Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorHall, C. Michael
dc.contributor.advisorHigham, James
dc.contributor.authorCarr, Anna M.en_NZ
dc.contributor.authorThompson, Anna (nee Carr)
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:17:03Z
dc.date.copyright2004-03en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationCarr, A. M. (2004, March). Interpreting culture: Visitors’ experiences of cultural landscape in New Zealand (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1490en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/1490
dc.descriptionThis item may be submitted for publication. The full text will be unavailable until the publisher has confirmed that they will allow archiving.en_NZ
dc.description.abstractThis thesis examines visitors' awareness and experiences of cultural values for natural areas of importance to Māori. The South Island/Te Wai Pounamu contains natural landscapes with scenic and recreational values that attract large numbers of domestic and international visitors. Many of these areas have a cultural significance for members of the South Island's Ngāi Tahu iwi and hapu groups. The Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998 legally recognised the traditional relationships between the iwi and the natural world, whilst other Acts of Parliament provide direction to government agencies for encouraging iwi involvement in the management of natural resources. Measures include increased participation in the management of national parks through iwi representation on regional conservation boards, the New Zealand Conservation Authority, and the inclusion of Ngāi Tahu values within subsequent national park management plans. National park interpretation may influence visitors' awareness of cultural values for natural areas as visitors encounter information panels, displays, publications such as visitor guides or brochures, experience guided tours and/or audiovisual shows and view other interpretive medium. The researcher investigated visitors' awareness of Māori values for landscape at three South Island case study sites: Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, Fiordland National Park, and Lake Pukaki. An understanding of the Ngāi Tahu values for these areas was achieved through site visits, a literature review and informal interviews to enable comparisons of the management history of interpretation at the case study sites. Visitors' experiences at each site were explored with interviews, participant observations and a survey that provided qualitative and quantitative data. The survey was administered between January and April 2000 to 716 visitors, yielding 472 valid returns (65.9%). A comprehensive profile of visitors' demographics, social and environmental values was developed from the survey data. Visitors were well educated with 70% having a tertiary education and the majority of visitors were employed in professional occupations. When asked about their previous experiences of other cultures, many visitors reported prior encounters with Australian Aborigine and Native Americans. Visitors considered Rotorua and the Bay of Islands as the locations most closely associated with Māori whereas the study sites were not regarded as significant to Māori, despite the presence of on-site interpretation conveying Māori values for each area. Māori culture was not an important travel motivation for most visitors to these areas and the research revealed diverse reactions from the survey respondents towards cultural interpretive material. Despite this a small percentage of visitors (14%), of domestic and international origins, had an extremely strong interest in future opportunities to experience cultural interpretation of the landscape, particularly in material that tended towards the narrative, for example mythology and legends. It was concluded that a niche demand for Māori perspectives of natural areas could be further met with increased resources for interpretation at visitor centres. It was also proposed that such interpretation could attract a Māori audience, increasing Māori visitation to national parks. The participation of Māori and other host community members in the development and delivery of cultural landscape interpretation would provide broad perspectives and unique educational opportunities for the visiting public. At the case study areas, and throughout New Zealand, the cultural landscapes encountered by visitors had complex and diverse meanings to a wide range of peoples, depending on individual circumstances. Similarly, the diversity of visitors requires the development of interpretation which responds to visitor demand as well as management needs, the multitude of meanings for the landscape being but one of many possible themes.en_NZ
dc.subjectMaori
dc.subjecttourism
dc.subjectculture
dc.subjectSouth Island
dc.subjectKai Tahu
dc.subject.lcshGV Recreation Leisureen_NZ
dc.titleInterpreting culture: Visitors’ experiences of cultural landscape in New Zealanden_NZ
dc.typeThesisen_NZ
dc.description.versionUnpublisheden_NZ
otago.date.accession2006-05-25en_NZ
otago.schoolTourismen_NZ
thesis.degree.disciplineTourismen_NZ
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Otago
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral Theses
otago.interloanyesen_NZ
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
dc.identifier.eprints306en_NZ
otago.school.eprintsTourismen_NZ
dc.description.referencesAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) 1993, Indigenous Australians and Tourism : A Focus on Northern Australia : Proceedings of the Indigenous Australians and Tourism Conference, Darwin, June 1993, ATSIC, Canberra. Abram, S., Waldren, J. and Macleod, D. 1997, Tourists and Tourism: Identifying With People and Places, Berg, Oxford. Albers, P.C. and James, W.R. 1988, `Travel photography: a methodological approach', Annals of Tourism Research, 15: 134-158. Albrecht, D., Bultena, G. Hioberg, E. and Nowat, P. 1982, `The New Environmental Paradigm Scale', Journal of Environmental Education, 13: 39-43. Almagor, U. 1985, `A tourist's `vision quest' in an African game reserve' Annals of Tourism Research, 12: 31-47. Alpers, A. 1964, Maori Myths and Tribal Legends, Murray Press, London. Altman, IC. 1988, Aborigines, Tourism, and Development: the Northern Territory Experience, Australian National University North Australia Research Unit, Darwin. Altman, J.C. 1993, Indigenous Australians in the National Tourism Strategy: Impact, Sustainahility and Policy Issues, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research Australian National University, Canberra. Altman, J.C. and Finlayson, 3. 1992, Aborigines, Tourism and Sustainable Development, Australian National University Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Canberra. Altman, J.C. and Finlayson, J. 1993, `Aborigines, Tourism and Sustainable Development', The Journal of Tourism Studies, 4(1): 38-48. Anderson, K. and Gale, F. 1992, Inventing Places: Studies in Cultural Geography, Longman, New York. Anderson, D.L. 1994, `Developing Ecotourism Destinations: Conservation from the Beginning', Trends, 31: 2. Anderson, K., Domosh, M., Pile, S. and Thrift, N. (eds) 2003, Handbook of Cultural Geography, Sage Publications Inc., London. Anderson, M. 1.996, From Sea to Sea: Ecotourism Trends in Alaska and Canada, Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Board, Wellington. Aotearoa Maori Tourism Federation (AMTF) 1994, Position Paper on the Protection of Maori Cultural and Intellectual Property within the Tourism Industry, AMTF, Rotorua. Aotearoa Maori Tourism Federation (AMTF) 1995, Report On The Current Market Position of Maori Tourism Product, AMTF, Rotorua. Aotearoa Maori Tourism Federation (AMTF) 1995, Strategic Marketing Plan for Maori Tourism, AMTF, Rotorua. Armstrong, K.R. 2002, Issues regarding museum evaluation and the visitor experience: a case study of `Signs of a Nation' in the Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa 307 Tongarewa, unpublished Master of Tourism Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington. Ashworth, G.J. and Goodall, B. 1990, Marketing Tourism Places, Routledge, London. Ashworth, G.J. and Larkham, P.J. 1994, Building a New Heritage: Tourism, Culture and Identity in the New Europe, Routledge, London. Ateljevic, I. and Doorne, S. 2002, `Representing New Zealand: Tourism Imagery and Ideology', Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3): 648-667. Atkins, P., Simmons, I. and Roberts, B. 1998, People, Land and Time, Arnold, London. Attfield, R. and Belsey, A. 1994, Philosophy and the Natural Environment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Automobile Association (AA) 2002, Discover New Zealand Guide, Automobile Association, Wellington. Ave, J., Gertler, L.G., Nuryanti, W., H.illig, J. and Hardjasoemantri, K. 