Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorRichardson, Juliaen_NZ
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:17:00Z
dc.date.copyright2003-07-25en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationRichardson, J. (2003, July 25). Experiencing expatriation: A study of expatriate academics (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1488en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/1488
dc.descriptionxii, 324 p. :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Management. "25th January, 2003".
dc.description.abstractExpatriation is at the centre of this study. Drawing on data from interviews with 30 British expatriate academics living in four countries, it explores their experiences of expatriation. The study's timeliness can be located in the predicted increase of international mobility amongst business and education professionals (e.g. Altbach, 1996; Black, 1999; Forster, 2000b). The expatriate management literature focuses on the expatriate assignment of managers and corporate executives (Inkson, Arthur, Pringle, & Barry, 1997). The higher education literature focuses on the internationalisation of education systems, notably growth in international strategic alliances between universities and international mobility amongst students (Welch, 1997a). By comparison, expatriate academics remain an under researched group. Moreover, much of the expatriate management literature adopts a positivist non-theoretical approach using quantitative methodologies and large-scale studies that leave the perspective of the individual relatively unexplored (Mendenhall, Beaty & Oddou, 1993; Osland, 1995; Peltonen, 1998). This study seeks to address that gap. It uses a qualitative research methodology based on in-depth interviews and is located within an interpretive interactionist paradigm in which individual meaning, action, social relationships and interaction are paramount. The study contributes by suggesting alternative ways of exploring expatriation with a specific focus on repositioning the individual at the centre of attention. The study begins by focusing on the decision to expatriate. The main drivers in that decision are identified. The opportunity to expatriate is also considered, pointing to the role played by serendipity in contrast to the notion of expatriation as a strategically planned move. The experience of expatriation and the way participants evaluate that experience in retrospect are explored. The study reports that adventure is a dominant theme in the drivers, experience and evaluations of expatriation. In that respect it substantiates Osland's (1990; 1995) notion of expatriation as a hero's adventure. It especially indicates the centrality of the family, both accompanying family and family left behind in Britain. That finding supports the increasing interest in expatriate families in the current literature. Other themes will also be identified and discussed. In addition, the study contributes a model of expatriates' relationships with Britain and their host country based on Black and Gregersen's (1992) model of expatriate managers allegiance to home and host organisations. This study was carried out with the support of an International Research Fellowship from the American Association of University Women, Washington D.C.en_NZ
dc.subjectExpatriationen_NZ
dc.subjectacademicsen_NZ
dc.subjectBritainen_NZ
dc.subjectNew Zealanden_NZ
dc.subjectallegianceen_NZ
dc.subjectOrganisationsen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF Commerceen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF5601 Accountingen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHD28 Management. Industrial Managementen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshH Social Sciences (General)en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHD Industries. Land use. Laboren_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHD28 Management. Industrial Managementen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHD61 Risk Managementen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshL Education (General)en_NZ
dc.titleExperiencing expatriation: A study of expatriate academicsen_NZ
dc.title.alternativeExperiencing expatriation
dc.typeThesisen_NZ
dc.description.versionUnpublisheden_NZ
otago.date.accession2007-01-19en_NZ
otago.schoolManagementen_NZ
thesis.degree.disciplineManagementen_NZ
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Otago
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral Theses
otago.interloanyesen_NZ
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
dc.identifier.eprints535en_NZ
otago.school.eprintsManagementen_NZ
dc.description.referencesRichardson, J. and McKenna, S. 'The value of international experience: what do academics have to say?' Personnel Review, forthcoming Richardson, J. and McKenna, S. 'Leaving and Experiencing: y Academics Expatriate and How they Experience Expatriation'. Career Development International 7(2), 2002, pp. 67-79. Richardson, J. and McKenna, S. 'Metaphorical 'Types' and Human Resource Management: Self-Selecting Expatriates.' Journal of Industrial and Workplace Training (32) 6, November 2000, pp.209-218. Richardson, J. 'Expatriate Academics in a Globalized Era: The Beginnings of an Untold Story'. In Y.A. Debrah and LG. Smith Work and Employment in a Globalized Era. An Asia Pacific Focus, London: Frank Cass, 2001, pp.125-150. Richardson, J. and Mallon, M. `Globalisation and Expatriation: Exploring the Link'. Presented at the Australia New Zealand International Business Academy Conference, Brisbane, 8-9 November 2002. Richardson, J. 'Torn Between Two Countries: A Study of Expatriate Academics'. Presented at Australia New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Auckland 5-8 December 2001. Richardson, J. 'Self-Selected Expatriation: An Opportunity or a Threat?' Presented at the Careers Research Conference, Wellington 22-23 November 2001. Richardson, J. and Mallon, M. 'Building Career or Building Castles? Expatriate academics' perceptions of overseas experience for career development. Presented at the Academy of Management Conference, Washington, 3-8 August 2001. Richardson, J. and Mallon, M. 'Have Career: Will Travel.' Presented at the Australia New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Sydney, 5-8 December 2000. Richardson, J. 'Using the Literature on Expatriate Managers as a Framework for Understanding the Experiences of Expatriates Academics.' Presented at the Employment Research Unit Annual Conference, Globalization, Employment and the Workplace: Responses for the Millennium. Cardiff Business School, UK. 8-9 September 1999. Richardson, J. and McKenna, S. 'The value of international experience: what do academics have to say?' Personnel Review, forthcoming Richardson, J. and McKenna, S. 'Leaving and Experiencing: y Academics Expatriate and How they Experience Expatriation'. Career Development International 7(2), 2002, pp. 67-79. Richardson, J. and McKenna, S. 'Metaphorical 'Types' and Human Resource Management: Self-Selecting Expatriates.' Journal of Industrial and Workplace Training (32) 6, November 2000, pp.209-218. Richardson, J. 'Expatriate Academics in a Globalized Era: The Beginnings of an Untold Story'. In Y.A. Debrah and LG. Smith Work and Employment in a Globalized Era. An Asia Pacific Focus, London: Frank Cass, 2001, pp.125-150. Richardson, J. and Mallon, M. `Globalisation and Expatriation: Exploring the Link'. Presented at the Australia New Zealand International Business Academy Conference, Brisbane, 8-9 November 2002. Richardson, J. 