Feedback and revision: A protocol analysis
Written feedback is a widespread practice and has garnered considerable positive and negative attention. The responses that teachers provide on students’ writing are essential to encourage and develop students’ writing. However, an in-depth understanding of the thought processes of student writers as they attend to written feedback is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thought processes and reactions of student writers towards written teacher feedback. Using a case study methodology, verbal protocols of eight postgraduate students were recorded as they attended to teacher feedback on their essays. Written texts, written teacher comments, and a questionnaire survey supplemented the data. The findings from this study indicate that the participants attended to written feedback recursively. Second, the act of thinking aloud led to noticing the disparities highlighted in the feedback. Finally the results suggest that students’ engagement with written teacher feedback is a social activity that encompasses a complex and dynamic interpersonal process between student writers and their feedback provider. This study concludes by raising several implications for teaching and learning. It suggests that it is important for teachers to be aware of the impact of feedback. Additionally, this study proposes that the think-aloud technique is useful as an implement in teaching writing, being a means of helping students reflect on feedback and develop their writing. Finally, it points out that both cognitive and sociocultural approaches to think-aloud data offer insights into the thought processes of writers.
Advisor: Feryok, Anne; Sweetnam Evans, Moyra
Degree Name: Doctor of Philosophy
Degree Discipline: Linguistics
Publisher: University of Otago
Keywords: feedback; writing; think-aloud; revision; student responses; student reactions; written feedback; verbal protocols; student engagement with feedback; cognitive approaches; sociocultural approaches
Research Type: Thesis