1992, Universal Tourism: Enriching or Degrading Culture? Gadjah .Marla University Press, Yogyakarta. Avery, P. 1999, `Between myth and history: mythology and legends as tourist attractions', pp. 140-158 in E. Arola and T. Mikkonen Tourism Industry and Education Symposium Proceedings, Reports and Proceedings Jyvaskyla Polytechnic No 5, Jyvaskyla Polytechnic, Finland. Ayala, H. 1996, `Resort ecotourism: a master plan for experience management', Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 37(5): 46-53. Baldwin, A., De Luce, J. and Pletsch, C. 1994, Beyond Preservation: Restoring and Inventing Landscapes, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. Barnett, S.J. 1996, Authenticity and Commoditisation of Culture - A Tourism Perspective, unpublished research report, Masters of Business Studies, Massey University, Palmerston. North. Barnett, S.J. 1997, `Maori Tourism', Tourism Management, 18(7): 471-473. Barnett, S.J. 2001, `Manaakitanga: Maori hospitality - a case study of Maori accommodation providers', Tourism Management, (22)1: 83-92. Barringer, M.D. 2002, Selling Yellowstone: capitalism and the construction of nature, University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. Bassett, B. 1996, Tourism Research Bibliography, 1994-1996, Ministry of Commerce, Wellington. Battiste, M. (ed.) 2000, Reclaiming Indigenous Voice and Vision, UBC Press, Toronto. Bearden, W. and Netemeyer, R. 1999, Handbook of Marketing Scales: Multi-item Measures for Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Research, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks. Beck, L. and Cable, T. 1998, Interpretation for the 21st Century: Fifteen Guiding Principles for Interpreting Nature and Culture, Sagamore Publishing, Illinois. 308 Beckmann, E.A. 1989, `Interpretation in Australian national parks and reserves: status, evaluation and prospects', pp. 142-152 in Uzzell, D. Heritage Interpretation: Volume One, The Natural and Built Environment, Belhaven Press, London. Beeho, A. and Prentice, R.C. 1996, `Understanding Visitor Experiences as a Basis for Product Development: ASEB grid analysis and the Black Country museums in the West Midlands of England', pp. 472-494 in L.C. Harrison and W. Husbands Practising Responsible Tourism: International Case Studies in Tourism Planning, Policy and Development, J. Wiley and Sons, New York. Bender, B. (ed.) 1993, Landscape: Politics and Perspective, Berg Publishers, Oxford. Bennion, T. 1997, The Ngai Tahu Settlement: what does it mean for climbers? Climber Magazine, Summer 1997: 8, 29. Berkes, F. 1993, Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Perspective, pp. 1-9 in J.T. Inglis Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases, International Program on Ecological Knowledge, Ottawa. Berkes, F. 2003, Sacred ecology: re-assessing traditional ecological knowledge, public lecture, University of Otago, March 2003. Bernard, H.R. 2002, Research Methods in Anthropology ; Qualitative and Quantitative Methods, Alta MiraPress, Walnut Creek. Berno, T. 1996, `Cross-cultural research methods: content or context? A Cook Islands example', pp. 376-295 in R. Butler and T. H.inch Tourism and Indigenous Peoples, International Thomson Business Press, London. Best, E. 1924, The Maori, Whitcoulls and Tombs, Wellington. Best, E. 1982, Maori religion and mythology, New Zealand Government Printer, Wellington. Best Western, 2003, http://www.bestwestem.co.nz/indexhtm?nz_overview.htm–content (Accessed 12 March 2003). Biddlecomb, C.Z. 1981, Pacific Tourism: contrasts in values and expectations, Pacific Conference of Churches, Suva. Binks, G., Dyke, J., Dagnall, P. and 1988, Visitors welcome: a manual on the presentation and interpretation of archaeological excavations. Manchester Polytechnic, Centre for Environmental Interpretation, H..M.S.O., London. Birnbaum, C.A. 1994, `Protecting cultural landscapes: planning, treatment and management of historic landscapes' in Preservation Briefs, Technical Preservation Services, United States National Park Service, Washington DC. Bishop, R. 1995, Freeing ourselves from neo-colonial domination in research: an indigenous approach to creating knowledge. Keynote address, New Zealand Association for Research in Education, Massey University, December 1995, Palmerston North. Bishop, R. 1996, Whakawhanaungatanga: Collaborative Research Stories. The Dunmore Press Ltd, Palmerston North. Blattner, P., Coates, G. and Bishop, D. 1989 A Guide to Milford Sound, New Zealand New Zealand Geological Survey, Lower Hutt. 309 Blythe, M. 1988, From Maoriland to Aotearoa: Images of Maori in New Zealand Film and Television, Unpublished Master Degree Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles. Boekholt, K. 1983, The Copland Track, Unpublished Diploma in Parks and Recreation Dissertation, Lincoln College, Canterbury. Boffa Miskell Ltd and Lucas Associates 1993, Canterbury Regional Landscape Study: Volume One, Report prepared for Canterbury Regional Council, Christchurch. Boffa Miskell Ltd and Lucas Associates 1993, Canterbury Regional Landscape Study: Volume Two, Report prepared for Canterbury Regional Council, Christchurch. Boissevain, J. 1996, Coping with Tourists: European Reactions to Mass Tourism, Bergahn Books, Providence. Boniface, B.G. and Cooper, G.P. 1994, The Geography of Travel and Tourism, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford. Boniface, P. 1995, Managing Quality Cultural Tourism, Routledge, New York. Boniface, P. and Fowler, P.J. 1993, Heritage and Tourism in The Global Village', Routledge, London. Boorstin, D.J. 1964, Image: A Guide to Pseudo-events in America, Harper and Row, New York. Booth, K.L. 1988, Guidelines For Conducting An On-site Visitor Questionnaire Survey, Science and Research Internal Report, No. 32, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Booth, K.L. 1989, A Literature Review of Visitors to the Conservation Estate with Special Reference to Families and Under-represented Groups, Volume One, Science and Research Series, No 13, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Booth, K.L. 1991,. Methods For Conducting An On-site Visitor Questionnaire Survey, Science and Research Series, No. 102, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Booth, K.L., Jones, N.C. and Devlin, P.J. 1997, The Effects of Aircraft Overflights on Recreationists in Natural Settings, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Booth, K.L. and Peebles, C.J. 1995, `Patterns of use' in P.J. Devlin, R.A. Corbett and. C.J. Peebles, C.J. Outdoor Recreation in New Zealand, Volume 1 : A Review of the Research Literature, Department of Conservation and Lincoln University, Wellington. Booth, K.L. and Simmons, D.G. 2000, `Tourism and the establishment of national parks in new Zealand' pp. 39-49 in R.W. Butler and S.W. Boyd Tourism and National Parks : Issues and Implications, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Borrie, W.T. and Birzell, R.M. 2001, `Approaches to measuring quality of the wilderness experience' pp. 29-38 in Freimund, W.A. and D.N. col (comps.) Visitor Use Density and Wilderness Experiences, Missoula, Montana, .Lune 1-3 2000: Proceedings, RMRS-P-20, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre. Borrie, W.T. and Roggenbuck, J.W. 1996, Describing the wilderness experience at Juniper Prairie Wilderness using experience sampling methods', pp. 165-172 in D. Kulhavy and M.H. Legg Proceedings of the Wilderness and Natural Areas in Eastern North America Conference, Gatlinburg TN. 310 Bosselman, F.P., Peterson, C.A. and McCarthy, C. 1999, Managing Tourism Growth: Issues and Applications, Island Press, Washington. Bourassa, S.C. 1991, The Aesthetics of Landscape, Belhaven Press, London. Boyd, S. 2002, `Cultural and heritage tourism in Canada: opportunities, principles and challenges', Tourism and Hospitality Research, 3(3): 211-233. Brailsford, B. 1997, The Tattooed Land, Stoneprint Press, Hamilton. Brailsford, P. 1992, What is NZOIA and what does it offer outdoor instructors? In Step Outside The 2nd National Outdoor Education Conference Proceedings, Hillary Commission for Recreation and. Sport, Wellington. Brameld, T.B. and Matsuyama, M. 1977, Tourism as Cultural Learning: Two Controversial Case Studies in Educational Anthropology, University Press of America, Washington. Bramwell, B. and Lane, B. 1993, `Interpretation and Sustainable Tourism: the potential. and the pitfalls', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(2): 71-80. Breese, J.E. 1991, Overview of cultural heritage interpretation in New Zealand, pp. 39- 42 in R.S. Tabata, J. Yamashiro and G. Cherem Proceedings of the Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. Brett, D. 1.996, The Construction of Heritage, Cork University Press, Cork. Brokenshaw, P., and Goldberg, H.H. 1992, Cultural Tourism in Australia: A Report on Cultural