependent dispersal of black fly neonates is mediated by flow." Oikos, 75: 49-58. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2000, 2002). "The state of world fisheries and aquaculture." Fisheries Department, FAO, United Nations, Rome. Gel!, F.R. and C.M. Roberts (2003). "Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves." TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 18 (9): 448-455. Gerber, L.R., L.W. Botsford, A. Hastings, H.P. Possingham, S.D. Gaines, S.R. Palumbi and S. Andelman (2003). "Population models for marine reserve design: a retrospective and prospective synthesis." Ecological Applications 13(1), supplement: S47-S64. Gordon, H.S. (1954). "Economic theory of a common-property resource: the fishery." Journal of Political Economy, 62: 124-142. Grafton, R.Q., Adamowicz, W., Dupont, D., Nelson, H., Hill, R. and S. Renzetti (2003). "The Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources." Basil Blackwell (USA), Ch.5. Grafton, R.Q., Pham, V.H. and T. Kompas (2004). "Saving the seas: the economic justification for marine reserves." Economics and Environment Network Working Paper 0402. http:/ / een/ download_files/ een0402.pdf Grafton, R.Q., Kompas, T. and V. Schneider (2005). "The bioeconomics of marine reserves: a selected review with policy implications." Journal of Bioeconomics, 7(2): 161-178. Greene, W.H. (1997). "Models with discrete dependent variables." Econometric Analysis, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 3rd edition, Ch. 19. Grindley, R. (2003). Personal communication, Ministry of Fisheries, Dunedin. Guenette, S., Lauck, T. and C. Clark (1998). "Marine reserves: from Beverton and Holt to the present." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 8: 251-272. Hahn, K.O. (1989). "Artificial induction of conditioning (gonad maturation)." CRC Handbook of Culture of Abalone and Other Marine Gastropods, K.O. Hahn, ed., CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 41-51. Halpern, B.S. (2003). "The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter?" Ecological Applications 13(1), supplements: S117-S137. Hanley, N., Shogren, J.F. and B. White (1997). "Renewable resource economics". Ch. 10 in Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice, Macmillan. Hannesson, R. (1998). "Marine reserves: what would they accomplish?" Marine Resource Economics, 13: 159-170. Hardin, G. (1968). "Tragedy of the commons." Science, 162: 1243-8. Harford, J.D. (2000). "A reconsideration of the bioeconomics of marine sanctuaries: a commentary on Jon Conrad's paper." Journal of Bioeconomics, 2: 133-138. Harrington, S.R. (2000). "Effect of diet on reproductive conditioning, spawning success, and larval viability in the New Zealand abalone, Haliotis Australis." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Otago, NZ. Hart, P.J.B and J.D. Reynolds (2002). "Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries." Vol. 2, Blackwell Publishing. Hartwick, J.M. and N.D. Olewiler (1998). "Dynamic models of the fishery." Ch. 11 in The Economics of Natural Resource Use, 2nd editon, Addison-Wesley. Hastings, A. and L.W. Botsford (1999). "Equivalence in yield from marine reserves and traditional fisheries management." Science, 284 (5419): 1537-1539. Hausman, J. and D. McFadden (1984). "Specification tests for the multinomial logit model." Econometrica, 52: 1219-1240. Hausman, J., Leonard, G. and D. McFadden (1995). "A utility-consistent, combined discrete choice and count data model assessing recreational use losses due to natural resource damage." Journal of Public Economics, 56: 1-30. Heckman, J.J. (1978). "Simple statistical models for discrete panel data developed and applied to test the hypothesis of true state dependence against the hypothesis of spurious state dependence." Annales de l'INSEE, 30-31. Hensher, D.A. and W.H. Greene (2000). "Specification and estimation of the nested logit model: alternative normalizations." Working paper, Department of Economics, Stern School of Business, New York University, February. Hilborn R. and C.J. Walters (1992). "Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment. Choice, Dynamics & Uncertainty." Chapman and Hall, New York. Holland, D.S. (1998). "The use of year-round closed areas for the management of New England trawl fisheries." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rhode Island, U.S. Holland, D.S. (2000). "A bioeconomic model of marine sanctuaries on Georges Bank." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57: 1307-1319. Holland, D.S. and R.J. Brazee (1996). "Marine reserves for fisheries management." Marine Resource Economics, 11: 157-171, Holland, D.S. and J.G. Sutinen (1999). "An empirical model of fleet dynamics in New England trawl fisheries." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56: 253-264. Holland, D.S. and J.G. Sutinen (2000). "Location choice in New England trawl fisheries: old habits die hard." Land Economics, 76 (1): 133-149. Inglis, G. (1992). "Ambiguities in the identification and selection of representative marine reserves." Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries, and Culture. Shepherd, S.A., M.J. Tegner, and S.Guzman del Proo (eds.), Blackwell Scientific. Jennings, S. (2001). "Patterns and prediction of population recovery in marine reserves." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10: 209-231. Johannes, R.E. (1978). "Traditional marine conservation methods in Oceania and their demise." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 9: 349-364. Johst, K. and R. Brandl (1997). "The effect of dispersal on local population dynamics." Ecological Modelling, 104 (1): 87-101. Jones, P.J.S. (1994). "A review and analysis of the objectives of marine nature reserves." Ocean and Coastal Management, 24: 149-178. Jouvenel, J.-Y. and D.A. Pollard (2001). "Some effects of marine reserve protection on the population structure of two spearfishing target-fish species, Dicentrarchus labrax (Moronidae) and Sparus aurata (Sparidae), in shallow inshore waters, along a rocky coast in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 11: 1-9. Kelleher, G. (1999). "Guidelines for marine protected areas." Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN - The World Conservation Union, xxiv + 107 pp. Kelly, S., Scott, D. and A.B. MacDiarmid (2002). "The value of a spillover fishery for spiny lobsters around a marine reserve in northern New Zealand." Coastal Management, 30: 153-166. Kelly, S., Scott, D., MacDiarmid, A.B. and R.C. Babcock (2000). "Spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, recovery in New Zealand marine reserves." Biological Conservation, 92: 359- 369. Kramer, D.L. and M.R. Chapman (1999), "Implications of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function." Environmental Biology of Fishes, 55 (1-2): 65-79. Lauck, T. (1996). "Uncertainty in fisheries management." Fisheries and Uncertainty: a precautionary approach to resource management. Editors Gordon, D.V. and G.R. Munro, University of Calgary Press, Chapter 5. Lauck, T., Clark, C.W., Mangel, M. and G.R. Munro (1998). "Implementing the precautionary principle in fisheries management through marine reserves." Ecological Applications, 8 (1), Supplement: S72-S78. Leslie, P.H. and D.H.S. Davis (1939). "An attempt to determine the absolute number of rats on a given area." Journal of Animal Ecology, 8: 94-113. Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R. and C. Walters (1993). "Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history." Science, 260: 17, 36. MacDiarmid, A.B. and P.A. Breen (1992). "Spiny lobster population change in a marine reserve." In Battershill, C.N. et. (eds) "Proceedings of the Second International 'Temperate Reef Symposium." 7-10 January 1992, Auckland, NZ. NIWA Marine, Wellington, pp. 47- 56. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2000). "Marine reserves act review." Rural Bulletin, http:// MAFnet/ publications/ ruralbulletin.htm, accessed November 2000. Manski, C. (1977). "The structure of random utility models." Theory and Decision, 8: 229-254. McClanahan, T.R. and B. Kaunda-Arara (1996). "Fishery recover in a coral-reef marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery." Conservation Biology, 10 (4): 1187-1199. McClanahan, T.R. and S. Mangi (2000). "Spillover of exploitable fishes from a marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery." Ecological Applications, 10 (6): 1792-1805. McCormick, M.I. and J.H. Choat (1987). "Estimating total abundance of a large temperatereef fish using visual strip-transects." Marine Biology, 96: 469-478. McFadden, D. (1973). "Conditional logit analysis of qualitative choice behavior." In P. Zarembka (ed.), Frontiers in Econometrics, 105-142, Academic Press, New York, 1973, Ch. 4. McFadden, D. (1978). "Modelling the choice of residential location." In Spatial Interaction Theory and Residential Location, A. Karlquist et al., eds. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp.75-96. McGinn, A.P. (1998). "Freefall in global fish stocks." Worldwatch Institute, Environmental Intelligence Report, May/June 1998. 1998 / 98-3b.html accessed April 2003. McNeill, S.E. (1994). "The selection and design of marine protected areas: Australia as a case study." Biodiversity and Conservation, 3: 586-605. McShane, P.E. (1991a). "Paua, the world's last abalone fishery." New Zealand Professional Fisherman, April, 29-33. McShane, P.E. (1991b). "Density dependent mortality of the abalone Haliotis rubra (Mollusca: Gastropoda)." Marine Biology, 110: 385-389. McShane, P.E. (1992). "Early life history of abalone: a review." Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries, and Culture. Shepherd, S.A., M.J. Tegner, and S.Guzman del Proo (eds.), Blackwell Scientific. McShane, P.E. (1995). "Estimating the abundance of abalone: the importance of patch size." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 46: 657-62. McShane, P.E. and J.R. Naylor (1995). "Depth can affect post-settlement survival of Haliotis iris (Mollusca: Gastropoda)." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 187: 1- 12. McShane, P.E. and M.G. Smith (1988). "Measuring abundance of juvenile abalone Haliotis ruber Leach (Gastropoda Haliotidae); comparison of a novel method with two other methods." Australian Journal of Marine Freshwater Research, 39: 331-336. McShane, P.E., Black, K.P. and M.G. Smith (1988). "Recruitment processes in Haliotis rubra (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and regional hydrodynamics in southeastern Australia imply locialized dispersal of larvae." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 124: 175-203. McShane, P.E., Mercer, S.F. and J.R. Naylor (1994). "Spatial variation and commercial fishing of New Zealand abalone (H. iris and H. australis)." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 28: 345-355. Minchinton, T.E. and R.E. Scheibling (1991). "The influence of larval supply and settlement on the populatin structure of barnacles." Ecology, 72 (5): 1867-1879. Mistiaen, J.A. and I.E. Strand (2000). "Location choice of commercial fishermen with heterogeneous risk preferences." American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 82 (5): 1184- 1190. Morey, E.R., Shaw, W.D. and R.D. Rowe (1991). "A discrete-choice model of recreational participation, site choice, and activity valuation when complete trip data are not available." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 20: 181-201. Mosquera, I., Cote, I.M., Jennings, S. and J.D. Reynolds (2000). "Conservation benefits of marine reserves for fish populations." Animal Conservation, 4: 321-332. Murawski, S.A., Brown, R., Lai, H.-L., Rago, P.J. and L. Hendrickson (2000). "Large-scale closed areas as a fishery-management tool in temperate marine systems: the Georges Bank experience." Bulletin of Marine Science, 66 (3): 775-798. Murray, T. (1982). "Recent trends in the paua fishery." Proceedings of the Paua Fishery Workshop, compiled by Akroyd, J.M., Murray, E. and J.L. Taylor, Fisheries Research Division, Occasional Publication, No. 41, 1982. Myers, R.A. (2001). "Stock and recruitment: generalizations about maximum reproductive rate, density dependence, and variability using meta-analytic approaches." International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 58: 937-951. National Research Council (2001). "Marine protected areas: tools for sustaining ocean ecosystems." National Acadamy Press: Washington, D.C. Naysmith, N.R. (2000). "Reproductive periodicity in New Zealand abalone (Haliotis iris and H. australis): responses to environmental stimuli." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Otago, NZ. Paddack, M.J. and J.A. Estes (2000). "Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California." Ecological Applications, 10 (3): 855-870. Parker, R.O. (1994). "A video transect method for estimating reef fish abundance, composition, and habitat utilization at Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary, Georgia." Fishery Bulletin, 92: 787-799; http: / / / video, accessed July 2004. Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Guenette, S., Pitcher, T.J., Sumaila, U.R., Walters, C.J., Watson, R. and D. Zeller (2002). "Towards sustainability in world fisheries." Nature, 418: 689- 695. Pezzey, J.C.V., Roberts, C.M. and B.T. Urdal (2000). "A simple bioeconomic model of a marine reserve." Ecological Economics, 33: 77-91. Polacheck, T. (1990). "Year around closed areas as a management tool." Natural Resource Modeling, 4 (3): 327-354. Polunin, N.V.C. and C.M. Roberts (1993). "Greater biomass and value of target coral-reef fishes in two small Caribbean marine reserves." Marine Ecology Progress Series, 100: 167- 176. Poore, G.C.B. (1972). "Ecology of New Zealand abalones, Haliotis species, (Mollusca: Gastropoda). 3. Growth." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 6 (4): 534-559. Poore, G.C.B. (1973). "Ecology of New Zealand abalones, Haliotis speicies (Mollusca: Gastropoda)." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1 (1 & 2): 67-84. Prince, J.D. (1992). "Using a spatial model to explore the dynamics of an exploited stock of abalone Haliotis rubra." Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries, and Culture. Shepherd, S.A., M.J. Tegner, and S.Guzman del Proo (eds.), Blackwell Scientific. Prince, J.D., Sellers, T,L., Ford, W.B. and S.R. Talbot (1987). "Experimental evidence for limited dispersal of haliotid larvae (genus Haliotis, Mollusca: Gastropoda)." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 106: 243-263. Rakitin, A. and D.L. Kramer (1996). "Effect of a marine reserve on the distribution of coral reef fishes in Barbados." Marine Ecology Progress Series, 131: 97-113. Ricker, W.E. (1958). "Handbook of computations for biological statistics of fish populations." Fisheries Research Board, Ottawa. Ricker, W.E. (1975). "Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations." Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Roberts, T.W. (1986). "Abundance and distribution of pink shrimp in and around the Tortugas Sanctuary, 1981-1983." North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 6: 311- 327. Roberts, R.D. (2001). "Factors affecting larval settlement and post-larval performance of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis spp." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ. Roberts, C.M., Bohnsack, J.A., Gel!, F., Hawkins, J.P. and R. Goodridge (2001). "Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries." Science, 30 November 2001, 294: 1920-1923. Roberts, C.M. and N.V.C. Polunin (1991). "Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries?" Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 1: 65-91. Roberts, C.M. and N.V.C. Polunin (1993). "Marine reserves: simple solutions to managing complex fisheries?" Ambio, 22 (6): 363-368. Rowley, R.J. (1992). "Impacts of marine reserves on fisheries: a report and review of the literature." Science & Research Series No. 51, Department of Conservation, Wellington, NZ. Russ, G.R. and A.C. Alcala (1996). "Do marine reserves export adult fish biomass? Evidence from Apo Island, central Philippines." Marine Ecology Progress Series, 132: 1-9. Sainsbury, K.J. (1982a). "Population dynamics and fishery management of paua, Haliotis iris. I. Population structure, growth, reproduction and mortality. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 16: 147-161, Sainsbury, K.J. (1982b). "Population dynamics and fishery management of the paua, Haliotis iris. II. Dynamics and management as examined using a size class population model." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 16: 163-173. Sainsbury, K.J. (1984). "Optimal mesh size for tropical multispecies trawl fisheries." Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 41: 129-139. Salomon, A.K., Waller, N.P., Mcllhagga, C., Yung, R.L. and C. Walters (2002). "Modeling the trophic effects of marine protected area zoning policies: a case study." Aquatic Ecology, 36: 85-95. Sanchirico, J.N. and J.E. Wilen (1998). "Marine reserves: is there a free lunch?" Resource for the Future, Discussion Paper 99-09. Sanchirico, J.N. and J.E. Wilen (1999). "Bioeconomics of spatial exploitation in a patchy environment." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 37: 129-150. Sanchirico, J.N. and J.E. Wilen (2001). "A bioeconomic model of marine reserve creation." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 42: 257-276. Schaefer, M.B. (1954). "Some aspects of the dynamics of populations important to the management of commercial marine fisheries." Bulletin of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, 1: 25-56. Sasaki, R. and S.A. Shepherd (1995). "Larval dispersal and recruitment of Haliotis discus hannai and Tegula spp. on Miyagi coasts, Japan." Marine and Freshwater Research, 46: 519- 529. Schiel, D.R. (1992). " The paua (abalone) fishery of New Zealand." Abalone of the World, Proceedings of the 1 st International Symposium on Abalone, edited by Shepherd, S.A., Tegner, M.J. and S.A. Guzman Del Proo, 1992, Ch. 30. Schiel, D.R. and P.A. Breen (1991). "Population structure, ageing, and fishing mortality of the New Zealand abalone Haliotis iris." Fishery Bulletin, U.S., 89: 681-691. Schneider, V. and D.W. Pearce (2003). "What saved the whales? An economic analysis of 20th century whaling." Biodiversity and Conservation, 13 (3): 543-562. SeaFIC (2003). "Exports of seafood produce for 12 months ending December 2002." NZ Seafood Industry Council (SeaFIC),, accessed August 2003. Seber, G.A.F. (1982). "The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters." MacMillan Publishing, New York. Shaffer, M. (1981). "Minimum population sizes for species conservation." Bioscience, 31:131- 134. Shepherd, S.A. and P.A. Breen (1992). "Mortality in abalone: its estimation, variability and causes." Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries, and Culture. Shepherd, S.A., M.J. Tegner, and S.Guzman del Proo (eds.), Blackwell Scientific. Shepherd, S.A. and L.D. Brown (1993). "What is an abalone stock: implications for the role of refugia in conservation." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 50: 2001- 2009. Shepherd, S.A., Lowe, D. and D. Partington (1992). "Studies on southern Australian abalone (genus Haliotis) XIII: larval dispersal and recruitment." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology, 164: 247-260. Shepherd, S.A. and D. Partington (1995). "Studies on southern Australian abalone (genus Haliotis) XVI. Recruitment, habitat and stock relations." Marine and Freshwater Research, 46: 669-680. Sladek-Nowlis, J.S. and C.M. Roberts (1999). "Fisheries benefits and optimal design of marine reserves." Fisheries Bulletin, 97 (3): 604-616. Smith, V.L. (1968). "Economics of production from natural resources." American Economic Review, 58: 409-431. Smith, V.L. (1969). "On models of commercial fishing." Journal of Political Economy, 77: 181- 198. Smith, M.D. (2001). "Spatial behaviour, marine reserves, and the Northern California Red Sea Urchin fishery." Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Davis, U.S. Smith, M.D. and J.E. Wilen (2003). "Economic impacts of marine reserves: the importance of spatial behavior." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 46 (2): 183-206. Stamps, J.A., Buechner, M. and V.V. Krishnan (1987). "The effects of edge permeability and habitat geometry on emigration from patches of habitat." American Naturalist, 129: 533- 552. Sumaila, U.R., Guenette, S., Alder, J. and R. Chuenpagdee (2000). "Addressing ecosystem effects of fishing using marine protected areas." Journal of Marine Science, 57: 752-760. Tegner, M.J. (1992). "Brood-stock transplants as an approach to abalone stock enhancement." Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries, and Culture. Shepherd, S.A., M.J. Tegner, and S.Guzman del Proo (eds.), Blackwell Scientific. Thieme, H.R. (2003). "Mathematics in Population Biology." Princeton Series in Theoretical and Computational Biology, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Tissot, B. (1992). "Water movement and the ecology and evolution of the Haliotidae." Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries, and Culture, Shepherd, S.A., M.J. Tegner, and S.Guzman del Proo (eds.), Blackwell Scientific. Tissot, B.N. (2003). "Restocking black abalone populations on Santa Cruz Island: a model for restoring abalone stocks in California.", accessed July 2003. United Nations (2002). "Agreement to protect fish stocks." cited in Otago Daily Times (ODT), 29th August, 2002, NZ. United Nations (2002). "World Summit of Sustainable Development Plan of Implementation." Division for Sustainable Development, http:/ / documents/ WSSD_POI_PDY/English/ POIToc.htm., accessed February 2005. University of Auckland (2002). "Marine reserves research: new findings." ht-tp:/ / leigh/ Staff/ rbabcock/ marine... / marine reserves_ new find igs.htm, accessed February 2002. Wallace, C. (1997). "New Zealand's quota management system assessed." Paper presented to the Australia New Zealand Society of Ecological Economics Conference, Melbourne, 17-20 November, 1997. Walls, K. and G. McAlpine (1992). "Developing a strategy for a network of marine reserves around New Zealand - a manager's perspective." Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries, and Culture. Shepherd, S.A., M.J. Tegner, and S.Guzman del Proo (eds.), Blackwell Scientific. Ward, T.J., Heinemann, D. and N. Evans (2001). "The role of marine reserves as fisheries management tools: a review of concepts, evidence and international experience." Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra, Australia. Ward, J.M. and J.G. Sutinen (1994). "Vessel entry-exit behavior in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery." American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76: 916-923. Watson, R., Pang, L. and D. Pauly (2001). "The marine fisheries of China: development and reported catches." Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 9 (2): 58 pp. Wells, F.E. and J.K. Keesing (1990). "Population characteristics of the abalone Haliotis roei on intertidal platforms in the Perth metropolitan area." Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia, 11: 65-71. Wilen, J.E. (1976). "Common property resources and the dynamics of overexploitation: the case of the north Pacific fur seal." University of British Columbia, Resources Paper No. 3. Wilen, J.E. (2000). "Renewable resource economists and policy: what difference have we made?" Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 39: 306-327. Wilen, J.E. and M.D. Smith (2001). "Implications of marine reserves: the importance of fishermen behaviour." Paper prepared for the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, Adelaide, Australia. Willis, T.J. (2000). "Te Whanganui a Hei Marine Reserve fish monitoring program: II. Changes in snapper and blue cod density." Report to the Department of Conservation, Investigation NRO/ 02/ 04. 19 pp. Willis, T.J. and C.M. Denny (2000). "Effects of the Poor Knights Islands Marine Reserve on demersal fish populations." Report to the Department of Conservation, 57 pp. Willis, T.J., Millar, R.B. and R.C. Babcock (2003). "Protection of exploited fishes in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves." Journal of Applied Ecology (in press). Wilson, N. (1987). "Reproduction and ecology of Haliotis iris and H. australis from Otago." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Otago, NZ. Worldwatch Institute (1998). "Hidden forces mask crisis in world fisheries." Worldwatch Institute News Releases. press/news/1998/ 06/18/ accessed April 2003. 289 Zeller, D.C. and G.R. Russ (1998). "Marine reserves: patterns of adult movement of the coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae))." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55 (4): 917-924.en_NZ
 Find in your library

Files in this item


There are no files associated with this item.

This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.

If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.

If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record