|dc.description.abstract||There are numerous tertiary institutions throughout Aotearoa that offer Māori language education. These institutions include universities, various polytechnic institutions (Kura Matatini) and various whare wānanga (places of higher learning) including Te Ātaarangi and The Whare Wānanga o Aotearoa.
Several methods of teaching are utilized within these institutions including monolingual (rūmaki) methods of teaching Māori language (e.g. the Silent Way Method) and bilingual methods. These Māori language courses are generally taught within a Kaupapa Māori framework. As a university teacher of Māori language with a particular affinity for the Silent Way Method, I was interested in determining the most effective way to teach/learn Māori as a second language. Thus this research aimed to determine whether monolingual or bilingual approaches are more effective for teaching Māori language in tertiary education settings. In particular, the perceptions of both students and teachers were sought regarding effective pedagogies. The 13 student participants were partaking in a 10 week beginner’s course for Māori language that was taught using both mono - and bilingual approaches. This course constituted the first case study and student perceptions of both teaching methods were gained via three surveys disseminated throughout the course. A second case was of Māori language in tertiary settings in Aotearoa. An online survey was administered to 74 Māori language teachers across Aotearoa, with 16 responding. In addition, two teachers were interviewed to gain more in-depth data relating to teachers perceptions regarding the effectiveness of monolingual and bilingual methods of teaching Māori as a second language.
In terms of key findings, overall there was no majority preference for either a monolingual or bilingual approach for teaching Māori. Specifically, the Māori language student cohort indicated a slight preference in support of the Silent Way method of teaching and learning.
The Māori language teachers indicated that effective teaching strategies were numerous and changed often according to the skills sets being taught at the time.
When using bilingual methods of teaching Māori as a second language within university settings a confluent approach to teaching can be effective. A confluent approach to teaching is based on the premise that Māori language teaching should be approached from two fundamental viewpoints. Firstly, the Māori language should be taught in a step-by-step, easy to follow manner starting with basic language types and becoming incrementally harder as the language course progresses. Secondly, the Māori language needs to be taught in an affective manner. Specifically, the teacher needs to teach the student in a manner that not only teaches language but also in a manner that encourages the student to feel confident to express their feelings and ideas in a comfortable, safe environment. Methods such as ako, tuakana/teina and experiential learning can be used to encourage this affective approach to teaching. A further finding indicates that it is not sufficient to just state that one method of teaching is more effective over the other. The message from the research indicates that different methods of teaching are best suited to specific language skills sets that are being taught. For example: monolingual teaching methods may be used to enhance a feeling of confidence within the student with regards to experimenting with speaking of the target language. Whereby, bilingual methods may be used to enhance a stronger comprehension of grammar. The teaching of syntax and grammar needs to be taught in context. Context may be actual or hypothetical. Once the various grammar segments of the target language are taught the student needs plenty of opportunities to practice. The fourth research finding indicates that the Māori language can be taught from the beginning of the Māori student’s language journey at university. The key research findings indicate that this ethos of monolingual teaching to beginning levels of Māori language ability needs to be carefully implemented and planned. Furthermore, the monolingual teacher needs to be very well resourced and have an expert knowledge of the target language.||