Tourism, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. Brown, T., 1993, `Aboriginal culture of Uluru National Park: Who's interpreting what?' in K. Markwell and S. Muloin, Embracing Interpretation in the year of Indigenous Peoples 1993, Proceedings of the 1993 National Conference of the Interpretation Australia Association, Interpretation Australia Association, Australia. Brown, T.J. 1999, `Antecedents of culturally significant tourist behaviour', Annals of Tourism Research, 26(3): 676-700. Brunner, B. 1996, Resource based recreation and tourism management at Mt Cook National Park, New Zealand, unpublished Master of Resource Management Thesis, University of Salzburg, Austria. Bruun, O. and Kalland, A. 1995, Asian Perceptions of Nature: A Critical Approach, Curzon, Richmond. Bryman, A.E. and Burgess, R.G. 1994, Analysing Qualitative Data, Routledge, London. Buchanan, J.D.H. and Simmons, D.R. 1973, The Maori History and Place Names of Hawke rs Bay, Reed Publications, Wellington. Biihrs, T. and Bartlett, R.V. 1993, Environmental Policy in New Zealand: the Politics of Clean and Green? Oxford University Press, Auckland. Burns, P. 1999, An Introduction to Tourism and Anthropology, Routledge, New York. Bums, P. and Holden, A. 1995, Tourism: a New Perspective, Prentice Hall, London. Butler, R.W. 1998, `Tartan mythology: the traditional tourist image of Scotland', pp. 121-139 in Ringer, G. Destinations: Cultural Landscapes of Tourism, Routledge, London. 311 Butler, R.W. and Boyd, S.W. 2000, Tourism and National Parks : Issues and Implications, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Butler, R.W. and Hinch, T.D. 1996, Tourism and Indigenous Peoples, International Thomson Business Press, Boston. Butler, R.W. and Pearce, D.G. 1995, Change in Tourism: People, Places, Processes, Routledge, London. Butts, D.J. 1990, Nga Tukemata: Nga Taonga o Ngati Kahungunu, the Awakening: the Treasures of Ngati Kahungunu pp. 107-117 in P. Gathercole and D. Lowenthal The Politics of the Past, University Press, Cambridge. Callaghan, P., Robinson, M. and Evans, N. 1996, Culture as the Tourist Product, University of Northumbria, Newcastle. Cannon, J.C. 1994, `Issues in Sampling and Sample Design: A Managerial Perspective' pp. 131-143 in J.R.B. Ritchie and C.R. Goeldner. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Research: A Handbook , for Managers and Researchers, J. Wiley and Sons, New York. Cant, G. 1976, Canterbury at Leisure: Studies in Internal Tourism and Recreation, Canterbury Branch New Zealand Geographical Society, Christchurch. Cape Brett Walkway, no date, Rakaumangamanga Track brochure, Pre-Press Studio, Whangarei. Can, A.M. 1.998, The motivations and experiences of guided mountaineering clients in New Zealand's Southern Alps, unpublished Postgraduate Diploma in Tourism dissertation, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin. Can, A.M. 2001, "Locating' culture: visitor experiences of significant landscapes', pp. 40-46 in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Interpretation. Australia Association Conference, Alice Springs, September 3-7, 2001. Carr, A.M. 2002, `Mountain places, cultural spaces - interpretation as a tool for sustainable management of culturally significant landscapes', pp. 27-28 in Proceedings of the ATLAS Visions of Sustainability Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, November 2002. Carter, G. F. 1964, Man and the Land: A Cultural Geography, New York, Holt Rinehart and Winston. Casell, C. and Syron, G. (eds) Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks. Cater, E. 1994, `Ecotourism in the Third World: Problems and Prospects for Sustainability', pp. 69-86 in Cater, E. and Lowman, G. Ecotourism, a Sustainable Option? J. Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Cater, E. and Lowman, G. 1994, Ecotourism: A Sustainable Option? J. Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Ceballos-Lascurain, H. 1987, `The future of'ecotourism" Mexico Journal: 13-14 Ceballos-Lascurain, H. 1996, Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas: the state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development, IUCN, Cambridge. Cessford, G. 1989, Interpretation of History, unpublished Student Paper, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism, Lincoln University, Canterbury. 312 Cessford, G. 1993, Canoeing and Crowding on the Whanganui River, Science and Research Series No. 97, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Cessford, G. 1998a, Visitor satisfactions, impact perceptions and attitudes towards management options on the Kepler Track, Science for Conservation, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Cessford, G. 1998b, Visitor satisfactions, impact perceptions and attitudes towards management options on the Milford Track, Science for Conservation, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Cessford, G. 2000, `Noise impact issues on the Great Walks of New Zealand' pp. 69- 76 in D.N. Cole, S.F. McCool, W.T. Barrie and J. O'Loughlin (comps.) Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference, Vol. 4: Wilderness Visitors, Experiences, and Visitor Management, Missoula, Montana, June 1-3 2000: Proceedings, RMRS-P- 15-VOL-4, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre. Cessford, G. and Dingwall, A. 1996a, Impacts of Visitors on Natural and Historic Resources of Conservation Significance : Part 1 Workshop Proceedings Science and. Research Internal Report No. 158, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Cessford, G. and Dingwall, P. 1996b, Tourist Visitors and Their Experiences at New Zealand Sub Antarctic Islands, Science and Research Series No. 96, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Chadwick, R.A. 1994 `Concepts, definitions and measures used in travel and tourism research, pp. 65-80 in J.R.B. Ritchie and C.R. Goeldner. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Research: A Handbook for Managers and Researchers, J. Wiley and Sons, New York. Chambers, E. 1997, Tourism and Culture: An Applied Perspective, University of New York Press, Albany. Champagne, D. 1999, Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues, AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek. Chan, A. M. and Rossitter, J.R. 1997, `Understanding the Causal Relationship between Values and Consumer Behaviour' Australian New Zealand Marketing Educators' Conference, Faculty of Business, Monash University, Melbourne. Chris and Annette's on-line diary, 2002, (http://www.our-trips.com/chrisannette/ newz/newz.html) (Accessed March 2002). Cloher, D.U. 1998, `A Sustainable Maori tourism in Northland. New Zealand', in J. Kandampully Proceedings of New Zealand Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, 3rd Biennial conference, Advances in Research, Akaroa, December 1998. Coates, P. 1998, Nature: Western Attitudes Since Ancient Times, Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Cambridge. Cobo, J.R.M.1986, Study of the problem of discrimination against indigenous peoples, United Nations Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1986/7. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/racism/00- indigenousguide.html) {Accessed June 2004). Cohen, E. 1979, `A phenomenology of tourist experiences', Sociology, 13: 179-202. Cohen, E. 1993, `The study of touristic images of native people: mitigating the stereotype of a stereotype', pp. 36-39 in D.G. Pearce and R.W. Butler Tourism Research: Critiques and Challenges, Routledge, London. 313 Cohen, E. 1996, `Hunter-gatherer tourism in Thailand', pp. 227-254 in R. Butler and T. Hinch Tourism and Indigenous Peoples, International Thomson Business Press, London. Cohen, M.T. 1993, Tonalism: an American Interpretation of the Landscape, Marbella Gallery, New York. Cole, D.N. 2000, `Visitor use density and wilderness experinces: a historical review', pp. 11-20 in Freimund, W.A. and D.N. col (comps.) Visitor Use Density and Wilderness Experiences, Missoula, Montana, June 1-3 2000: Proceedings, RMRS-P- 20, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre. Collier, A. 1989, Principles of Tourism: A New Zealand Perspective, Pitman, Auckland. Community Employment Group (CEG) 2003, Maori Tourism – Ulva's Guided Walks http://wwww.ceg.govt.nz/Maoritourisrn.asp?page=124 (Accessed August 2003). Conlin, M.V. and Baum, T. 1995, Island Tourism: Management Principles and Practice, J. Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Constable, L. 1998, The Users' Guide to the Ngai. Tahu Settlement Act from a recreational perspective', pp. 38-50 in Proceedings of The Edge New Zealand Recreation Association Annual Conference, Dunedin. Contours 1992, Aoraki National Alpine Museum and Visitor Centre Proposal: Scoping Paper Prepared for the Department of Conservation, Canterbury Conservancy, Contours Conservation Tourism Consultants, Christchurch. Corbett, R. 1995, An analysis of the institutional arrangements for tourism in Aoraki Mount Cook Village, unpublished Masters of Parks and Recreation Thesis, Lincoln University, Canterbury. Corbett, R. 1996, `Lake Pukaki Information Kiosk', Canterbury Conservancy News, Number 2, May 1996. Corner, J. and Harvey, S. 1991, Enterprise and Heritage: Crosscurrents of National Culture, Routledge, New York. Coventry, N. 2003, Inside Tourism, 5 December 2003. Cosgrove, D. 1993, `Landscape and myths, gods and humans', pp. 281-305 in B. Bender Landscape: Politics and Perspective, Berg Publishers, Oxford. Cosgrove, D. and Daniels, S. 1988, The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Craik, J. 1991, Resorting to Tourism : Cultural Policies for Tourist Development in Australia, Allen and Unwin, North Sydney. Crang, M. 1998, Cultural Geography, Routledge, London. Creamer, H. 1990, Aboriginal perceptions of the past: the implications for cultural resource management in Australia', pp. 130-140 in P. Gathercole and D. Lowenthal The Politics of the Past, University Press, Cambridge. Crick, M. 1994, Resplendent Sites, Discordant Voices: Sri Lankans and International Tourism, Harwood Academic Publishers, Langhorne. 314 Croll, W. (ed.) 1987, Centenary Seminar: 100 Years of National Parks in New Zealand, 24-28 August 1987, Department of Continuing Education, University of Canterbury, Christchurch. Daltabuit, M. and Pi-Sunyer, O. 1990, `Tourism Development in Quintana Roo, Mexico', Cultural Survival Quarterly, 14 (1) 9-13. Dann, G.B. 1996, `Images of destination peoples in travelogues', pp. 349-375 in R. Butler and T. Hinch Tourism and Indigenous Peoples, International Thomson Business Press, London. Dann, G.B. 1999, `The People of Tourist Brochures', in T. Selwyn The Tourist image: Myths and Myth-Making in Tourism, John Wiley and Sons, New York and London. Davenport, M.A., Freimund, W.A., Borrie, W.T., Manning, R.E., Valliere, W.A. and Wang, B. 2000, `Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park', pp.86- 98 in D.N. Cole, S.F. McCool, W.T. Borrie and J. O'Loughlin (comps.) Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference, Vol. 4: Wilderness Visitors, Experiences, and Visitor Management, Missoula, Montana, June 1-3 2000: Proceedings, RMRS-P- 1 5-VOL-4, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre Davidoff, P.G., Davidoff, D.S. and Eyre, J.D. 1995, Tourism Geography, Prentice- Hall, Englewood Cliffs. Davidson, R. and Maitland, R. 1997, Tourism Destinations, Hodder and Stoughton, London. Dawson, J. 1998 A constitutional property settlement between Ngai Tahu and the Crown, unpublished paper, University of Otago, School of Law, Dunedin. Decrop, A. 1999 'Qualitative research methods for the Study of Tourist Behaviour', pp. 335-365 in A. Pizam and Y. Mansfield Consumer Behaviour in Travel and Tourism, The Haworth Press Inc., Binghamton. De Kadt, E. 1990, `Making the Alternative Sustainable: Lessons From Development of Tourism', pp. 47-75 in V.L. Smith and W.R. Eadington Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Pitfalls in the Development of Tourism, Wiley, Chichester. De Kadt, E. 1979, Passport to Development, Oxford University Press, New York. Department of Conservation 1987, Walks in Mt Cook National Park, Department of Conservation, Mt Cook. Department of Conservation I 989a, Mount Cook National Park Management Plan, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation 1989b, Nomination of South West New Zealand for Inclusion in the World Heritage List, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 1990, Survey Into Visitor Satisfaction With Facilities in Mount Cook Village, unpublished internal report, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation 1991a, Mount Cook National Park Interpretation Plan August 1991, Department of Conservation, Mount Cook. Department of Conservation 1991b, Fiordland National Park Management Plan, Department of Conservation, Invercargill. 315 Department of Conservation 1992a, Review of Interpretation Facilities at Te Anau, Phase 1: Focus of Interpretation, Department of Conservation, Invercargill. Department of Conservation 1992b, Kepler Track, Fiordland National Park, Department of Conservation, Te Anau. Department of Conservation 1993a, Greenprint: The Department and Conservation Estate, Volume Two, Brief to the Incoming Government, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 1993b, South-West New Zealand Te Wahipounamu World Heritage Area, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 1993c, The New Zealand Conservation Estate and International Visitors., Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 1996a, Greenprint Conservation in New Zealand: a Strategic Overview, Volume One, October 1996, Brief to the Incoming Government Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 1996b, Greenprint Conservation in New Zealand: a Guide to the Department, Volume Two, October 1996, Brief to the Incoming Government, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 1996c, DOC Southland at a Glance, Department of Conservation, Invercargill. Department of Conservation 1996d, Visitor Strategy, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 1997a, Fiordland National Park: General Information, Department of Conservation, Invercargill. Department of Conservation I997b, Interpreting our Southern Lands: An Information Resource for Recreation Tourism Operators, Department of Conservation, Invercargill. Department of Conservation 1998a, Walks in Aoraki Mount Cook National Park, Department of Conservation, Mt Cook. Department of Conservation 1998b, Historic Heritage Management Review: Report of the Ministerial Advisory Committee, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 1999a, Aoraki/Mount Cook: the Ancestor ofNgai Tahu, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation 1999b, Aoraki/Mount Cook Fact Sheet, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation, 1999c, He Atinga, November/December 1.999, 12: 1, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 2000a, Department of Conservation Annual Report for the Year ended 30 June 2000, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 2000b, Canterbury Conservation Management Strategy. Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation 2000c, Walks in Aoraki Mount Cook National Park, Department of Conservation, Mt Cook. 316 Department of Conservation 2000d, Day Walks in the Mackenzie Basin and Waitaki Valley, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation 2001 a, Visitor Strategy, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Department of Conservation 2001 b, Interpretation Strategy, Canterbury Conservancy 1991-2001, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation 2001c, Draft Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park Management Plan, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation 2002a, Canterbury Conservancy News August-September 2002, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation 2002b, Draft .Fiordland National Park Management Plan, Department of Conservation, Invercargill. Department of Conservation 2002c, Park Talk 2002, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Department of Conservation, 2003 (http://www.doc.govt.nz) (Accessed 2003) Department of Lands and Survey (DLS) 1983, General Policy for National Parks, National Park Series No.27, National Parks and Reserves Authority, Wellington. Department of Lands and Survey 1985, National Parks and Reserves Interpreters Seasonal Manual, Department of Lands and Survey, Wellington. Department of Lands and Survey 1986, The Story of Mount Cook National Park, Department of Lands and Survey, Wellington. Department of Tourism, Southern Cross University 1996, A Talent for Tourism: Stories About Indigenous People in Tourism, Southern Cross University Press, Canberra. Destination Fiordland (http://www.fiordland.org.nz/Explore-FiordlandlTe- Anau/Default.asp) (Accessed 2003) Deur, D. and Mark, S. 2000, `Traditional land use as a starting point: opening crosscultural dialogue at Crater Lake and Lava Beds', CRM, 3: 16-17. Devlin., P.J. 1987, The changing role of interpretation in New Zealand Parks, in. W. Croll Centenary Seminar: 100 Years of National Parks' in New Zealand, 24-28 August 1987, Department of Continuing Education, University of Canterbury, Christchurch. Devlin, P.3. and. Booth, K.L. 1998, `Outdoor recreation and the Environment: Towards an Understanding of the recreational use of the Outdoors in New Zealand', pp. 109- 127 in H.C. Perkins and G. Cushman, G. Time Out? Leisure, Recreation and Tourism in New Zealand and Australia, Longman, Auckland. Devlin, P.J., Corbett, R.A. and Peebles, C.J. (eds) 1995, Outdoor Recreation in New Zealand Volume 1, A Review of the Research Literature, Department of Conservation and Lincoln University, Wellington. Devlin, P.3., Espiner, S., Hutchings, R. and Parkin, E. 1996, Department of Conservation Visitor Management Information Needs: Scoping the State of the Knowledge, Department of Human and Leisure Sciences, Lincoln University, Canterbury. 