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dc.contributor.advisorJackson, Steven
dc.contributor.advisorSam, Michael
dc.contributor.authorChang, Ik Young
dc.identifier.citationChang, I. Y. (2014). Transnational Migration and Identity Negotiation: Sport and Leisure in the Lives of South Korean Immigrants to New Zealand (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago. Retrieved from
dc.description.abstractDespite the fact that sport and leisure, as part of the new migratory flow based on lifestyle, has increasingly been of concern to scholars, there has been little empirical research examining the phenomena. Drawing upon key concepts including: risk society (Beck, 1992), lifestyle migration (Benson & O’Reilly, 2009), in-betweenness of the 1.5 generation (Bartley & Spoonley, 2008) and the return visit (Duval, 2003), this thesis examines the role of sport and leisure both in migration decision-making and in identity negotiation during and after settlement. More specifically, this thesis focuses on South Korean migration to New Zealand because of its distinct transnational features and the increasing number of migrants. Methodologically, the study uses a multi-method approach which includes socio-historical, contextual analysis, document analysis, interviews and participant observation, to examine four empirically-based case studies: 1) why do South Koreans decide to migrate? 2) why do they choose New Zealand? 3) how do migrants adapt to their new country and 4) why do they sometimes return to their original homeland? The key findings indicate that South Korean migration to New Zealand is often linked to: 1) societal risk factors which include (a) a highly competitive society, (b) military conflicts with North Korea, (c) Korea’s obsession with educational achievement and (d) conflicts between traditional and western values; 2) New Zealand is a desired location for migration because it is perceived as a place of opportunities, in which people can escape a competitive, work-oriented society and enjoy a more leisurely lifestyle; 3) sport and leisure are important cultural sites and practices where South Koreans, and the 1.5 generation in particular, negotiates their identities within key two spaces: home and school; and 4) South Korean return visits to participate in the National Sport Festival (NSF) play a substantive role in identity negotiation offering a unique social space where they can connect with their old and simultaneously represent their new nation and identity. Collectively, these four case studies illustrate that sport and leisure can be theorised as key factors which may influence migration decisions in the new migratory flow based on lifestyle. Moreover, sport and leisure play a crucial role as social and cultural spaces where South Korean migrants can effectively perform and negotiate Korean, Korean-kiwi and/or New Zealand identities highlighting the flexible and fluid nature of identity across transnational social contexts.
dc.publisherUniversity of Otago
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dc.subjectTransnational Migration
dc.subjectIdentity Negotiation
dc.subjectSport and Leisure
dc.subjectSouth Korean Immigrants
dc.subjectNew Zealand
dc.titleTransnational Migration and Identity Negotiation: Sport and Leisure in the Lives of South Korean Immigrants to New Zealand
dc.language.rfc3066en of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences of Philosophy of Otago
otago.openaccessAbstract Only
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