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dc.contributor.advisorRae, Murray
dc.contributor.authorPasichnik, Marina Nikolaevna
dc.date.available2016-09-19T20:47:51Z
dc.date.copyright2016
dc.identifier.citationPasichnik, M. N. (2016). Heaven-on-Earth and the Heavenly Jerusalem in Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century Muscovite Church Architecture in the Uspensky Sobor (Assumption Cathedral) and Pokrovsky Sobor (Cathedral of the Intercession) (Thesis, Master of Theology). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/6784en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/6784
dc.description.abstractRussian Orthodoxy considered the church building to be an icon of heaven that portrayed Heaven-on-Earth and provided a glimpse of the Heavenly Jerusalem. Symbolism was used in church architecture to express these themes. This thesis explores the representation of Heaven-on-Earth and the Heavenly Jerusalem in the Uspensky Sobor (Cathedral of the Assumption), in the Moscow Kremlin and the Pokrovsky Sobor (Cathedral of the Intercession) in Red Square in Moscow. Fifteenth and sixteenth Muscovite church symbolism is best interpreted through a theological lens to provide insight into the mindset of those times. It is more accurate than a purely political, historical, or cultural approach. Biblical imagery relating to the themes of Heaven-on-Earth and the Heavenly Jerusalem will be the starting point. The meaning of the Old Testament tabernacle and the temple is significant because symbolism from these structures was later transferred into church structures. The Russian inheritance of Christianity from the Byzantine church is addressed. The Mongol occupation and the subsequent defeat of their descendants, the Tatars, affected Russian theological symbolism and interpretation. The outcome was that Russian Church architecture took a different course to that of its Byzantine predecessor. The highlight of the Heavenly Jerusalem theme was reached in the sixteenth century with Moscow’s image as a “chosen city,” which was an extension of the “chosen people” concept of Kievan Rus a few centuries earlier. The background context of the theological, historical and political situation of Russia is used as a framework to examine the art and architecture of the two cathedrals. The rise of Moscow was related to the relocation of the centre of Orthodoxy from the city of Vladimir to Moscow. The symbolism relating to the theme of Heaven-on-Earth is examined in the Uspensky’s exterior and interior architecture along with a comparative study of its prototype church in Vladimir. The Heavenly Jerusalem theme was understated in the Uspensky Sobor, although an appraisal of its relics and icons suggests that there was considerable thought about it emerging in the middle of the sixteenth century. The Heavenly Jerusalem concept was most exemplified in the Pokrovsky Sobor. The antecedents (zions, votive churches and kokoshniki) that pre-dated the Heavenly Jerusalem theme shed light on the development of the theme itself. Similarly, the role reversal between the theological proclamation in the exteriors and interiors of Russian churches is significant because it reflected the shift from the Heaven-on-Earth theme towards the Heavenly Jerusalem theme which dominated the sixteenth century. Consideration is given to the numerical symbolism and the church domes of this period because they are often regarded as a cipher to sixteenth century Russian churches. While the background influences on the construction of the Pokrovsky are examined, the overall conclusion is that its construction was for theological reasons. The second major finding was that there was a shift in Moscow’s theological role from asking for intercession towards a self-assurance that Moscow was divinely protected. Three of the Pokrovsky Churches are discussed in more detail than the others because their architecture more fully anticipated the Heavenly Jerusalem.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherUniversity of Otago
dc.rightsAll items in OUR Archive are provided for private study and research purposes and are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.
dc.subjectHeaven-on-Earth
dc.subjectHeavenly Jerusalem
dc.subjectMuscovite Church Architecture
dc.subjectUspensky Sobor
dc.subjectPokrovsky Sobor
dc.subjectSymbolism
dc.titleHeaven-on-Earth and the Heavenly Jerusalem in Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century Muscovite Church Architecture in the Uspensky Sobor (Assumption Cathedral) and Pokrovsky Sobor (Cathedral of the Intercession)
dc.typeThesis
dc.date.updated2016-09-19T04:53:53Z
dc.language.rfc3066en
thesis.degree.disciplineDepartment of Theology and Religion
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Theology
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Otago
thesis.degree.levelMasters
otago.openaccessOpen
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