317 Digance, J. 2003, `Pilgrimage at contested sites' Annals of Tourism Research 30(1): 143-159. Dingle, C. 1992, `Moving On?' in Step Outside The 2nd National Outdoor Education Conference Proceedings, Hillary Commission for Recreation and Sport, Wellington. Doole, P. 1987, Free-ranging commercial recreation on the New Zealand public lands, unpublished Masters of Resource and Regional Planning Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin. Dore, Y. and Dore, J.B.C. 1992, Dore to Manapouri: the Development of Tourism in Early Fiordland, Craig Printing Co., Invercargill. Douglas, E.M. (ed.) 1984, Waiora, WaiMaori, Waikino, Waimate, Waitai. Maori Perceptions of Water and the Environment, Centre for Maori Studies and Research, University of Waikato, Hamilton. Douglas, N. 1995, They Came for Savages: 100 Years of Tourism in Melanesia, Southern Cross University Press, Alstonville. Dovey, K. 1985, The quest for authenticity and the replication of environmental meaning, pp. 33-50, in Seamon, D. and Mugerauer, R. Dwelling, Place and Environment: Towards a Phenomenology of Person and World, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. Dow, C. 1999, `In search of the picturesque' Aborigines and Tourists in Nineteenth Century' Gippsland, Tourism, Culture and Communication 2(2): 111-122. Druce, D.M.I. 1995, The carrying capacities of huts and tracks inside Mount Cook National Park, unpublished Masters of Science Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch. Duncan. J. and Davison J. 1991, Review of the Capacity of Selected Tramping Tracks to Cater for Projected Increases in Overseas Trarnpers, New Zealand Tourism Board, Wellington. Dunedin Evening Star 21110122, `Mt Cook Motor Co. Ltd', np. Dunlap, R.E. and Heffernan, R.B. 1975 `Outdoor Recreation and. Environmental concern: an empirical examination' Rural Sociology, 40: 18-30. Dunlap, R.E. and Van Liere, K.D. 1.978 `The 'new environmental paradigm': A proposed measuring instrument and preliminary results, Journal of Environmental Education 9: 410-419. Eadington, W.R. 1992, Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. East, P., Inman, K. and Luger, K. 1998, Sustainability in Mountain Tourism: Perspectives for the Himalayan Countries, Book Faith India and Studienverlag Innsbruck. Echtner, C.B. and Jamal, T.B. 1997, `The Disciplinary Dilemma of Tourism Studies', Annals of Tourism Research, 2494): 868-883. Edensor, T. 1998, Tourists at the Taj: Performance and Meaning at a Symbolic Site, Routledge, London. Edensor, T. 2000, `Staging tourism: tourists as performers', Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2): 322-344. 318 Employment Matters July 1996, `The Mighty Moa Experience' 7(7):1. Environment Canterbury (http://www.ecan.govt.nz/Plans-Reports/annual-plansreports. html) (Accessed 2003). Epstein, A.L. 1978, Ethos and Identity, Three Studies in Ethnicity, Tavistock Publications London. Ericksen, H. 1999, 'Acting Proper": Encounter and. Exchanges on tourism's frontier', Tourism, Culture and Communication 22: 99-110. Eriksen, T.H. 2002, Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives, Pluto Press. London. Ernst ; rnd Young 1996, Analysis of Visito :.:rmation Needs at Mount Cook Village, Erns: d Young, Auckland. Errs :. .. Young 1997, Mount Cook Vill ::i . ::.::velopment Issues and Options, Ernst and _`:::.:ng, Auckland. Espiner, S.R. 1999, The Use and Effect of Hazard Warning Signs: Managing Visitor Safety at Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Everett, A. and Latu, D. 2000, Review of Satisfaction Research and Measurement Approaches, Science and Research Internal Report 183, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Evison, H. 1986, Ngai Tahu land rights and the crown pastoral lease lands in the South Island of New Zealand, Ngai Tahu Maori Trust Board, Christchurch. Evison, H. 1993, Te Wai Pounamu, the Greenstone Island: a History of the Southern Maori During the European Colonization of New Zealand, Aoraki Press, Christchurch. Eyewitness Travel Guide, 2001, New Zealand, Dorling Kindersley, London. Eyles, J. 1985, Senses of Place, Silverbrook Press, Warrington. Fairweather, J.R. and Swaffield, S.R. 2001, `Visitor experiences of Kaikoura, New Zealand: an interpretive study using photographs of landscapes and Q method', Tourism Management, 22: 219-228. Fairweather., J.R. and Swaffield, S.R. 2003, `Tourist experiences of landscape in New Zealand: themes from three case studies', Tourism, Culture and Communication 4: 57- 70. Fairweather, J.R., Swaffield, S.R. and Simmonds, D.G. 1998, Understanding visitors' experiences in Kaikoura using photographs of landscapes and Q methods. Report No. 5, Tourism Research and Educations Centre, Lincoln University, Canterbury. Fairweather, J.R., Swaffield, S.R. and Simmonds, D.G. 2000, Understanding locals and visitors' experience of Rotorua using photographs of landscapes and Q methods. Report No. 13, Tourism Research and Educations Centre, Lincoln University, Canterbury. Falk, J.H. and Dierking, L.D. 2000, Learning From Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning, AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek. Fenton, S. 2003, Ethnicity, Polity Press, Cambridge. Field D.R. and. Wagar, J.A. 1973, `Visitor Groups and Interpretation in Parks and other outdoor leisure settings', Journal of Environmental Education 51: 12-17. 319 Finlayson, J. 1991, Australian Aborigines and Cultural Tourism: Case Studies of Aboriginal Involvement in the Tourist Industry, Centre for Multicultural Studies, University of Wollongong, Wollongong. Finn, M., Elliott-White, M. and Walton, M. 2000, Tourism and Leisure Research Methods : Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretation, Pearson Education, Harlow. Fladmark, J.M. 1993, Heritage: Conservation, Interpretation and Enterprise, unpublished paper presented at the Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention, Donhead, London. Foley, M., Lennon, J.J. and Maxwell, G.A. 1997, Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Management: Issues in Strategy and Culture, Cassell, London. Follows, D.S. 1991, The role of resource interpretation in Alaska's heritage tourism industry, pp. 117-120 in R.S. Tabata, J. Yamashiro and G. Cherem Proceedings of the Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. Foreshore Seabed Debate (http://www.publicaccessnewzealand.org/files/beachesforrecreation.html) (Accessed. 2003) Fowler, P.J. 1991, The living and the led: interpreting cultural landscapes, pp. 121-124 in R.S. Tabata, J. Yamashiro and G. Cherem Proceedings of the Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. Fox, A.M. 1991, Cultural sensitivity in interpretive tourism, pp. 125-129 in R.S. Tabata, J. Yamashiro and G. Cherem Proceedings of the Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. Frawley, K.J. 1989, `Cultural landscapes' and national parks: philosophical and planning issues', Australian Parks and Recreation, 25(3): 16-23. Freeman, A.N. 1989, Partnership in parks: a framework for Kai Tahu participation in national park policy and planning, unpublished Masters of Science Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch. Galani-Moutafi, V. 2000 `The Self and the Other, Traveller, Ethnographer, Tourist' Annals of Tourism Research, 27(1): 203-224. Garfield, D. 1997, Partners in Tourism: Culture and Commerce, American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. Garland, R. 1984, New Zealand Hosts and Guests: a Study on the Social Impact of Tourism, Market Research Centre Massey University, Palmerston North. Garven, P., Nepia, M. and Ashwell, H. 1997, Te Whakatau Kaupapa o Murihiku: Ngai Tahu Resource Management Strategy , for the Southland Region, Aoraki Press with Southland Regional Council, Invercargill. Getz, D. and Jamal, T.B. 1994 `The environment community symbiosis: a case for collaborative tourism planning', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2(3): 152-173. Gibbs, M.K. 2001, Are New Zealand Treaty of Waitangi settlements achieving justice? : the Ngai Tabu settlement and the return of Pounamu (greenstone), Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin. Go, F.M. and Jenkins, C.L. 1997, Tourism and Economic Development in Asia and Australasia, Cassell, London. 320 Godde, P., Price, M.F. and Zinimelinan, F.M. 19. 