'Torn Between Two Countries: A Study of Expatriate Academics'. Presented at Australia New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Auckland 5-8 December 2001. Richardson, J. 'Self-Selected Expatriation: An Opportunity or a Threat?' Presented at the Careers Research Conference, Wellington 22-23 November 2001. Richardson, J. and Mallon, M. 'Building Career or Building Castles? Expatriate academics' perceptions of overseas experience for career development. Presented at the Academy of Management Conference, Washington, 3-8 August 2001. Richardson, J. and Mallon, M. 'Have Career: Will Travel.' Presented at the Australia New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Sydney, 5-8 December 2000. Richardson, J. 'Using the Literature on Expatriate Managers as a Framework for Understanding the Experiences of Expatriates Academics.' Presented at the Employment Research Unit Annual Conference, Globalization, Employment and the Workplace: Responses for the Millennium. Cardiff Business School, UK. 8-9 September 1999. Abbas, J. A., Ahmed, A. A., & Krish, S. K. (1995). Expatriates and host country nationals: managerial values and decision styles. Leadership and Organization Development, 16(6), 27-34. Adler, N. (1997). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern Publishing. Agar, M. (1980). The professional stranger: an informal introduction to ethnography. New York: Academic Press. Akoorie, M., & Enderwick, P. (1992). The international operations of New Zealand companies. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 9(1), 243-262. Alasuutari, P. (1995). Researching culture: qualitative method and cultural studies. London: Sage. Albrow, M. (1996). The Global Age. Oxford: Blackwell. Altbach, P. G. (Ed.). (1996). The international academic profession: portraits of fourteen countries. Princeton: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Altbach, P. G., & Lewis, L. S. (1996). The academic profession in international perspective. In P. G. Altbach (Ed.), The international academic profession: portraits of fourteen countries (pp. 3-48). Princeton: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Alverson, H. S. (1977). Peace Corps volunteers in rural Botswana. Human Organization, 36(3), 274-281. Ambuske, G. (1990). Narrative analysis of the subjective experience of US expatriate managers. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Case Western Reserve. Anderson, B. (1998). The preparation of Australian expatriates for relocation to South East Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 36(3), 50-65. Anderson, B. A. (2001). When expatriation means 'follow that woman!' Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 39(3), 109-116. Antal, A. B. (2000). Types of knowledge gained by expatriate managers. Journal of General Management, 26(2), 32-51. Arthur, M. B., Inkson, K., & Pringle, J. (1999). The new careers: individual action and economic change. London: Sage. Arthur, M. B., & Rousseau, D. M. (1996). Introduction: the boundaryless career as a new employment principle. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The boundaryless career: a new employment principle for a new organisational era (pp. 3-20). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Arthur, W., & Bennett, W. (1995). The international assignee: the relative importance of factors perceived to contribute to success. Personnel Psychology, 48(1), 99-115. Aryee, S., & Stone, R. J. (1996). Work experiences, work adjustment and psychological wellbeing of expatriate workers in Hong Kong. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 71(1), 150-1165. Asher, S. J., Huffaker, G. Q., & McNally, M. (1994). Therapeutic considerations of wilderness experiences for incest and rape survivors. In E. D. Rothblum (Ed.), Wilderness therapy for women: the power of adventure (pp. 161-174). New York: Haworth Press Inc. Atkinson, P. (1992). The ethnography of a medical setting: reading, writing and rhetoric. Qualitative Health Research, 2(4), 451-474. Aycan, Z. (1997). Expatriate adjustment as a multifacted phenomenon: individual and organizational predictors. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(4), 434-456. Bailyn, L. (1993). Breaking the mold: women, men and time in the new corproate world. New York: Free Press. Barley, S. R. (1989). Careers, identities and institutions: the legacy of the Chicago school of sociology. In B. S. Lawrence (Ed.), The handbook of career theory (pp. 41-60). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Baughn, C. (1995). Personal and oranizational factors associated with effective repatriation. In J. Selmer (Ed.), Expatriate management: new ideas for international business (pp. 215-230). Wesport: Connecticut: Quorum Books. Baumeister, R. F., & Newman, L. S. (1994). How stories make sense of personal experiences: motives that shape autobiographical narratives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(6), 676-690. Bell, N. E., & Staw, B. M. (1989). People as sculptors versus sculpture: the roles of personality and personal control in organizations. In B. S. Lawrence (Ed.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 232-251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bellah, R. (1991). The good society. New York: Random House. Benito, G. R. G., & Gripsrud, G. (1992). The expansion of foreign direct investments:discrete rational location choices or cultural learning process? Journal of International Business Studies, 23(3), 461-476. Berger, P. (1963). Invitation to sociology. New York: Doubleday. Berry, J. W. (1992). Acculturation and adaptation in a new society. International Migration Quarterly, 30, 69-87. Bhawuk, D. P., & Triandis, H. C. (1996). The role of culture theory in the study of culture and intercultural training. In R. S. Bhagat (Ed.), The handbook of intercultural training (2nd ed., pp. 17-34). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Bird, A., Osland, J. S., Mendenhall, M., & Schneider, S. C. (1999). Adapting and adjusting to other cultures: what we know but don't always tell. Journal of Management Inquiry, 8(2), 152-165. Birdseye, M., & Hill, J. S. (1997). Individual, organizational/work and environmental influences on expatriate turnover tendencies: an empirical study. Journal of International Business Studies, 26, 787-813. Black, J. S. (1988). Work role transitions: a study of American expatriate managers in Japan. Journal of International Business Studies, 19, 277-294. Black, J. S. (1.992). Coming home: the relationship of expatriate expectations with repatriation adjustment and job performance. Human Relations, 45(2), 178- 192. Black, J. S., & Gregersen, H. B. (1991). Antecedents to cross-cultural adjustment for expatriates ii Pacific Rim assignments. Human Relations, 44(5), 497-515. Black, J. S., & Gregersen, H. B. (1992). Serving two masters: managing the dual allegiance of expatriate employees. Sloan Management Review, 33(4), 61-71. Black, J. S., & Gregersen, H. B. (1999). The right way to manage expats. Harvard Business Review(March-April), 52-61. Black, J. S., Gregersen, H. B., & Mendenhall, M. E. (1992). Global assignment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Black, J. S., Gregersen, H. B., Mendenhall, M. E., & Stroh, L. K. (1999). Globalizing people through international assignments. