Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Ice Hockey: The Role of the Team Climate, Motivation and Moral Disengagement
“Understanding why athletes play sport might help to explain how they play it” (Ntoumanis & Standage, 2009, p. 367). According to Deci and Ryan’s Self Determination Theory (SDT; 2000, 2008; Ryan & Deci, 2002) individuals are motivated to engage in activities that will satisfy their basic psychological needs; relatedness (a feeling of connectedness and belonging with others), autonomy (feeling in control of your choices and experiencing the freedom of choice) and competence (belief about your ability in a certain setting). Basic needs satisfaction in turn, influences an athlete’s motivation (autonomous & controlled). Research has shown that an athlete’s motivation is associated with behavioural outcomes, including prosocial and antisocial variables (Hodge & Lonsdale, 2011; Ntoumanis & Standage, 2009). The purpose of this research project was to examine the team climate and the association it had with an athlete’s basic needs satisfaction (autonomy, competence and relatedness). In turn, this study explored what association these three basic psychological needs had with motivation and prosocial/antisocial behaviour in ice hockey players and whether the relationship between motivation and antisocial behaviour was mediated by moral disengagement.New Zealand (39.7%) and Australian (11%) participants (n = 73, 52% female, M = 29.25 years) participants completed a questionnaire that assessed coach and teammate controlling and autonomy-supportive behaviours, satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness), motivation, moral disengagement and prosocial/antisocial behaviour in sport. The data were analysed using multiple regression, canonical correlation and mediation analysis. Results indicated that greater levels of teammate and coach autonomy-support were positively associated with relatedness, autonomy and competence. For a controlling climate, teammate, but not coach controlling behaviours were negatively associated with relatedness, autonomy and competence. Basic needs satisfaction was positively associated with autonomous, but not controlled motivation. Baron and Kenny’s (1986) mediation analysis and bootstrap confidence intervals confirmed moral disengagement as a mediator of the relationship between controlled motivation and antisocial behaviour. The current research project contributes to previous research by including teammates as an additional social agent and builds on previous work that has examined behavioural outcomes and their association with SDT variables. Future directions and practical recommendations are discussed in light of the current findings.
Advisor: Hodge, Ken
Degree Name: Master of Physical Education
Degree Discipline: School of Physical Education
Publisher: University of Otago
Keywords: Prosocial Antisocial Behaviour; Motivation
Research Type: Thesis