99, Tourism and Development in Mountain Regions, CABI Publishing, Oxon. Goehring, B. 1993, Indigenous Peoples of the World: an introduction to their past and future, Purich Publishing, Saskatchewan. Goeldner, C.R., Ritchie, J.R.B. and Mchltosh, R. 1999, Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies, J. Wiley and Sons, New York. Gold, J.R. and Gold, M.M. 1995, Imagining Scotland: Tradition, Representation and Promotion in Scottish Tourism Since 1750, Scholar Press, Ashgate. Gonzales, P. and Holden, P.1985, Alternative Tourism: A Resource Book, Ecumenical Coalition on Third World Tourism, Bangkok. Goodall, A. 1990, Ko Waitaki te Awa, ka Roimata na Aoraki iriringi, Aoraki Press Ltd, Wellington. Goodall, A. 1992, Ko Waitaki te Awa, ka Roimata na Aoraki iriringi, Rev. ed., Aoraki Press Ltd, Wellington. Gottlieb, R.S.E. 1996, This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment, Routledge, New York. Government Tourist Bureau 1968, Mt Cook, Monarch of the Alps, New Zealand Government Printer, Wellington. Graham, D. 1998 `The New Zealand Government's Policy' pp. 3-21 in A. Quentin- Baxter Recognising the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Institute of Policy Studies, Wellington. Graburn, N.H.H. 200] `Secular ritual: a general theory of tourism' pp. 42-50 in V. Smith and M. Brent Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century, Cognizant Communications, New York. Greenwood, J. 1993, `Business interest groups in tourism governance', Tourism Management, 14: 5, 335-348. Grekin, J. and Milne, S. 1996, `Towards sustainable development: the case of Pond Inlet', pp. 76-106 in R. Butler and T. Hinch Tourism and Indigenous Peoples, International Thomson Business Press, London. Gunn, C.A. 1994, Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases, Taylor and Francis, Washington DC. Hakopa, H. 1998, The Maori World View, unpublished manuscript, Political Science Lecture, University of Otago, Dunedin. Hall, C.M. 1994, Tourism and Politics: Policy, Power and Place, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Hall, C.M. 1996, `Tourism and the Maori of Aotearoa', pp. 155-175 in R. Butler and T. Hinch Tourism and Indigenous Peoples, International Thomson. Business Press, London. Hall, C.M. 1997, `Geography, marketing and the selling of places', Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 6(3/4): 61-84. 321 Hall, C.M. 2000, `Tourism national parks and Aboriginal Peoples', pp. 57-71 in R.W. Butler and S.W. Boyd. Tourism and National Parks : Issues and Implications, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Hall, C.M. and Jenkins, J. 1995, Tourism and Public Policy, Routledge, London. Hall, C.M., Jenkins, J.M. and Kearsley, G. 1997, Tourism Planning and Policy in Australia and New Zealand: Cases, Issues and Practice, Irwin, Sydney. Hall, C.M. and Kearsley, G. 2001, Tourism in New Zealand: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne. Hall, C. M. and McArthur, S. (eds) 1993, Heritage Management in New Zealand and. Australia: Visitor Management, Interpretation and Marketing, Oxford University Press, Auckland. Hall, C.M. and McArthur, S. 1996, Managing community values: Identity - Place Relations: an Introduction, pp. 180-184 in C.M. Hall and S. McArthur, Heritage Management in New Zealand and Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. Hall, C.M.., Mitchell, I. and Keelan, N. 1993, `The implications of Maori perspectives for the management and promotion of heritage tourism in New Zealand', GeoJournal 29(3): 315-322. Hall, C.M. and Page, S. 1999, The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place, and Space, Routledge, New York. Hall, T.R. 2000, `Use limits in wilderness: assumptions and gaps in knowledge' pp. 39-48 in Freimund, W.A. and D.N. col (camps.) Visitor Use Density and Wilderness Experiences, Missoula, Montana, June 1-3 2000: Proceedings, RMRS-P-20, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre. Hall-Jones, J. 1979, Fiordland Place-Names, John Mclndoe Ltd, Dunedin. Hammitt, W.E. 1981, `A theoretical foundation for Tilden's Interpretive principles', Journal of Environmental Education, 12: 13-16. Hammitt, W.E. 1984, `Cognitive processes involved in environmental interpretation', Journal of Environmental Education 15(4): 11-15. Hancock, A. 1999, New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1999, Statistics New Zealand, Wellington. Harmsworth, G. 1997, Maori Values for Land Use Planning, New Zealand Association of Resource Management broadsheet, February 1997: 37-52. Harmsworth, G. 2001, A Collaborative Research Model for Working With Iwi: Discussion Paper, Landcare Research Contract Report LC 2001/119, Landcare Research, Palmerston North. Harper, R.K. 1991, Interpretation in the national parks of New Zealand: the evolution and development of a management practice, unpublished Masters of Applied Science Thesis, Lincoln University, Canterbury. Harrison, D. 1992, Tourism and the Less Developed Countries, Belhaven Press, London. Harrison, L. and Husbands, W. 1996, Practicing Responsible Tourism: International Case Studies in Tourism Planning, Policy and Development, J. Wiley and Sons, New York. 322 Hart, R.R. and Reed, A.W. 1972, Maori Legends, A.H. and A.W. Reed, Wellington. Hawkins, G. and Backman, K.F. 1998, `An exploration of sense of place as a possible explanatory concept in nature-based tourism conflict', Tourism Analysis, 3: 89-102. Hay, R.B. 1991, Sense of place: cross-cultural perspectives from Banks Peninsula, New Zealand, unpublished Masters of Geography Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Canterbury, Christchurch. Hel.lebrekkers, P.T. 1982, Mount Cook National Park: a summer facility and service use appraisal, unpublished Diploma of Parks and Recreation Dissertation, Lincoln College, Canterbury. Helu-Thaman K. 1993, `Beyond hula, hotels and handicrafts', The Contemporary Pacific, 5(1): 103-133. Henderson, A.P. 1994, Nursing a colonial hangover - towards bicultural planning in New Zealand, unpublished Master of Resource and Regional Planning Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin. Henderson, J.S.Y. 2000, `The context of the state of nature' in M. Battiste Reclaiming Indigenous Voice and Vision, UBC Press, Toronto. Heritage Council of Western Australia, 1994, Erskine Conservation Park: Nature Trail With Interpretation: Report to the Heritage Council of WA and Australian Heritage Commission, Perth. Heyward, J. 1993, Interpretation News, Department of Conservation, Christchurch. Higham, J. 1996, Wilderness perceptions of international visitors to New Zealand, unpublished PhD Thesis, Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin. Higham, J.E.S., Carr, A.M. and Gale, S. 2001, Profiling visitors to New Zealand Ecotourism Operations. He tauhokohoko nga whakaaturanga a nga manuhiri ki rawa whenua a Aotearoa, Research Paper Number 10, Department of Tourism, University of Otago. Higham, J.E.S. and Can, A.M. 2002a, `Profiling tourists to ecotourism operations', Annals of Tourism Research, 29(4): 1168-1171. Higham, J.E.S. and Carr, A.M. 2002b, `Ecotourism visitor experiences in AotearoafNew Zealand: Challenging the environmental values of visitors in pursuit of pro-environmental behaviour', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10(4): 277-294. Higham, J.E.S. and Can. A. 2002c, `Market profile of visitors to natural attractions in Aotearoa: a review of methodological design', pp. 419-424 in P.G. Holland, F. Stephenson and A.E. Wearing, 2001, Geography - a spatial odyssey, NZ Geographical Society, Hamilton. Higham, J.E.S. and Carr, A.M. 2003a, `Sustainable wildlife tourism in New Zealand: An analysis of visitor experiences', Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8(1): 25-36. Higham, J.E.S. and Carr, A.M. 2003b, `Defining Ecotourism. in New Zealand: differentiating between the defining parameters within a national/regional context', Journal of Ecotourism, (2)1: 17-32. Hinch, T. 1998, `Tourists and indigenous hosts: diverging views on their relationship with nature', Current Issues in Tourism, 1(1): 120-124. 