Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorMilne, Markus Jen_NZ
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:22:43Z
dc.date.copyright2005-03en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationMilne, M. J. (2005). From soothing palliatives and towards ecological literacy: a critique of the triple bottom line (Accountancy Working Paper Series). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1551en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/1551
dc.description.abstractThe ‘triple bottom line’ (3BL), an idea attributed to and increasingly evangelized by John Elkington of the London-based consultancy, SustainAbility (Elkington, 1997; Wheeler & Elkington 2001), involves incorporating economic, environmental and social performance indicators into businesses’ management, measurement and reporting processes. The emergence and increasing take-up by business of the 3BL, however, seems to have created dangerous uncertainty as to what is required of organizations. At its narrowest, pursuing the 3BL involves measuring and reporting economic, environmental and social performance objectives that are pursued simultaneously. A broader view, however, suggests that the 3BL involves assessing an entity’s values, strategies and practices and how these can be utilized to achieve economic, environmental and social objectives (SustainAbility, 2003). The term also seems to be used increasingly as a synonym for “sustainability”. Many organizations seem to confuse narrow and often incomplete reporting practices with claims to be reporting on being sustainable, actually being sustainable, or more commonly, with claims to be moving towards sustainability. In view of such dangerous confusion, this paper critically examines the content of international business 3BL reporting and argues that while pursuing the 3BL may be a necessary condition for sustainability, it is unlikely to be a sufficient condition, and indeed may amount to little more than soothing palliatives, leading to greater levels of un-sustainability. We offer, therefore, some ways in which businesses may begin to get beyond their 3BL change-but-no-change rhetoric of sustainability and towards ecological literacy.en_NZ
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.publisherUniversity of Otagoen_NZ
dc.relation.ispartofseriesAccountancy Working Paper Seriesen_NZ
dc.relation.urihttp://www.business.otago.ac.nz/acty/research/pdf/Milne%20et%20al%20-palliatives%20paper.pdfen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshHF5601 Accountingen_NZ
dc.titleFrom soothing palliatives and towards ecological literacy: a critique of the triple bottom lineen_NZ
dc.typeWorking Paperen_NZ
dc.description.versionUnpublisheden_NZ
otago.bitstream.pages28en_NZ
otago.date.accession2005-12-02en_NZ
otago.schoolAccountancy and Business Lawen_NZ
otago.openaccessOpen
dc.identifier.eprints3en_NZ
otago.school.eprintsAccountancy & Business Lawen_NZ
dc.description.referencesACCA (2002) ACCA UK Awards for Sustainability Reporting 2001: Report of the Judges, ACCA Educational Trust: London. Bailey, R. A. (ed.) (1995) The True State of the Planet, Free Press: New York. Bailey, R. A., (1993) Eco-Scam: The False Prophets of Ecological Apocalypse, St Martins Press: New York. Bailey, R. A., (2002), Global Warming & Other Eco Myths: How the Environmental Movement Uses False Science to Scare Us to Death, Crown Publishing: New York. Bakan, J., (2004), The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power, Constable & Robinson: Canada. Ball, A., & Milne, M.J., (2005) Sustainability and Management Control, chapter 18 in Management Control: Theory, Issues and Practices, A.J. Berry, J. Broadbent and D.T. Otley (eds.) 2nd Edition, Macmillan, forthcoming. Barnett, H.J. & Morse, C., (1963) Scarcity and Growth: The Economics of Natural Resource Availability, Johns Hopkins University Press for Resources for the Future: Baltimore, MD. Bebbington, J. & Gray, R. (1993) Corporate Accountability and the Physical Environment: Social Responsibility and Accounting Beyond Profit, Business Strategy and the Environment, 2(2): 1-11. Beckerman, W., (1974) In Defence of Economic Growth, Cape: London. Beckerman, W., (1995) Small is Stupid: Blowing the Whistle on the Greens, Duckworth: London. Beder, S., (1997), Global Spin: The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism, London: Green Books. Benton, L.M. & Short, J.R., (1999). Environmental Discourse and Practice. Oxford: Blackwell. BFF (Best Foot Forward) (undated). Island State: An ecological footprint analysis of the Isle of Wight. Oxford: Best Foot Forward. Birkin, F., (1996) ‘The Ecological Accountant: From the Cogito to Thinking like a Mountain’. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Vol. 7: 231-257. Boulding, K., (1966) “The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth” in Jarret, H., (ed.) Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD. Bruno, K., Karliner, J., & Brotsky, C., (1999), Greenhouse Gangsters v Climate Justice, Transnational Resource & Action Center: San Francisco. Bruno, K. & Karliner, J. (2002), Earthsummit.biz: The corporate takeover of sustainable development. Oakland, CA: Food First Books Buckingham-Hatfield, S., & Evans, B. (eds.) (1996) Environmental Planning and Sustainability, J Wiley & Sons, New York. Cairns, J. Jr., (2001) “Sustainability, Exceptionalism, and Exemptionalism”, Ecosystem Health, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 147-154. Carson, R., (1962) Silent Spring, Penguin Books: New York. Chapman, R., & Milne, M.J., (2004) The Triple Bottom Line: How New Zealand Companies Measure Up, Corporate Environmental Strategy: International Journal for Sustainable Business, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Feb), pp 37-50. Commoner, B., (1972) The Closing Circle, Bantam: New York. Daly, H. & Cobb, J.B., (1989) For the Common Good, Beacon, Boston. Daly, H.E. (ed.) (1973) Towards a Steady State Economy, W.H. Freeman & Co: San Francisco. Daly, H.E., (1992), Allocation, Distribution and Scale: Towards an Economics that is Efficient, Just and Sustainable, Ecological Economics, 6: 185-194. Deegan, C. & Rankin, M., (1996). Do Australian Companies Report Environmental News Objectively? Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 9(2): 50-67. Deloitte Touch Tomatsu International/IISD/Sustainability, (1993) Coming Clean: Corporate Environmental Reporting, Opening up for Sustainable Development. Dobson, A., (1998) Justice and the Environment: Conceptions of Environmental Sustainability and Theories of Distributive Justice, OUP, Oxford. Dryzek, J.S., (1997) The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourses, Oxford University Press: Oxford. Dyllick, T., & Hockerts, K., (2002) Beyond the Business Case for Corporate Sustainability, Business Strategy and the Environment, 11: 130-141. Ehrlich, A., & Ehrlich, P., (1987) Earth, Franklin Watts: New York. Ehrlich, P., (1968) The Population Bomb, Ballantine: New York. Elkington J. Cannibals with Forks: The triple bottom line of 21st Century Business, 1997, Oxford: Capstone Publishing Factor 10 Club, (1999), Factor 10: Making Sustainability Accountable – Putting Resource Productivity into Praxis, Factor 10 Club: http://www.factor10-institute.org/Pdf-Files.htm FEE (2002), Comments on Draft 2002 GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, www.globalreporting.org/feedback/PublicComments2002/FEE.pdf Friends of Portfolio 21, (2002), Comments on Draft 2002 GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, http://www.globalreporting.org/feedback/PublicComments2002/Portfolio21.pdf Georgescu-Roegen, N., (1971) The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass. Global Reporting Initiative, (GRI) (2000). Sustainability Reporting Guidelines on Economic, Environmental and Social Performance. Global Reporting Initiative, Boston, MA. June, 2000. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), (2002a) Draft 2002 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, April, 2002, GRI: New York. Global Reporting Initiative, (2002b) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Global Reporting Initiative: Amsterdam, October 2002. Goldsmith, E., (1972) A Blueprint for Survival, The Ecologist: London. Gray, R. (1992), Accounting and Environmentalism: an exploration of the challenge of gently accounting for accountability, transparency and sustainability, Accounting, Organisations & Society, 17 (5), 399-426. Gray, R., Kouhy. R., & Lavers. S., (1995). Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting: A Review of the Literature and a Longitudinal Study of UK Disclosure. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 8 (2): 47-77. Gray, R. & Bebbington, J. (2000), Environmental Accounting, Managerialism and Sustainability, Advances in Environmental Accounting & Management, Vol. 1, pp.1-44. Gray, R.H., Milne, M.J., (2002) Sustainability Reporting: Who’s Kidding Whom? Chartered Accountants Journal of New Zealand, July, pp. 66-70. Gray, R. & Milne, M.J., (2004) Towards Reporting on The Triple Bottom Line: Mirages, Methods and Myths, In A Henriques and J. Richardson (eds.), The Triple Bottom Line: Does it All Add Up? Earthscan: London, Greer, J. & Bruno, K. (1996), Greenwash: The reality behind corporate environmentalism Penang, Malaysia: Third World Network. Hackston, D. & Milne, M. J., (1996), Some Determinants of Social and Environmental Disclosures in New Zealand Companies, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 9(1): 77-108. Hammond, K., & Miles, S., (2004) Assessing quality assessment of corporate social reporting: UK perspectives, Accounting Forum, 28(1): 61-79. Hardin, G., (1968) “The Tragedy of the Commons”, Science, Vol. 162, pp. 1243-1248. Hawken, P. & Wackernagel, M., (2000) Satisfying Lives for All Within the Means of Nature: How a Honed GRI Could Advance True Sustainability, Comments of Draft 2000 GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. (See, http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/enveco/waste/wackernagel.pdf) Hawken, P., Lovins, A. B. & Lovins, L. H. (2002) Natural Capitalism: the next industrial revolution. Earthscan, London. Hawken, P., (2002) McDonald’s and Corporate Social Responsibility, Press Release from Food First/Institute for Food and Development Policy, April 25, http://www.foodfirst.org/media/ Howes, R. (2002) Environmental Cost Accounting: An Introduction and Practical Guide, CIMA: London. Hukkinen, J., (2003), From Groundless Universalism to Grounded Generalism: Improving Ecological Economic Indicators of Human-Environmental Interaction, Ecological Economics, Vol. 44, pp. 11-27. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (1980), World Conservation Strategy, IUCN: Gland, Switzerland. Institute of Chartered Accountants of England & Wales (ICAEW) (2004), Sustainability: The Role of Accountants, ICAEW: London. Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand (ICANZ) (2002), Report of the Taskforce on Sustainable Development Reporting, ICANZ: Wellington. Jevons, S., (1865) The Coal Question, Macmillan: London. Johnson, R.H., (1996) Nature, State and Economy, J. Wiley & Sons, London. Khan, H., (1977) The Next 200 Years, Abacus: London. Kolk, A., (2003) Trends in Sustainability Reporting by the Fortune Global 250, Business Strategy & the Environment, 12: 279-291. KPMG (1993) KPMG International Survey of Environmental Reporting 1993, KPMG Environmental Consulting. KPMG (1996) KPMG International Survey of Environmental Reporting 1996, KPMG Environmental Consulting. KPMG (1999) KPMG International Survey of Environmental Reporting 1999, KPMG Environmental Consulting. KPMG (2002) KPMG International Survey of Corporate Sustainability Reporting 2002, KPMG Global Sustainability Services. Laine, M., (forthcoming) Construction of Sustainable Development in Corporate Disclosures, Accounting Forum. Levy, D., (1997), Environmental management as political sustainability, Organization & Environment, 10(2): 126-147. Livesey, S. (2002), The discourse of the middle ground: Citizen Shell commits to sustainable development. Management Communication Quarterly, 15(3): 313-349. Livesey, S. M., & Kearins, K. (2002). Transparent and caring corporations? A study of sustainability reports by The Body Shop and Royal Dutch/Shell. Organization & Environment, 15(3): 233-258. Lober, D.J., Bynum, D., Campbell, E., & Jacques, M., (1997) The 100 Plus Corporate Environmental Report Study: A Survey of an Evolving Environmental Management Tool, Business Strategy & the Environment, 6: 57-73. Lomborg, B., (1998) The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Maddox, J., (1972) The Doomsday Syndrome, Maddox Editorial Ltd: London. Malthus, T., (1798) An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers. London, Printed For J. Johnson, In St. Paul’s Church-Yard. Rendered into HTML format by Ed Stephan, 10 Aug 1997 - http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~stephan/malthus/malthus.0.html McDonough, W. & Braungart, M., (1998), The Next Industrial Revolution, The Atlantic Monthly Digital Edition, www.theatlantic.com/issues/98oct/industry.htm Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D.L., Randers, J., & Behrens, W.H. III, (1972) The Limits to Growth, Universe Books: New York. Milbrath, L. (1984), Environmentalists: Vanguard for a New Society, SUNY Press: New York. Milne, M.J., (1991) Accounting, Environmental Resource Values, and Non-Market Valuation Techniques for Environmental Resources: A Review, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 4(3): 81-109. Milne, M.J., (1996), On Sustainability, The Environment and Management Accounting, Management Accounting Research, 7(1), 135-161. Milne, M.J., Owen, D.L., & Tilt, C.A., (2001) Corporate Environmental Reporting: Are New Zealand Companies Being Left Behind? University of Auckland Business Review, 3 (2), pp. 24-36. Milne, M.J., Tregidga, H.M., & Walton, S., (2003) The Triple Bottom