Is the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY) valid in a general New Zealand population?
Le Lievre, Cherie
Introduction: Understanding children and youths’ participation in life situations and the environmental factors that support or hinder this is critical to improving their wellbeing. Measures of children’s participation and environment, such as the PEM-CY have recently emerged and require further validity evaluation. Objective: Is the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY) valid in a general New Zealand population? Methods: A convergent parallel mixed methods approach was used. Phase One: Qualitative approach to evaluate face validity which consisted of cognitive interviews with 5 parents with children aged 5 – 17 years and 5 occupational therapists currently working with children and adolescents. A general inductive approach was used to analyse the data to determine face validity. Phase Two: Quantitative approach to examine internal consistency and construct validity. The PEM-CY, Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation, Child and Adolescent Scale of Environment and Parenting Sense Of Competence were presented electronically. Data was analysed using Cronbach’s alpha (α>0.70) for internal consistency and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient for construct validity when at least 75% of predicted correlations were observed. Findings: Phase One: The PEM-CY had face validity. Phase Two: University staff parents (n= 74 to 81, not everyone completed every question) undertook the online questionnaire. Internal consistency was found in 12 out of the 24 PEM-CY summary scores. Convergent validity was shown in 4 out of the 12 PEM-CY scales (Home, School, Community and Overall Environmental Resources). The PEM-CY Participation Overall scale (60%) nearly reached the convergent validity threshold. Divergent validity was shown in 6 out of 12 PEMCY scales (Participation School and Overall; Environmental Helpfulness School, Community, Environment and Environmental Helpfulness Home). Two PEM-CY Participation scales Home (50%) and Community (50%) nearly reached the divergent validity threshold. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings may indicate that the PEM-CY does not measure children’s participation or their environments in a valid and reliable way for parents in New Zealand. It raises the questions about what is actually being measured by the PEM-CY and whether the numerical scoring of scales used in this study is technically valid.
Advisor: Graham, Fiona; Taylor, William; Levack, William
Degree Name: Master of Health Sciences
Degree Discipline: The Rehabilitation Teaching and Research Unit
Publisher: University of Otago
Keywords: participation; environment; PEM-CY; Child and Youth; New Zealand; validity
Research Type: Thesis