323 Hinch, T. and Butler, R. (1996) `Indigenous tourism: a common ground for discussion', pp. 3-21 in R. Butler and Hinch, T. Tourism and indigenous peoples, International Thomson Business Press, London. Hinch, T. and Li, Y. 1994, `Developing Cultural Tourism in China: opportunities and. challenges', pp. 80-87 in F. Go, W. Theobald and H. Qu, Reducing the barriers to international tourism, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. Hinch, T. and Colton, J. 1997, `Harvesting Tourists on a Cree Trap Line', pp. 115-124 in J. Higham and G. Kearsley Conference Proceedings Trails in the Third Millenium: Cromwell, New Zealand, University of Otago, Dunedin Hinkson, M. 2003, `Encounters with Aboriginal sites in metropolitan Sydney: a broadening horizon for cultural tourism', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(4): 295- 305. Hirsch, E. and (Manion, M. 1995, The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Hitchcock, M. 1999, `Tourism and ethnicity: situational perspectives', International Journal of Tourism Research, 1: 17-32. Holder, Jean S.1992, `The need for public-private sector co-operation in tourism', Tourism Management, 19 (6): 157-162. Hollinshead, K. 1.990, `The powers behind the play: the Political Environments for Recreation and Tourism in Australia', Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 8: 35-50. Hollinshead, K. 1992, "White' gaze, `red' people - shadow visions: the disidentification of `Indians' in cultural tourism', Leisure Studies, 11: 43-64. Hollinshead, K. 1998, `Tourism hybridity and ambiguity: the relevance of Bhabha's `Third Space' Cultures', Journal of Leisure Research, 30(1): 121-156. Hollinshead, K. 1998, `Tourism and the restless peoples: a dialectical inspection of Bhabha's halfway populations', Tourism, Culture and Communication, 1: 49-77. Hooper, J.K. and Weiss, K.S. 1991, Interpretation as a management tool: a way to promote responsible tourism, pp. 193-195 in R.S. Tabata, J. Yamashiro and G. Cherem Proceedings of the Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. Howard, B.R. 2003, Indigenous Peoples and the State - the struggle fir native rights, Northern. Illinois University Press, Illinois. Howard, P. 2003, Heritage: Management, Interpretation, Identity, Continuum, London. Howitt, R., Connell, J. and Hirsch, P. (eds.) 1996, Resources, Nations and Indigenous Peoples: Case Studies from Australasia, Melanesia and Southeast Asia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. Howitt, R. and Suchet-Pearson, S. 2003, `Ontological pluralism in contested cultural landscapes', pp. 557-569 in Anderson, K., Domosh, M., Pile, S. and Thrift, N. Handbook of Cultural Geography, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks. Hughes, G. 1998, Tourism and the semiological realisation of space, pp. 17-32 in Ringer, G. Destinations: Cultural Landscapes of Tourism, Routledge, London. 324 Hughes, H. 1988, Environmental Management and the Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, Wellington. Hunter, C. and Green, H. 1995, Tourism and the Environment: A Sustainable relationship? Routledge, London. Independent Traveller's Adventure Guide 2003, (http://www.itag.co.nz/teanau.asp) (accessed April 2003). Industry Canada and Canadian Heritage 1998, Heritage Tourism: Discover the Opportunity Canada, Industry Canada and Canadian Heritage. Info Hub Specialty Travel Guide (2003) Milford Guided Walk section (http://www.biztravel.com/TRAVEL/SIT/sit pages/3578.html) (Accessed April 2003). Ingram, T. 1979, Residents' Attitudes Towards Tourism Development in the Cook Islands, unpublished Masters of Arts Thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Ingram. T. 1990, Indigenous Entrepreneurship in the Tourism Industry in the Pacific Islands, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North. Ingram, T. 1996, Maori Tourism Development: A Strategic Plan and Policy for Ministry of Maori Development, Te Puni Kokiri, Wellington. Ingram, T. 1997, Tapoi Tangata Whenua: Tapoi Maori ki Aotearoa - Indigenous Tourism: Regional Maori Tourism in Aotearoa, in J. Higharn and G. Kearsley Proceedings Trails in the Third Millenium Cromwell, Otago, New Zealand, Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin. Ireland, M. 1990, `Come to Cornwall, come to Land's End, a study of visitor experience at a touristic sight', Problems of Tourism, 13: 33-53. IUCN 1977, Indigenous Peoples and Sustainability: Cases and Actions, International Books, Utrecht. Jackson, W.A. 1985, The Shaping of Our World: A Human and Cultural Geography, J. Wiley and Sons, New York. Jackson, G.A. 1990, `Tourism planning and the public/private sector relationship' Hospitality Research Journal, 1990, 14(2), 475-484. Jacobs, J.M., Gale, F. 1994, Tourism and the Protection of Aboriginal Cultural Sites, Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra. Jacobsen, J.K.S. 1997, `Transience and place: exploring tourists experiences of place', unpublished manuscript, Institute of Transport Economics, Norwegian Centre for Transport Research, Oslo. Jafari, J. (ed.) 2000, Encyclopedia of Tourism, Routledge, New York. Jagdish, K. 1985, Himalayan Pilgrimages and the New Tourism, Himalayan Books, New Delhi. Jamal, T. and Getz, D. 1994, `Collaboration Theory and Community Tourism Planning', Annals of Tourism Research, (22)1, 186-204. Jamal, T. and Hollinshead, K. 2001, `Tourism and the forbidden zone: the underserved power of qualitative inquiry', Tourism Management 22(1): 63-82. Jenkins, J.G. 1992, Getting Yesterday Right: Interpreting the Heritage of Wales, University of Wales Press, Cardiff. 325 Jennings, G. 2001, Tourism Research, John Wiley and Sons, Milton. Johnston, M. 1992, `A Storm in the Hills - the Ngai. Tahu. Settlement' In Climber, Summer 1992, No. 4: 9-10. Joppe, M. 1996, `Sustainable community tourism development revisited', Tourism Management, 17(7): 475-479. Joseph, R. and Bennion, T. 2002, Maori values and tikanga consultation under the RMA 1991 and the local Government Bill - possible ways forward, (http://lianz.waikato.ac.nz/PAPERS/Rob/2002TePapa2.pdf) (Accessed 2 July 2003). Kahle, L.R. 1983, Social Values and Social Change: Adaption to Life in North America, Praeger, New York. Kahle, L.R. and Kennedy, P. 1989, `Using the List of Values LOV to understand consumers' Journal of Consumer Marketing 6(3): 5-12. Kai Tahu ki Otago 1995, Kai Tahu ki Otago: Natural Resource Management Plan, Kai Tahu ki Otago, Dunedin. Karetu, T.S. 1984, Concise Maori Dictionary: Maori-English, English- Maori, Reed Methuen Publishers Ltd, Auckland. Kawharu, I.H. (ed.)1989, Waitangi: Maori and Pakeha Perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi, Oxford University Press, Auckland. Kearsley, G., Coughlan, D., Higham, J., Higham, E. and M. Thyne 1998a, Impacts of Tourist Use on the New Zealand Backcountry, Research Paper Number One, Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin. Kearsley, G., Coughlan, D. and B. Ritchie 1998b, Images of New Zealand's Natural Areas: an International and Domestic Perspective, Research Paper Number Three, Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin. Kearsley, G.W., McIntosh, A.J. and A.M. Carr 1999, `Maori Myths, Beliefs and Values: products and constraints for New Zealand Tourism', pp. 292-302 in E. Arola and T. Mikkonen Tourism Industry and Education Symposium Proceedings, Reports and Proceedings Jyvaskyla Polytechnic No 5, Jyvaskyla Polytechnic, Finland. Kearsley, G.W., Russell, S., Croy, W.G. and Mitchell, R.D. 2001, Recreational and Tourist Use of New Zealand's Accessible Natural Areas: Activities, Motivations and Social Impacts, Research Paper Number Nine, Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin.. Keelan, N. 1993, `The interpretation of New Zealand's natural heritage', pp. 195-201 in C.M. Hall and S. McArthur Heritage Management in New Zealand and Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. Keelan, N. 1996, Maori Heritage: Visitor Management and Interpretation, pp. 195-201 In Hall, C.M. and McArthur, S., Heritage Management in New Zealand and Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. Keiller, I. 1995, Geotourism: interpreting New Zealand's natural landscape, unpublished Postgraduate Diploma in Tourism Dissertation, Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin. 326 Kelly, L. 2003, Researching Learning.,.And Learning About Research, (http://www.austmus.gov.au/amarc/pdf/researchlpaper2001.pdf) (Accessed April 2003). Kemf, E. (ed.) 1993, The Law of The Mother: Protecting Indigenous Peoples in Protected Areas, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. Kim, K.C. and Weaver, R.D. 1.994, Biodiversity and Landscapes: a Paradox of Humanity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. King, N. 1995 `The Qualitative Research Interview', pp. 14-36 in C. Casell and G. Symon Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research, Sage Publications Inc., London. Kirshenblatt-Gim.blett, B. 1.998, Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage, University of California. Press, Berkeley. Knudson., D., Cable, T. and. Beck, L. 2003, Interpreting Cultural and Natural Resources, Venture Press, State College, PA. Kuo, I. 2002, `The effectiveness of environmental interpretation at resource-sensitive tourism destinations', International Journal of Tourism Research, 4: 87-101. Kvale, S. 1996, Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks. Lalonde, R. and Jackson, E.L. 2002, `The New Environmental Paradigm scale: has it outlived its usefulness?' Journal of Environmental Education, 33(4): 28-36. Langer, E.T. 1989, `Minding matters, the consequence of mindlessness-mindfulness', Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 22: 137-173. Latta, T.M. and Everett, A.M. 2000, Review of satisfaction research and measurement approaches, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Laws, E. 1995, Tourist Destination Management: Issues, Analysis, and Policies, Routledge, London. Lee, C.A. (ed.) Bibliography of Interpretive Resources. National Association for Interpretation, 1998. Lennon, T. 1990, `The tensions of making use of our heritage' Historic Environment: Cultural Heritage and Tourism, 7(3 and 4):55-60. Li, Y. and Hinch, T., 1997/98, 'Ethnic tourism attractions and their prospect for sustainable development at two sites in China and Canada', Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2(1): 5-18. Li, Y. 2000, `Geographical Consciousness and Tourism Experience', Annals of Tourism Research, 27(4): 863-883. Lincoln, M. 1998, `Sacred Summits', Letter to the Editor Climber, Winter 1.998: 4. Linzey, A. 1995, Traditional ecological knowledge: alternative perceptions for conservation management, unpublished Master of Science Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Auckland, Auckland. Listener 9 March 2002, `Go ask that mountain', 28-30. 