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. Black, J. S., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Towards a comprehensive model of international adjustment: an integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 16, 291-317. Black, J. S., & Mendenhall, M. E. (1990). Cross-cultural effectiveness: a review and a theoretical framework for future research. Academy of Management Review, 15, 113-135. Black, J. S., & Stephens, G. K. (1989). The influence of the spouse on American expatriate adjustment in the Pacific Rim overseas assignments. Journal of Management, 15, 529-544. Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., & Tight, M. (1998a). The academic career handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press. Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., & Tight, M. (1998b). Writing in academic careers. Studies in Higher Education, 23(3), 281-295. Blonigen, M. (1998). Managing global operations: focus on expatriates. Decision Line(July), 6-8. Bloor, M. J. (1983). Notes on member validation. In R. M. Emerson (Ed.), Contemporary field research: a collection of readings (pp. 156-172). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland. Blumer, H. (1970). Methodological principles of empirical science. In N. K. Denzin (Ed.), Sociological methods: a source book (pp. 13-20). Chicago: Aldine Atherton. Blumer, H. (1986). Symbolic interactionism: perspective and method. Berkley: University of California Press. Bonache, J., & Fernandez, Z. (1997). Expatriate compensation and its link to the subsidiary strategic role: a theoretical analysis. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8, 456-475. Boyer, E. L., Altbach, P. G., & Whitelaw, M. J. (1994). The academic profession: an international perspective. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Brein, M., & David, K. H. (1971). Intercultural communication and the adjustment of the sojourner. Psychology Bulletin, 76(3), 215-230. Brennan, M. B. (1996). Science educators worldwide value undergraduate study abroad programmes. Chemical Engineering News, 8(34-38). Brewster, C. (1991). The management of expatriates. London: Kogan Page. Brewster, C. (1995a). Effective expatriate training. In J. Selmer (Ed.), Expatriate management: new ideas for international business (pp. 57-72). Westport, Conn: Quorum Books. Brewster, C. (1995b). The paradox of expatriate adjustment. In J. Selmer (Ed.), Expatriate management:new ideas for international business (pp. 115-136). Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Brewster, C., & Harris, H. (1999a). The coffee machine system: how international selection really works. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10, 488-500. Brewster, C., & Harris, H. (1999b). International HRM issues in Europe. London: Routledge. Brewster, C., & Scullion, H. (1997). A review and an agenda for expatriate HRM. Human Resource Management Journal, 7(3), 32-41. Briody, E. K., & Chrisman, J. B. (1991). Cultural adaptation on overseas assignments. Human Organization, 50(3), 264-282. Broderick, A., & Pearce, G. (2001). Indoor adventure training: a dramaturgical approach to management development. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 14(3), 239-252. Brooks, A. (1997). Academic women. Buckingham: Open University Press. Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Burgess, R. G. (1991). Sponsors, gatekeepers, members and friends: access in educational settings. In R. A. Stebbins (Ed.), Experiencing fieldwork (pp. 43- 52). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Burrell, G., & Morgan, G. (1998). Sociological paradigms and organisations. Hants, UK: Ashgate Publishing. Caligiuri, P. M., Phillips, J., Lazarova, M., Tarique, I., & Burgi, P. (2001). The theory of met expectations applied to expatriate adjustment: the role of crosscultural training. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(3), 357-372. Caliguri, P. M., Joshi, A., & Lazarova, M. (1999). Factors influencing the adjustment of women on global assignments. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10(2), 163-179. Callard, M., & Thompson, B. (1992). It's happening: adventure approach to corporate training - how to do trust activities. Training and Development in Australia, 19(4), 18-21. Campbell, J. (1993). The hero with a thousand faces (3rd ed.). London: Fontana. Campbell, J., & Moyers, B. (1988). The power of myth. New York: Doubleday. Carter, M. (2000). Developing confidence in women working outdoors:an exploration of self confidence and competence in women employed in adventure recreation. In B. Humberstone (Ed.), Her outdoors: risk, challenge and adventure in gendered spaces (pp. 69-82). Hove: Leisure Studies Association. Cassell, C., & Symon, G. (1998). Reflections on the use of qualitative methods. In C. Cassell (Ed.), Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research: a practical guide (pp. 1-13). London: Sage. Champion, T., & Fielding, T. (Eds.). (1992). Migration processes and patterns. London: Belhaven Press. Charon, J. M. (1998). Symbolic interactionism: an introduction, an interpretation, an integration. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Church, A. T. (1982). Sojourner adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 540-572. Clack, G., & Joynson, R. (1992). Reflections on a teaching exchange in psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 19(1), 31-33. Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (2000). Narrative inquiry, experience and story in qualitative research. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Clark, J. J., & Arbel, A. (1993). Producing global managers: the need for a new academic paradigm. Cornell hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 34, 83-93. Clegg, B., & Gray, S. J. (2002). Australian expatriates in Thailand: some insights for expatriate management. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(4), 598-623. Coffey, A., & Atkinson, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data: complementary research strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Coffey, A., Holbrook, B., & Atkinson, P. (1996). Qualitative data analysis: technologies and representations. Sociological Research Online. Retrieved, 2000, from the World Wide Web: Cole, E., Erdman, E., & Rothblum, E. D. (Eds.). (1994). Wilderness therapy for women: the power of adventure. New York: Haworth Press, Inc. Collin, A. (1990). Mid life career change research. In W. A. Borgen (Ed.), Methodological approaches to the study of career (pp. 197-219). New York: Praeger. Coffin, A., & Young, R. A. (2000). The future of career. In R. A. Young (Ed.), The future career (pp. 276-298). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cooley, C. H. (1972). Looking glass self. In B. N. Meltzer (Ed.), Symbolic interactionisrn: a reader in social psychology (pp. 231-234). Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc. Cresswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: qualitative and quantitative approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cresswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cuff, E. C., Sharrock, W. W., & Francis, D. W. (1992). Perspectives in sociology (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. Currie, J., & Welch, A. (1996). The changing nature of academic work in Australia, the USA and Canada: Australian Research Council Project. Curson, T., & Kitts, C. (2000). Women's use and perceptions of the outdoors:a case study of urban parks. In B. Hurnberstorie (Ed.), Her outdoors: risk, challenge and adventure in gendered spaces (pp. 1-28). Hove: Leisure Studies Association. Cuthbert, R. (Ed.). (1996). Working in higher education. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University. Czarniarwska-Joerges, B. (1995). Narration or science? Collapsing the division in organization studies. Organization, 2(1), 11-33. Dalby, S. (1996). Crossing disciplinary boundaries: political geography and international relations after the Cold War. In G. Youngs (Ed.), Globalization, theory and practice (pp. 29-42). London: Pinter. Daniels, J. D., & Insch, G. S. (1998). Why are early departure rates from foreign assignments lower than historically reported? Multinational Business Review, 6, 13-22. De Cieri, H., 8z Dowling, P. J. (1999). Strategic human resource management in multinational enterprise: theoretical and empirical developments. In G. T. Milkovich (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (pp. 305-327). Stamford,Connecticut: JAI Press. Defillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1996). Boundaryless contexts and careers: a competency-based perspective. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The boundaryless career as a new employment principle (pp. 116-131). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dence, R., & O'Toole, J. (1999). The challenges of globalisation: delivering an MBA programme in Eritrea. Open Learning, 14(1), 56-61. Denzin, N. (1991). Images of postmodern society: social theory and contemporary cinema. Newbury Park, California: Sage. Denzin, N. K. (1989a). Interpretive interactionism. California: Sage. Denzin, N. K. (1989b). The research act. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall. Denzin, N. K. (1992). Symbolic interactionism and cultural studies. Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell. Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (1998). The landscape of qualitative research, theories and issues. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Desatnick, R. A., & Bennett, M. L. (1978). Human resource management in the multinational company. New York: Nicholls. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Macmillan. Dewey, J. S. (1972). Mind experience and behavior. In B. N. Meltzer (Ed.), Symbolic interactionism: a reader in social psychology (pp. 328-330). Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc. Dey, I. (1993). Qualitative data analysis. London: Routledge. Dey, I. (1995). Reducing fragmentation in qualitative research. in K. Bird (Ed.), Computer-aided qualitative data analysis (pp. 69-79). London: Sage. Dineen, D. A. (1992). Europeanisation of Irish universities. Higher Education, 24, 391-411, Douglas, J. (1985), Creative interviewing. Beverly Hills: Sage. Dowling, P., & Schuler, R. S. (1990). International dimensions of human resource management. Boston, Mass: PWS Ken. Dowling, P. J., Welch, D. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1999). Interntional human resource management: managing people in an international context (3rd ed.). Cincinatti, OH: South Western College Publishing, ITP. Eastman, V., & Smith, R. (1991). Linking culture and instruction. Performance and Instruction, 30, 21-28. Eaton, S. C., & Bailyn, L. (2000). Career as life path: tracing work and life strategies of biotech professionals. In T. Morris (Ed.), Career frontiers: new concepts of working lives (pp. 177-201): Oxford University Press. Ehrenberg, V. (1973). From Solon to Socrates: Greek history and civilisation during the sixth and fifth centuries BC. London: Methuen. Enderwick, P., & Hodgson, D. (1993). Expatriate management practices of New Zealand business. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 4, 407-423. Evetts, J. (1992). Dimensions of career: avoiding reification in the analysis of change. Sociology, 26(1), 1-21. Farrands, C. (1996). The globalization of knowledge and the politics of global intellectual property: power, governance and technology. In G. Youngs (Ed.), Globalization, theory and practice (pp. 175-190). London: Pinter. Ferraro, G. P. (1996). The need for linguistic proficiency in global business. Business Horizons(May/June),39- Fielding, N., & Fielding, J. (1986). Linking data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Fine, G. A. (1993). The sad demise, mysterious disappearance and glorious triumph of symbolic interactionism. Annual Review of Sociology, 19, 61-87. Fine, G. A., & Kleinman, S. (1986). Interpreting the sociological classics: can there be a 'true' meaning of Mead? Symbolic Interaction, 9, 129-146. Fish, A., & Wood, J. (1996). A review of expatriate staffing practices in Australian business enterprises. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(4), 846-865. Forster, N. (1990). A practical guide to the management of job changes and relocations. Personnel Review, 19(4). Forster, N. (1992). International managers and mobile families: the professional and personal dynamics of transnational career pathing and job mobility in the 1990's. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 3(3), 605-623. Forster, N. (1997). The persistent myth of high expatriate failure rates: a reappraisal. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8, 414-433. Forster, N. (1999). Another 'glass ceiling'?: the experiences of women professionals and managers on international assignments. Gender, Work and Organisation, 6(2), 79-89. Forster, N. (2000a). Expatriates and the impact of cross-cultural training. Human Resource Management Journal, 10(3), 63-78. Forster, N. (2000b). Managing staff on international assignments:a strategic guide. London: Pearson Educational/Financial Times Publications. Forster, N. (2001). A case study of women academics' views on equal opportunities, career prospects and work-family conflicts in a UK university. Career Development International, 6(1), 28-38. Forster, N., & Johnsen, M. (1996). Expatriate management policies in UK companies new to the international scene. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1\,l79-2O5. Forster, N., & Munton, T. (1991). The danger of a false move. Personnel Management, 23, 40-43. Fries-Britt, S. (2000). Developing support networks and seeking answers to questions. In M. Garcia (Ed.), Succeeding in an academic career (pp. 39-56). Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Fukuda, K., & Chu, P. (1994). Wrestling with expatriate family problems: Japanese experience in East Asia. International Studies of Management and Organisation, 24, 36-47. Fulton, 0. (1996). Which academic profession are you in? In R. Cuthbert (Ed.), Working in higher education (pp. 157-169). Buckingham: SRHE and Open University. Furnham, A., & Bochner, S. (1986). Culture shock. London: Routledge. Garcia, M. (2000a). Professional organizations and networking. In M. Garcia (Ed.), Succeeding in an academic career (pp. 99-110). Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Garcia, M. (Ed.). (2000b). Succeeding in an academic career. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Gass, M. A. (1993). Adventure therapy: therapeutic applications of adventure programming. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt. Gecas, V. (1982). The self concept. Annual Review of Sociology, 8, 1-33. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. London: Fontana Press. Geertz, C. (1976). From the native's point of view: on the nature of anthropological understanding. In H. A. Selby (Ed.), Meaning in anthropology (pp. 221-237). Alburqueque: University of New Mexico Press. Geertz, C. (1995). After the fact. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Gergen, K. J. (1991). The saturated self: dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic. Gibb, J. (2001, July 10). University has recruitment, retention problems. Otago Daily Times, pp. 2. Giddens, A. (1990a). Structuration theory: past, present and future. In D. Jary (Ed.), Giddens' theory of structuration: a critical appreciation (pp. 201-221). London: Routledge. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity. California: Stanford University Press. Glanz, L., & Van Der Sluis, E. C. (2001). Employing organisations and expatriate spouses: balancing self-knowledge and knowledge about options. Career Development International, 6 '(3), 169-176, Glesne, C., & Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming qualitative researchers: an introduction. New York: Longman. Golzen, G., & Garner, G. (1990). Smart moves. Oxford: Blackwell. Gonzalez, A. (1992). Higher education, brain drain and overseas employment in the Philippines: towards a differentiated set of solutions. Higher Education, 23, 21-31. Grant, L. (1997). Americans abroad: out of sight, out of mind. Fortune, 135(7), 96. Greenbury, L. (1996). Move over darling. People Management, 2(24), 36-38. Griffin, C. (1991). The researcher talks back. In R. A. Stebbins (Ed.), Experiencing fieldwork (pp. 109-120). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation, Newbury Palk, CA: Sage. Gubriurn, J. F., & Holstein, J. A. (1997). The new language of qualitative method. New York: Oxford University Press. Gubrium, J. F., & Holstein, J. A. (1998). Narrative practice and the coherence of personal stories. The Sociological Quarterly, 39(1), 163-187. Gudykunst, W. B., Guzley, R. M., & Hammer, R. M. (1996). Designing intercultural training. In R. S. Bhagat (Ed.), Handbook of intercultural training (2nd ed., pp. 61-80). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Guzzo, R. A., Noonan, K. A., & Elron, E. (1994). Expatriate managers and the psychological contract. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(4), 617-626. Hailey, J. R. (1996). HR in East Asia, breaking through the glass ceiling. People Management(July), 32-34. Hall, D. T. (1996). Long live the career: a relational approach. In D. T. a. a. Hall (Ed.), The career is dead long live the career: a relational approach to careers (pp. 1-12). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Hall, P. (1987). Interactionism and the study of social organization. Sociological Quarterly, 28, 1-22. Halsey, A. H. (1992). The decline of donnish dominion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hammersely, M. (1990). The dilemma of qualitative method. London: Routledge. Handy, C. (1994). The empty raincoat. London: Hutchinson. Harvey, M. (1995). Repatriation of corporate executives: an empirical study. Journal of International Business Studies, 20, 131-144. -Harvey, M. (1996). The selection of managers for foreign assignments. Columbia Journal of World Business, 63(4), 103-118. Harvey, M. (1997). Dual-career expatriates: expectations, adjustment and satisfaction with international relocation. Journal of International Business Studies, 3, 626-658. Ha ey, M., Speier, C., & Novicevic, M. M. (1999). The role of inpatriation in global staffing practices. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10, 459-476. Harzing, A. W. (1995). The persistent myth of high expatriate failure rates. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 6, 456-472. Hicks, L. (1999). The nature of learning. In L. Mullins (Ed.), Management and organisational behaviour (pp. 344-369). London: Pitman. Hiltrop, J. M., & Janssens, M. (1990). Expatriation: challenges and recommendations. European Journal of Management, 8(1), l 9-26, Hirsch, P. M., & Shaniey, M. (1996). The rhetoric of boundaryless - or, how the newly empowered anagerial class bought into its own marginalization. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The boundaryless career. A new employment principle for a new organizational era. (pp. 218-234). New York: Oxford University Press. Hoberman, S., & Mallick, S. (1992). Experiential management development. New York: Quorum Books. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences: international differences in workrelated values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Holdaway, S. (1983). Inside the British police force: a force at work. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Holmes, W., & Piker, F. K. (1980). Expatriate failure: prevention rather than cure. Personnel Management, 12, 30-33. Holstein, J. A., & Gubrium, J. F. (1997). The active interview. Thousand Oaks,: Sage. Holstein, J. A., & Gubrium, J. F. (2000). The self we live by. New York: Oxford University Press. Huckerby, E., & Toulson, P. (2001). Expatriate women talk about their lives. The New Zealand Journal of Human Resources Management. Retrieved 4th September, 2001, from the World Wide Web: www.hrinz.org,.nz/info/academic_joumal/articies/005-huckerby_toulson.asp Hughes, E. (1937). Institutional office and the person. American Journal of Sociology, 43, 404-413. Humberstone, B. (Ed.). (2000). Her outdoors: risk, challenge and adventure in gendered open spaces. Hove: Leisure Studies Association. Husbands, C. (1998). Assessing the extent of use of part time teachers in British higher education: problems and issues in enumerating a flexible labour force. Higher Education Quarterly, 52(3), 257-282. Inkson, K., Arthur, M. B., Pringle, J., & Barry, S. (1997). Expatriate assignment versus overseas experience: contrasting models of international human resource development. Journal of World Business, 2, 351-368. International, W. (1997). Global relocation trends: Windham International and National Foreign Trade Council. Janesick, V. J. (1998). The dance of qualitative research design: metaphor, methodolatry and meaning. In Y. S. Lincoln (Ed.), Strategies of qualitative enquiry (pp. 35-54), Thousand Oaks: Sage. Jary, D., & Jary, J. (1995). Collins dictionary of sociology (Second edition ed.). Glasgow: Harper Collins. Jones, C. (1996). Careers in project networks: the case of the film industry. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The boundaryless career: a new employment principle for a new organisational era (pp, 58-75). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jourdan, J., & Cartwright, S. (1998). Selecting expatriate managers: key traits and competencies. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 19(2), 89- 96. Kanter, R. M. (1989). Careers and the wealth of nations: a macro perspective on the structure and implications of career forms. In B. S. Lawrence (Ed.), Handbook of career theory (pp, 275-291). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Karpen, U. (1993). Flexibility and mobility of academic staff. Higher Education Management, 5, 141-150. Kealey, D. J., & Protheroe, D. R. (1996). The effectiveness of cross-cultural training for expatriates: an assessment of the literature on the issue. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(2), 141-165. Keep, E., Storey, J. A., & Sisson, K. (1996). Managing the employment relationship in higher education: quo vadis? In R. Cuthbert (Ed.), Working in education (pp. 34-45). Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press. Kiewa, J. (1994). Self control: the key to adventure? In E. D. Rothblum (Ed.), Wilderness therapy for women: the power of adventure (pp. 29-84). New York: Haworth Press Inc. King, N. (1998). Template analysis. In C. Cassell (Ed.), Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research: a practical guide (pp. 14-36). London: Sage. Kirk, J. K., & Miller, M. L. (1986), Reliability and validity in qualitative research (Vol. 1). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage: 1986. