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dc.contributor.advisorHunter, John A.
dc.contributor.authorClarke, Hayley Bonnie
dc.identifier.citationClarke, H. B. (2013). General & Domain-Specific Self-Efficacy Following 10-Day Developmental Sailing Voyages, & the Contribution of Social Support (Thesis, Master of Science). University of Otago. Retrieved from
dc.description.abstractTwo studies were conducted. Study 1 sought to quantify increases in, and maintenance of, general and domain-specific self-efficacy of youths who complete Spirit of New Zealand 10-day developmental sailing voyages. The sailing voyages utilize team-building, leadership and mastery activities to foster achievement. Participants were aged 16.33 on average and volunteered or applied for participation. Self-efficacy was measured at T1; three to four weeks prior to voyage commencement, T2; first day of the voyage, T3; last day of the voyage, and T4; five months post voyage completion. It was hypothesized that i) participants will experience increases in general and domain-specific self-efficacy over the voyage, and ii) that these increases will be maintained at a five month follow-up. Results showed partial support for hypotheses; trainees experienced significant increases in GSE, NASRE, RSRE and SSE over the voyage (T2-T3), but no significant increase in SAE. Increased GSE, RSRE and SSE were maintained at a five-month follow-up, while NASRE significantly decreased. It was concluded that the majority of general and domain-specific self-efficacy were (i) significantly increased over the voyage and (ii) maintained at five months post-voyage. The potential decline of self-efficacy over 12 months post-voyage and contribution of social support to increased self-efficacy was investigated in Study 2. Participants were aged 16.25 years on average and recruited as in study 1. Self-efficacy was measured as in Study 1 with the exception of T4; 12 months post voyage completion. Study 1 hypotheses were repeated with the exception of (ii) maintained self-efficacy at 12 months, and added (iii) that perceived social support will consistently predict higher levels of general and domain-specific self-efficacy at voyage completion and 12 months following. Support was found for hypotheses (i) and (ii); participants reported a significant increase in GSE, NASRE, RSRE, SSE and SAE over the voyage (T2-T3), and increases in GSE, NASRE and SSE over the voyage were maintained at 12-months post voyage (T3-T4). However, RSRE and SAE significantly declined over this period (T3-T4). Hypothesis (iii) was not supported as perceived social support inconsistently predicted general and domain-specific self-efficacy at the end of the voyage and at a 12-month post-voyage follow-up. Implications for youth and future research are discussed.
dc.publisherUniversity of Otago
dc.rightsAll items in OUR Archive are provided for private study and research purposes and are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.
dc.subjectSocial Support
dc.subjectSpirit of New Zealand Voyages
dc.subjectOutward Bound
dc.subjectDomain Specific Self-Efficacy
dc.subjectOutdoor Youth Interventions
dc.subjectGeneral Self-Efficacy
dc.subjectDevelopmental Sailing Voyages
dc.subjectNegative Affect Self-Regulatory Efficacy
dc.subjectResistive Self-Regulatory Efficacy
dc.subjectSocial Self-Efficacy
dc.subjectSelf-Assertive Efficacy
dc.subjectLongitudinal Design
dc.titleGeneral & Domain-Specific Self-Efficacy Following 10-Day Developmental Sailing Voyages, & the Contribution of Social Support
dc.language.rfc3066en of Science of Otago
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
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