327 Lomax, H.M. 1988, Maori use and non-use of national parks, unpublished Master of Arts in Geography Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Canterbury, Christchurch. Lonely Planet 2002 (1994) New Zealand, compiled by P. Harding, C. Bain and N. Bedford, Lonely Planet Publications. Lonely Planet New Zealand 2003, (http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/australasia/new zealand/) {Accessed 2003) Lowenthal, D. 1985, The Past is a Foreign Country, Cambridge University Press, New York. Luck, M. 2000, Value Systems and On-Site Experiences of Ecotourists in Natural Settings of New Zealand (wysiwyg://home.2/http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/Paradise/5066/PhD l .html) (Accessed 1/3/2000) MacCannell, D. 1973, `Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Setting', American Journal of Sociology, 7(9):589-603. MacCannell, D. 1976, The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class, New York: Schocken. MacCannell, D. 1992, Empty Meeting Grounds: The Tourist Papers, Routledge, London. MacCannell, D. 2001, `Remarks on the commodification of cultures', pp. 380-390 pp. 42-50 in V. Smith and M. Brent Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century, Cognizant Communications, New York. Macdonald, R. 1990, The Maori of Aotearoa, New Zealand, Minority Rights Group, London. MacGillivray, R.V. 1991, `Interpretation of World Heritage cultural sites in Kakadu national park: establishing a sign program to meet the needs of traditional Aboriginal land owners' pp. 246-250 in R.S. Tabata, J. Yamashiro and G. Cherem Proceedings of the Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. Mackenzie Centre Community Trust 2002, The Mackenzie Heritage Centre, Mackenzie Centre Community Trust, Lake Tekapo, MacLennan, P. 2000, Visitor Information as a Management Tool, Science and Research Internal report 180, Department of Conservation, Wellington. Mahuta, R. 1987, Tourism and Culture, the Maori Case, Centre for Maori Studies and Research, University of Waikato, Hamilton. Maloney, W.A., Jordan, G., and McLaughlin A.M. 1994, `Interest Groups and Public Policy: The Insider/Outsider Model Revisited' Journal of Public Policy, 14(1): 17-38. Maly, K. 1991, `Cultural interpretation: preserving `sense of place': comments on caring for Hawai'i's uniqueness', pp. 257-259 in R.S. Tabata, J. Yamashiro and G. Cherem Proceedings of the Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. Manning, R.E. 2000, `Carrying capacity as "informed judgement": the values of science and the science of values', pp 21-28 in W.A. Freimund. and D.N. Cole (comps.) Visitor Use Density and Wilderness Experiences, Missoula, Montana, June 1- 328 3 2000: Proceedings, RMRS-P-20, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre. Manning, R.E. and Lime, D.W. `Defining and managing the quality of wilderness recreation experiences', pp. 13-52 in D.N. Cole, S.F. McCool, W.T. Borne and J. O'Loughlin (comps.) Wilderness Science in a Time of change Conference, Vol. 4: Wilderness Visitors, Experiences, and Visitor Management, Missoula, Montana, June 1-3 2000: Proceedings, RMRS-P-15-VOL-4, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre. Manning, R.E., Valliere, W. and William, A. 1996, `Environmental values, environmental ethics and wilderness management', International Journal of Wilderness, 2(2): 27-32. Markby, R. 1987, 'Mt Cook trust plans museum of alpine artefacts', Timaru Herald, 3 October 1987, 2. Marsden, M. Palmer, D. Goodall, A. 1989, Resource management law reform : part A, The natural world and natural resources, Maori value systems & perspectives : part B, Water resources and the Kai Tahu claim, Ministry for the Environment, Wellington. Marshall, B. and Rossman, G.B. 1995, Designing Qualitative Research, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oalcs. Mason, P., Lebeiinan, S. and Barnett, S. 2000, `Walkway users, activity patterns, issues of conflict and management decisions: An urban-based case study from New Zealand' in M. Robinson, P. Long, N. Evans, R. Sharpley and J. Swarbrooke Reflections on International Tourism: Motivations, Behaviour and Tourist Types, Business Education Publishers, Great Britain. Mathieson, A. and Wall, G. 1987, Tourism: Economic, Physical, and Social Impacts, J. Wiley and Sons, New York. Matunga, H. 1995a, Maori Recreation and the Conservation Estate, Centre for Maori Studies and Research, Lincoln University. Matunga, H. 1995b, `Maori participation in outdoor recreation: an exploration of the research and issues' in P.J. Devlin, R.A. Corbett and C.J. Peebles Outdoor Recreation in New Zealand Volume 1: A Review and Synthesis of the Research Literature, Department of Conservation and Lincoln University, Canterbury. Matunga, H., Wakefield, B. and Hume, L. 1994, Maori Perspectives on the Recreation Use of the Conservation Estate, Department of Conservation, Wellington. McArthur, S. and Hall, C. M.., 1996, `Interpretation: principles and practice' pp. 88- 106 in C.M. Hall and S. McArthur Heritage Management in Australia and New Zealand: the Human Dimension, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. McCloskey, M. 1990, `Evolving perspectives on wilderness values: putting wilderness values in order' in Reed, P.C. (comp.) Preparing to manage wilderness in the 21st Century: proceedings of the conference, Athens Georgia, April 1990, Asheville North Carolina, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 13-18. McCool, S.F. 2000, `Limiting recreation use in wilderness: research issues and management challenges in appraising their effectiveness', pp. 49-55 in Freimund, W.A. and D.N. col (comps.) Visitor Use Density and Wilderness Experiences, Missoula, Montana, June 1-3 2000: Proceedings, RMR.S-P-20, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre. 329 McCool, S.F. and. Cole, D.N. 2000, 'Communicating minimum impact behaviour with trailside bulleting boards: visitor characteristics associated with effectiveness', pp. 208-216 in D.N. Cole, S.F. McCool, W.T. Borne and J. O'Loughlin (comps.) Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference, Vol. 4: Wilderness Visitors, Experiences, and Visitor Management, Missoula, Montana, June 1-3 2000. Proceedings, RMRS-P-15-VOL-4, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Centre McGivern, Y. 2003, The Practice of Market and Social Research: an introduction, Pearson Education Ltd, Harlow. McGregor, A. 2000, `Dynamic texts and tourist gaze: death, bones and buffalo', Annals of Tourism Research, 27(1): 27-50. McGregor, H. and McMath, M. 1993, `Leisure: A Maori and a MaNgaian perspective' pp. 44-57 in Perkins, H. and. Cushman, G. Leisure, Recreation and Tourism, Longman Paul Ltd, Auckland. McGregor, H.D. 1993, Perceptions of the Runanga Iwi Act 1990 and its effect on Tairawhiti Maori Tourism Development. Unpublished Master of Applied Science Thesis, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism, Lincoln University, Canterbury. McIntosh, A. 1998, `Mixed methods: putting the tourist at the forefront of tourism research', Tourism Analysis, 3(2): 121-127. McIntosh, A. 1999, 'Into the tourist's mind: understanding the value of the heritage experience', Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 8(1): 41-64. McIntosh, A., Hinch, T. and Ingram, T. 1999, Maori Attractions in Aotearoa, New Zealand: Setting a Context for Sustainable Tourism, Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin. McIntosh, A., Hinch, T. and Ingram, T. 1999, Cultural representation as sen_NZ
 Find in your library

Files in this item

FilesSizeFormatView

There are no files associated with this item.

This item is not available in full-text via OUR Archive.

If you would like to read this item, please apply for an inter-library loan from the University of Otago via your local library.

If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record