Mahinga kai- He tāngata. Mahinga kaitiaki- He mauri.
Mahinga kai (food gathering sites and practices) emerged at the beginning of the creation narratives when the Māori world was first formed and atua (deity, Gods) roamed upon the face of the land. Mahinga kai sites are imbued with practices, embedded with whakapapa (genealogy), and clothed with knowledge that have implications for how we view and understand Māori Physical Education (PE) and health. Māori PE and health is rooted in a Māori worldview, guided by the relevance of the Treaty of Waitangi, inherent to an holistic approach to health, and connected to the natural environment.The aim of this research was to critically evaluate the emergent discourses of mahinga kai (and its subsequent discourses) against the recontextualised thinking about Māori PE and health based on the synergies of Kaupapa Māori theory, whakapapa and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). These theoretical and methodological frameworks are utilised to further the goals and aspirations of the Māori community of Kāti Huirapa ki Puketeraki hapū (sub-tribe) in Karitāne that I worked alongside of, privileging mātauranga (Māori knowledge) and legitimising a Māori worldview. The methods of the research were: semi-structured interviews (4), wānanga kōrero (3 group interviews), reflective pieces (9), and a case study with Kāti Huirapa ki Puketeraki hapū.There were multiple discourses of mahinga kai that emerged from key creation narratives, the Treaty of Waitangi translation texts and Waitangi Tribunal texts. The emergent discourses of mahinga kai were mahinga kai as: whakapapa; whanaungatanga (relationships); tikanga (custom) and the subsequent discourse of tapu (sacred, set apart); mātauranga; identity; taonga (treasure) and the ensuing discourses of forestry and fisheries; kaitiakitanga (protection, guardianship) and the succeeding discourses of mauri (life force) and kaitiaki (guardian) and; rangatiratanga (chieftainship) and the consequent discourse of mana (authority, power). The operationalisation of the discourses of mahinga kai were evident in the Ki Uta Ki Tai case study and illustrated the importance of connecting to one another, the communities we serve, and the environment we are a part of. This thesis argues that the emergent discourses of mahinga kai, embedded in a framework of cosmogonic whakapapa, are key to understanding and exploring notions of Māori PE and health and has benefits for Māori and non-Māori alike engaging with this notion as they learn the importance of connecting to people and place. Knowledge gained from this research will: assist communities who are wanting to implement similar strategies to their resource management plans; provide evidence that supports a mutually beneficial relationship (partnership) between University staff and students, and their local communities and; recontextualise how we think and view Māori PE and health.
Advisor: Jackson, Anne-Marie; Hakopa, Hauiti
Degree Name: Master of Physical Education
Degree Discipline: School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences
Publisher: University of Otago
Keywords: Mahinga; Kai; Māori; Health; Kaitiakitanga; Mauri
Research Type: Thesis