|dc.description.abstract||Through ethnographic enquiry and an anthropological approach this thesis provides insights into the socio-cultural dynamics surrounding local communities’ participation in a Multiple-Use Marine Protected Area (MUMPA). Using a broad range of sources, this research illustrates the different nuances of local relationships. The methodology included small-scale group settings facilitating an in-depth anthropological study that offers a privileged understanding of the social realm of MUMPAs. The assessment focuses on elements of Integrated Conservation Development Projects (ICDPs), employing Lafken Mapu Lahual (LML) MUMPA as a case study—in Chile—that shows the applicability of this type of project in a specific Latin American context.
The research examines the reasons why inclusion of human aspects, including the implications of social and cultural characteristics, has not received much attention in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). In addition, the consequences and effects of this exclusion are discussed. The analysis shows that the local reality is more complex than portrayed by the LML MUMPA staff, including their failure to adequately learn about the social and cultural way of organising, interests and history of local communities. This oversight hindered the local people’s engagement in the LML MUMPA. This thesis specifically addresses the project’s exacerbation of conflict over resource access between the indigenous communities included in the LML MUMPA project and the historical artisanal fishers that were excluded from it. The LML MUMPA regulated resource rights to an area providing the former group free access while simultaneously denying such access to the latter group.
The ICDP approach, which provided the framework for the LML MUMPA, established prescriptions of who would be the appropriate participants in a marine conservation area: the indigenous people. However, the approach uses only one idea to describe and define indigenous social and cultural characteristics. This thesis shows that diverse culturally defined resource use practices—as an element on which project staff based their selection of main stakeholders and to allocate benefits of the LML MUMPA—challenge the simple application of ICDPs to marine and coastal areas.
The conclusion drawn from the analysis of the research is that different situations obstructed the LML MUMPA deployment. These different situations are important in that they show the complexity of the concepts of ethnicity and local stakeholders. At a superficial level, several seemingly successful and representative organizations failed to fulfil the role of project stakeholders. Also, the official commitment of the regional authorities was not fulfilled, which hampered the viability of the LML MUMPA. This analysis outlines the importance of managing the local participants’ expectations of the benefits from their involvement in the project. This is paramount for long term engagement. These issues are important in that they help to develop arguments about the complexity of social and cultural concepts in marine conservation projects based on biological parameters.||