Line: Benchmarking New Zealand’s Early Reporters, University of Auckland Business Review, 5 (2), pp. 36-50. Milne, M.J., Tregidga, H., & Walton, S., (2004a), Playing with magic lanterns: The New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development and corporate triple bottom line reporting, Proceedings of 4th APIRA Conference, Singapore, July 4-6. Milne, M.J., Kearins, K., & Walton, S., (2004b), Business makes a journey out of sustainability: Creating adventures in wonderland? Proceedings of 4th APIRA Conference, Singapore, July 4-6. Morhardt, J.E., (2001) Scoring Corporate Environmental Reports for Comprehensiveness: A Comparison of Three Systems, Environmental Management, 27(6): 881-892. Morhardt, J.E., Baird, S., & Freeman, K., (2002) Scoring Corporate Environmental and Sustainability Reports Using GRI 2000, ISO 14031 and Other Criteria, Corporate Social Responsibility & Environmental Management, 9: 215-233. Murray, R. (1999) Creating Wealth from Waste. London: Demos. New Economics Foundation (NEF) (2000). ‘Corporate Spin - the troubled teenage years of social reporting’. available at: http://www.neweconomics.org/uploadstore/pubs/doc_2811200045047_New%20Eco%20Text.pdf (accessed 09/11/01). Norton, B.G., (1991). Toward Unity Among Environmentalists. New York: Oxford University Press. Norton. B.G., (1989), Intergenerational Equity and Environmental Decisions: A Model Using Rawls’ Veil of Ignorance, Ecological Economics, 1, 137-159. NZBCSD, (2001a) NZBCSD Sustainable Development Reporting: Case Studies, June 2001. NZBCSD, (2001b) The NZBCSD Sustainable Development Reporting Guide for New Zealand business, June 2001. NZBCSD, (2002) Business Guide to Sustainable Development Reporting: Making a Difference for a Sustainable New Zealand, October. O’Riordan, T. (1991). Environmentalism. London: Pion. O’Riordan, T., (1993) The Politics of Sustainability, In Sustainable Environmental Economics and Management: Principles and Practice, (ed.) R. Kerry Turner, Belhaven Press, London. Odd, N., (2002) Comments on Draft Version of the 2002 GRI Sustainability Guidelines, www.globalreporting.org/feedback/PublicComments2002/NatalieOdd.pdf Odum. W., (1982), Environmental Degradation and the Tyranny of Small Decisions, Bioscience, 32, 728-729. Ornstein, R., & Ehrlich, P., (1989) New World, New Mind: Moving Towards Conscious Evolution, Doubleday Books: New York. Orr, D. W. (1992), Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World, State University of New York Press, New York. Owen, D., Swift, T., Humphrey, C., Bowerman, M., (2000) The New Social Audits: Accountability, Managerial Capture or the Agenda of Social Champions? The European Accounting Review, 9(1), pp. 81-98. Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment’s Office (PCE), (2002), Creating Our Future: Sustainable Development for New Zealand, PCE: Wellington. Patten, D.M., (1991), Exposure, Legitimacy and Social Disclosure, Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 10 (4): 297-308. Pearce, D., (1993). Blueprint 3: Measuring Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan Pensions Investment Research Consultants (PIRC) (1999) Issues and Trends in Corporate Social Reporting, PIRC: London. Peron, J., (1995), Exploding Population Myths, Heartland Institute: Palatine, IL, USA. Rossi, M.S., Brown, H.S., & Bass, L.W., (2000), Leaders in sustainable Development: How Agents of Change Define the Agenda, Business Strategy & the Environment, 9: 273-286. Russell, B., (1986 – original published in 1912) The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford University Press: Oxford. Sachs, W., (1999), Planet dialectics, London: Zed Books. Sagoff. M., (1988), Some Problems with Environmental Economics, Environmental Ethics, 10, 55-74. Schmidhieny, S., (1992), Changing Course: A Global Business Perspective on Development and the Environment, New York: MIT Press. Schmidt-Bleek, F., (1993), The Fossil Makers, English translation of Wieviel Umwelt Braucht Der Mensch – MIPS, Das Mass Fûr Ökologisches Wirtschaften: http://www.factor10-institute.org/Pdf-Files.htm Schumacher, E.F., (1973) Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered, Harper & Row: New York. Shrivastava, P. (1994). CASTRATED environment: GREENING organizational studies. Organization Studies, 15 (5), 705-726. Simon, J. & Khan, H., (eds.) (1984), The Resourceful Earth: A Response to Global Outlook 2000, Basil Blackwell: New York. Simon, J., (1981) The Ultimate Resource, Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ. Sinclair, P., & Walton, J., (2003) Environmental Reporting within the Forest and Paper Industry, Business Strategy and the Environment, 