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as a the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: an introduction to qualitative research interviewing, Thousand Oaks: Sage. Kvale, S. (Ed.). (1989). Issues of validity in qualitative research. Sweden: Chartwell Bratt Ltd. Landis, D., & Bhagat, R. S. (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of intercultural training (2nd Edition ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Laureys, G. (1992). Mobility has come to stay. Higher Education Management, 4(1), 108420. Layder, D. (1994). Understanding social theory. London: Sage. Lazarova, & Caliguri, P. M. (2001). Retaining repatriates: the role of organizational support practices. Journal of World Business, 36(4), 389-401. Le Goff, J. (1993). Intellectuals in the middle ages. Cambridge,MA: Blackwells. Lee, R., & Fielding, N. G. (1995). Users experiences of qualitative data analysis software. In U. Keller (Ed.), Computer aided qualitative data analysis (pp. 29-40). London: Sage. Lee, R. M. (1993). Doing research on sensitive topics. London: Sage, Levine, D. (1994). Breaking through barriers: wilderness therapy for sexual assault survivors, In E. D. Rothblum (Ed.), Wilderness therapy for women: the power of adventure (pp. 175-184). Lewis, L. S. (1998). Scaling the ivory tower: merit and its limits academic careers (2nd Edition ed.). Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Light, R. J., Singer, J., & Willet, J. (1990). By design: conducting research on higher education. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Linehan, M., & Scullion, H. (2001). Selection, training, and development for female international executives. Career Development International, 6(6), 318-323. Linehan, M., & Scullion, H. (2002). Repatriation of European female corporate executives: an empirical study. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(2), 254-267. Linehan, M., & Walsh, J. So (1999). Recruiting and developing female managers for international asisgnments. The Journal of Management Development, 18(6), 521-530. Littleton, S. M., Arthur, M. B., & Rousseau, D. M. (2000). The future of boundaryless careers. In R. A. Young (Ed.), The future of career (pp. 101- 114). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, L. F., Spirduso, W., & Silverman, S. J, (1993). Proposals that work: a Guide for planning dissertations and grants proposals (3rd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Lonldla, M. (1995). Grounded theory as an emerging paradigm for computer assisted qualitative data analysis. In K. Bird (Ed.), Computer-aided qualitative data analysis (pp. 29-40). London: Sage. Lysgaard, S. (1955). Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States. International Social Science Bulletin, 7, 45-51. Maines, D. R. (1988). Social organization and social structure in symbolic interactioMst thought. Annual Review of Sociology, 3, 235-259. Mallon, M. (1998). The portfolio career: pushed or pulled into it? Personnel Review, 27(5), 361-377. Mallon, M., & Cohen, L. (2000). My brilliant career? Understanding career through stories. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on Organizational Discourse, London. Mamman, A. (1995a). Employee intercultural effectiveness in a multicultural workplace: theoretical propositions, strategies and direction for future research. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 6(3), 528-- 552. Mamman, A. (1995b). Expatriates' intercultural effectiveness by chance of birth. In J. Selmer (Ed.), Expatriate management: new ideas for international business (pp. 137-156). Wesport, Conn: Quorum Books. Manev, I. M., & Stevenson, W. B. (2001). Nationality, cultural distance and expatriate status: effects on the managerial network in a multinational enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(2), 285-304. Marshall, J. (2000). Living lives of change: examining facets of women manager's career stories. In T. Morris (Ed.), Career frontiers: new concepts of working Lives (pp, 202-227). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mason, R. (1998). Globalising education. London: Routledge. Maxwell, J. A. (1996). Qualitative research design (Vol. 41). California: Sage. May, T. (1993). Social research issues. Buckingham: Oxford University Press. McEnvoy, G., & Parker, B. (1995). Expatriate adjustment. In J. Selmer (Ed.), Expatriate management: new ideas for international business (pp. 97-114). Wesport, Conn: Quorum Books. McEvoy, G., & Parker, B. (1995). Expatriate adjustment:causes and consequences. In J. Selmer (Ed.), Expatriate management: new ideas for international business (pp. 97-114). Wesport, Conn: Quorum Books. McNeill, P. (1994). Research methods. London: Routledge. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Mendenhall, M., Dunbar, E., & Oddou, G. (1987). Expatriate selection, training and career-pathing: a review and critique. Human Resource Management, 26(3), 331-345. Mendenhall, M. E. (1996). The foreign teaching assistant as expatriate manager. In R. S. Bhagat (Ed.), Handbook of intercultural training (pp. 231-244). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Mendenhall, M. E., Beaty, D., & Oddou, G. R. (1993). Where have all the theorists gone? International Journal of Management, 10, 146-153. Mendenhall, M. E., & Oddou, G. (1985). The dimensions of expatriate acculturation. Academy of Management Review, 10, 39-48. Miles, J. C., & Priest, S. (1993). Adventure Education. Stage College, PA: Venture Publishing. Miles, M, B., & Huberman, A. M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: a sourcebook of new methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Mileski, A. S. (1998). It's time to relocate employees: will they accept the transfer? Compensation and enefits Review, 30(2), 51-58. Milkovich, G. T., & Bloom, M. (1998). Rethinking international compensation. Compensation and Benefits Review, 30(1), 45-57. Miller, H. (1995). States, economies and the changing labour process of academics: Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. In J. Smyth (Ed.), Academic work: the changing labour process in higher education (pp. 40-59). Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press. Miller, J., & Glassner, B. (1997), The 'inside' and the 'outside': finding realities in interviews. In D. Silverman (Ed.), Qualitative research, theory, method and practice (pp. 99-112). London: Sage. Mills, C. (1997). Interaction in classes at a New Zealand uni versity: some international students' experiences, New Zealand Journal of Adult Learning, 25, 54-70. Mills, C. W. (1959). The sociological imagination. New York: Oxford University Press. Miner, A. S., & Robinson, D. F. (1994). Organizational and population level learning as engines for career transitions. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 15, 345-364. Mirvis, P. H., & Hall, D. T. (1996). Psychological success and the boundaryless career. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The boundaryless career. A new employment principle for a new organizational era (pp. 237-255). New York: Oxford University Press. Misa, K. F., & Fabricator, J. M. (1979). Return on investment of overseas personnel. Financial Executive, 47, 42-46. Morey, N. C ' &c Luthans, F. (1984). An emic perspective and ethnoscience methods for organizational research. The Academy of Management Review, 9, 27-37. Morgan, G. (1983). Beyond method. Beverly Hills: Sage. Murlis, H., & Hartle, F. (1996). Does it pay to work in universities? In R. Cuthbert (Ed.), Working in higher education (pp. 46-57). Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press. Musolf, G. R. (1992). Structure, instutions, power and ideology: new directions within symbolic interactionism. The Sociological Quarterly, 33(2), 171-189. Musson, G. (1998). Life histories. In C. Cassell (Ed.), Qualitative Methods and Analysis in Organizational Research (pp. 10-27). London: Sage. Napier, N., & Peterson, R. B. (1991). Expatriate re-entry: what do repatriates have to say? HR Planning, 14(4), 19-28. Napier, N. K., & Peterson, R. B. (1996). Corporate expatriate HRM policies, internationalization and performance in the world's largest MNC's. Management International Review, J6, 2]5-23U. Napier, N. Vu, D. A., Ngo, M. H., Nguyen, V. T., & Vu, V., T. (1997). Reflections on building a business school in Vietnam. Journal of Management Inquiry, 6(4), 341-354. Nicholson, N., & Imaizumi, A. (1993). The adjustment of Japanese expatriates to living and working in Britain. British Journal of Management, 4, 119-134. Nixon, J. (1996). Professional identity and the restructuring of higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 21(1), 5-16. Oddou, G. (1991). Managing your expatriates: what the successful firms do? Human Resource Planning, 14(4), 301-308. Odenwald, S. (1993). A guide for global training. Training and Development(July), 22-31. O'Doherty, & Roberts. (2000). Career or slide? Managing on the threshold of sense, In R. A. Young (Ed.), The future of career (pp. 144-161). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, O'Grady, S., & Lane, H. W. (1996). The psychic distance paradox. Journal of International Business Studies, 27(2), 309-333. Ornstein, S., & Isabella, L. (1993). Making sense of careers: a review 1989-1992. Journal of Management, 19(2), 243-257. Osland, J. S. (1990). The hero's adventure: the overseas experience of expatriate business people. Unpublished Ph.D, Case Western Reserve. Osland, J. S. (1995). The adventure of working abroad. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pahl, R. (1995). After success: fin-de-siecle anxiety. Cambridge: Polity Press. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods, Newbury Park, CA: Sage. onen, T. (1998). Narrative construction of expatriate experience and career cycle; discursive patterns in Finnish stories of international career. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9, 875-891. Perakyla, A. (1997). Reliability and validity in research-based tapes and transcripts. In D. Silverman (Ed.), Qualitative research: theory, method and practice (pp. 201-220). London: Sage. Perna, F., Lerner, B. S., & Yura, M. T. (1995). Mentoring and career development among university faculty. Journal of Education, 177(2), 31-45. Prus, R. (1996). Symbolic interaction in ethnographic research, intersubjectivity and the study of human experience. New York: State of New York University Press. Punnet, B. J. (1997). Towards effective management of expatriate spouses. Journal of World Business, 32(3), 243-257. Putnam, H. (1990). Realism with a human face. Cambridge, Mass; Harvard University Press. Ramsden, B. (1996). Academic staff: information and data. In R. Cuthbert (Ed.), Working in higher education (pp. 23-33). Buckingham: SRHE and Open University, Reynolds, L. T. (Ed.). (1990). Interactionism: exposition and critique (2nd ed.). Dix Hills, NY: General Hall. Richards, L. (1999). Using Nvivo in qualitative research. Victoria: Qualitative Solutions and Research Pty.Ltd. Richards, T., & Richards, L. (1991). The NUDIST qualitative data analysis sytem. Qualitative Sociology, 14(4), 307-325. Ritz, R. (1993). Higher education without borders: a new approach. Higher Education Management, 5, 273-276. Riusala, K., & Suntari, V. (2000). Expatriation and careers:perspectives of expatriates and spouses. Career Development International, 5(2), 81-90. Rizvi, F., & Walsh, L. (1998). Difference, globalisation and the internationalisation of curriculum. Australian Universities' Review, 41(2), 7-11. Rodgers, A. (1995). NUD*IST software for qualitative data analysis, review. Management Learning, 26(30), 367-325. Rodrigues, C. A. (1997). Developing expatriates' cross-cultural sensitivity: cultures where "your culture's OK" is not really OK. Journal of Management Development, 16(9), 246-256. Rousseau, D. M. (1996). Psychological contracts in organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Rou seau, D. M., & Wade-Benzoni, W. A. (1994). Linking strategy and human resource practices. Human Resource Management, 33(3), 463-489. Rudestam, K. E., & Newton, R. R. (1992). Surviving your dissertation: a comprehensive guide to content and process. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Sackmann, S. A. (1992). Culture and subcultures: an analysis of organizational knowledge. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(1), 140-161. Saha, J. L., & Atkinson, C. M. (1978). Insiders and outsiders: migrant academics in an Australian university, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 19, 203-218. Saha, L. J., & Klovdahl, A. S. (1979). International networks and flows of academic talent: overseas recruitment in Australian universities. Higher Education, 8, 56-68. Sanchez, J. LSpector, P. E., & Cooper, C. L (2000). Adapting to a boundaryless world: a developmental expatriate model. Academy of Management Executive, 14(2), 96-106. Schaffer, M. A., & Harrison, D. A. (1998). Expatriates psychological withdrawal from international assignments: work, non-work and family influences. Personnel Psychology, 51(1), 87-118. Schermerhorn, J. R. (1999). Learning by going? The management educator as expatriate. Journal of Management Inquiry, 8(3), 246-256. Schuster, J. (1994). Emigration, internationalization and "brain drain": propensities among British academics. Higher Education, 28, 179-194. Schuster, J. H. (1998). Reconfiguring the professoriate: an overview. Academe, 48- 53. Schutz, A. (1967). The phenomenology of the social world. UA: Northwestern University Press. Scott, P. (1994). Wider or deeper? International dimensions of mass higher education. Tertiary Education Administration, 16, 179-194. Scullion, H., & Brewster, C. (2001). The management of expatriates: messages from Europe? Journal of World Business, 36(4), 346-365. Seale, C. (2000). Using computers to analyse qualitative data. In D. Silverman (Ed.), Doing qualitative research: a practical handbook (pp. 154-174). London: Sage. Seidel, J., & Kelle, U. (1995), Different functions of coding in the analysis of textual data. In K. Bird (Ed.), Computer-aided qualitative data analysis (pp. 52-61). London: Sage. Seidman, I. (1998). Interviewing as qualitative research. New York: Teacher's College Press. Selmer, J. (Ed.). (1995). Expatriate management: new ideas for international business. Wesport, CT: Quorum books. Selmer, J. (1997, 10-14 August). Which is easier: adjusting to a close or distant culture? The experience of western and ethnic Chinese expatriate managers in the PRC Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Boston, Massachusetts. Selmer, J. (1999a). Career issues and international adjustment of business expatriates. Career Development International, 4(2), 77-87. Selmer, J. (1999b). Corporate expatriate career development. Journal of International Management, 5, 55-71. Selmer, J. (2002). Practice makes perfect? International experience and expatriate adjustment. Management International Review, 42(1), 71-88. Selmer, J., & Shui, L. S. C. (1996). Adjustment problems in the motherland: Hong Kong Chinese expatriate managers on assignment in China.Unpublished manuscript, Hong Kong Baptist University. Selmer, J., Torbiorn, I., & De Leon, C. T. (1998). Sequential cross-cultural training for expatriate business managers: predeparture and post arrival. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9, 831-840. Sennett, R. (1998). The corrosion of character. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Sergeant, A., & Frenkel, S. (1998). Managing people in China: perceptions of expatriate managers. Journal of World Business, 33(1), 17-34. Shackleton, V., & Newell, S. (1997). International assessment and selection. In P. Herriot (Ed,), Handbook of selection and appraisal. London John Wiley & Sons. Shaffer, M., & Harrison, D. (1998). Expatriates' psychological withdrawal from international assignments: work, nonwork, and family influences. Personnel Psychology, 51(1), 87-118. Shaffir, W. B. (1991). Managing a convincing self-presentation: some personal reflections on entering the field. In W. B, Shaffir (Ed.), Experiencing fieldwork (pp. 72-82). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Shenkar, 0., & Zeira, Y. (1992). Role conflict and role ambiguity of chief executive officers in international joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(1), 55-75. Shibutani, T. (1961). Society and personality: an interactionist approach to social psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Silverman, D. (2000). Doing qualitative research: a practical handbook. London: Sage. Silverman, D. (Ed.). (1997). Qualitative research: theory, method and practice. London: Sage. Solomon, C. M. (1996). One assignment, two lives. Personnel Journal, May, 36-47. Starr, J. M. (1994). Peace Corps service as a turning point. International Journal of Ageing and Human Development, 39(2), 137464. Stedham, Y., & Nechita, M. (1997). The expatriate assignment: research and management practice. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resource Management, 35(1), 80-89. Steining, B. W., & Hammer, M. R. (1992). Cultural baggage and the adaptation of expatriate American and Japanese Managers. Management International Review, 31(1), 77-89. Stillwell, J., & Congdon, P. (Eds.). (1991). Migration models: macro and micro approaches. London: Belhaven Press. Stone, G. P. (1962), Appearance and the self, In R. Rose (Ed.), Human behavior and social processes (pp. 86-118). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Storey, J. A. (2000). 'Fracture lines' in the career environment. In A. Collin (Ed.), The future of career (pp. 21-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Strauss, A. L. (1987). Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stroh, L. K., & Caligufi, P. M. (1998). Increasing global effectiveness through effective people management. Journal of World Business, 33(1), 1-17. Stroh, L. K., Gregersen, H. B., & Black, J. S. (1998). Closing the gap: expectations versus reality among repatriates. Journal of World Business, 33, 111-124. Stroh, L. K., Gregersen, H. & Black, J. S. (2000). Triumphs and tragedies: expectations and commitments upon repatriation. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(4), 681-697. Stroh, L. K., Varma, & Stacey, J. V. D. (2000). • y are women left at home: are they unwilling to go on international assignments? Journal of World Business, 35(3), 241-255. Stryker, S. (1959). Symbolic interaction as an approach to family research. Marriage and Family Living(21), 111419. Stryker, S. (1972). Symbolic interaction as an approach to family research. In B, N. Meltzer (Ed.), Symbolic interaction: a reader in social psychology (pp. 435- 447). Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc. Suutari, V., & Brewster, C. (2000). Making their own way: international experience through self-initiated foreign assignments. Journal of World Business, 35(4), 417-436. Suntari, V., & Burch, D. (2001). The role of on-site training and support in expatriation: existing and necessary host-company practices. Career Development International, 6(6), 298-311. Taylor, S., & Napier, N. (1996). Working in Japan: lessons from women expatriates. Sloan Management Review(Spring), 76-84. Teagarden, M. & Gordon, G. D. (1995). Corporate selection strategies and expatriates manager success. In J. Selmer (Ed.), New ideas for international business (pp. 17-36). London: Quorum Books. Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: analysis types and software tools. New York: Falmer Press. Thomas, D. (1998). The expatriate experience: a critical review and synthesis. Advances in Comparative Management, 12, 237-273. Thomas, D. C. (1999). The boundary-spanning role of expatriates in the multinational corporation. Advances in International Comparative Management, 9, 145-170. Tsichritzis, D. (1999). Reengingeering the university. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications for ACM, 42(6), 93-100. Tung, R. (1981). Selecting and training of personnel for overseas assignment. Columbia Journal of World Business, 16, 68-78. Tung, R. L. (1998), American expatriates abroad: from neophytes to cosmopolitans. Journal of World Business, 33, 125444. Van Maanen, J. (1991). Playing back the tape: early days in the field. In R. A. Stebbins (Ed.), Experiencing fieldwork (pp. 31-42). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Vickers, M. H. (2002). Researchers as storytellers: writing on the edge - and without a safety net. Qualitative inquiry, 8(5), in press. Voris, W. (1991). A retrospective of international business education in the United States over the past fifty years. Thunderbird International Business Reviewq, 39, 271-282. Weick, K. (1989), Theory construction as disciplined imagination. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 516-531. Weick, K. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Weick, K. (1996). Enactment and the boundaryless career: organizing as we work. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The boundaryless career: a new employment principle fora new organizational era (pp. 40-57). New York: Oxford University Press. Weiner, G. (1996). Which of us has a brilliant career? In R. Cuthbert (Ed.), Working in higher education (pp. 58-68). Buckingham: SRHE and Open University. Weiss, R. S. (1994). Learning from strangers: the art and method of qualitative interviewing. New York: Free Press. Weitzman, E. A., & Miles, M. B. (1995). Computer programs for qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Welch, A. (1997a). All change? The professoriate in uncertain times. Higher Education, 34(3), 299-303. Welch, A. (1997b), The peripatetic professor: the internationalisation of the academic profession. Higher Education, 34, 323-345. Welch, D. (2000). The psychological contract, expatriate career expectations and mobility.Unpublished manuscript. Welch, D. E., & Welch, L. S, (1997). Pre-expatriation: the role of HR factors in the early stages of internationalization. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(4), 402-413. Windham. (1997). Global relocation trends 1996 survey report. New York: Windham International and National Foreign Trade Council. Woolcott, H. (1990). Writing up qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Yurkiewicz, J., & Rosen, B. (1995). Increasing receptivity to expatriate assignments. In J. Selmer (Ed.), Expatriate management: new ideas for international business (pp. 37-56). Wesport, Conn: Quorum Books. Zweig, P. (1961). The Adventurer. New York: Basic Books.en_NZ
dc.identifier.voyager724896
 Find in your library

Files in this item

FilesSizeFormatView

There are no files associated with this item.

This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.

If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.

If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record