|dc.description.abstract||Objective: To investigate if daily breakfast consumption is associated with higher vitality and general health scores in 50 year old Cantabrians.
Design: Cross-sectional pilot study using baseline data collected for the prospective longitudinal Canterbury Health, Ageing and Lifecourse (CHALICE) study. Participants were 50 years old (n=300) and living within the Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) catchment area. Vitality and general health were scored using the Medical Outcome Studies 36-Item Short Form (SF-36v2) Questionnaire and breakfast frequency was measured using the How you eat and what you eat questionnaire. Daily breakfast consumers (DBC) were defined as those who ate breakfast every day and non-daily breakfast consumer (NBC) were defined as those who ate breakfast < 7 days a week. Other relevant data collected included: demographics, standard of living using the Economic Living Standard Index Short Form (ELSISF), body mass index (BMI kg/m2), alcohol consumption using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), psychological status (depression) using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and smoking habits. Participants were categorised into high and low groups for all categorical variables (breakfast consumption, standard of living, ethnicity, depression, alcohol consumption and smoking), except for the continuous variable BMI kg/m2. A Pearson Chi-square test was used to investigate differences between males and females. Linear regression models were used to examine the Beta co-efficient (β) values of vitality and general health scores and associated confidence intervals (CIs) in DBC compared with NBC for all subjects together and for males and females, separately.
Results: The prevalence of DBC in this study was 74.6%. Daily breakfast consumption was not associated with having a higher vitality or general health score. An association that almost approached significance was observed for DBC and vitality in men. ELSISF, depression and BMI were associated with vitality and general health for all subjects. Depression had the most significant effect on vitality (β -6.65 CI -10.49, -2.81) and general health (β -7.44 CI -10.86, -4.02) for men. Smoking was the greatest contributor to decreased vitality (β -7.77 CI -12.79, -2.75) and general health (β -5.70 CI -10.63, -0.77) for women. DBC smoked less, consumed less alcohol, were less depressed and/or had lower BMIs compared to NBC.
Conclusions: Breakfast consumption was not associated with the vitality or general health scores of participants in this study; however those who consumed breakfast every day had healthier lifestyle habits compared to those who did not. Further research is required to assess specific breakfast foods and nutrients, and the change in breakfast consumption patterns in relation to quality of life and well-being in a middle-aged population.||