12: 326-337. Spiller, R., (2001), Business Leadership for Sustainable Development, Boardroom, February, pp.1-2. SustainAbility, (2003) What is the Triple Bottom Line? www.sustainability.com/philosophy/triplebottom/tbl-intro.asp Tregidga, H. & Milne, M. J., (2004) Enabling and Constraining: The Role of Context in the Longitudinal Development of a Leading Corporate Social and Environmental Reporter, Interdisciplinary CSR Research Conference, University of Nottingham, Oct 22-23. Turner, R. K. (Ed). (1993). Sustainable environmental economics and management: Principles and practice. London: Belhaven. Tyteca, D., Carlens, J., Berkhout, F., Hertin, J., Wehrmeyer, W., & Wagner, M., (2002) Corporate Environmental Performance Evaluation: Evidence from the MEPI Project, Business Strategy and the Environment, 11: 1-13. UNEP/SustainAbility, (1994) Company Environmental Reporting: A Measure of the Progress Business & Industry Towards Sustainable Development, UNEP/SustainAbility: London. UNEP/SustainAbility, (1996) Engaging Stakeholders: The Benchmark Survey, UNEP/SustainAbility: London. UNEP/SustainAbility, (1997) The 1997 Benchmark Survey: The Third International Progress Report on Company Environmental Reporting, UNEP/SustainAbility: London. UNEP/SustainAbility, (1999) The Social Reporting Report, UNEP/SustainAbility: London. UNEP/SustainAbility, (2000) The Global Reporters: the 2000 Benchmark Survey, UNEP/SustainAbility: London. UNEP/SustainAbility, (2002) Trust Us: The Global Reporters 2002 Survey of Corporate Sustainability, UNEP/SustainAbility: London. UNEP/SustainAbility, (2004) Risk & Opportunity: Best Practice in Non-Financial Reporting, UNEP/SustainAbility: London. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1997) Global Environmental Outlook 1: United Nations Environment Programme Global State of the Environment Report 1997 (GEO-1), http://www.grida.no/geo1 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2000) Global Environment Outlook 2000 (GEO-2000), UNEP: Norway. www.grida.no/geo2000/index.htm Vandenberg, M., (2002) How Victorian Businesses, Governments and Non-government Agencies are taking the Journey Towards the Triple Bottom Line: Scoping Study, sourced from www.ethyka.com/tbl/resources Wackernagel, M., & Rees, W., (1996) Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth, New Society Publishers, Canada. Wackernagel, M., (2002) Comments on Draft GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, http://www.globalreporting.org/feedback/PublicComments2002/MathisWackernagel.pdf Ward, B., & Dubos, R., (1972) Only One Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet, Penguin Books: New York. Welford, R., (1997) (ed.) Hijacking Environmentalism: Corporate Response to Sustainable Development, London: Earthscan. Wheeler, D., & Elkington, J., (2001), The end of the corporate environmental report? Or the advent of cybernetic sustainability reporting and communication, Business Strategy and the Environment, 10: 1-14. Wiseman. J., (1982). An Evaluation of Environmental Disclosures Made in Corporate Annual Reports. Accounting, Organisations and Society, 7 (1): 53-63. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), (2000a), Eco-efficiency: Creating More Value with Less Impact, WBCSD, www.wbcsd.org/projects/pr_ecoefficiency.htm World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), (2000b), Corporate Social Responsibility: Making Good Business Sense, WBCSD, www.wbcsd.org World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), (2002), The Business Case for Sustainable Development, WBCSD, www.wbcsd.org World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (1987), Our Common Future, Oxford University Press: Oxford. World Wide Fund International (WWF), (2002), Living Planet Report 2002, WWF International, Gland, Switzerland, www.panda.org Worldwatch Institute, (2003) State of the World 2003: Progress Towards a Sustainable Society, Earthscan: London. Worldwatch Institute, (2003) Vital Signs 2002-2003: The Trends That Shaping Our Future, Earthscan: London. Worster, D., (1995), The Shaky Ground of Sustainability, in Sessions, G., (ed.) Deep Ecology for the 21st Century: Readings on the Philosophy of and Practice of New Environmentalism, Shambhala: Boston. Zadek, S., Prusan, P., & Evans, R., (1997) Building Corporate Accountability: Emerging Practice in Social and Ethical Accounting & Auditing, Earthscan: London. Zorvanyi, G., (1998), Growth Management for a Sustainable Future: Ecological Sustainability as the New Growth Management Focus for the 21st Century, London: Praeger.en_NZ
 Find in your library

Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record