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dc.contributor.authorGarces-Ozanne, Arlene
dc.contributor.authorKalu, Edna Ikechi
dc.contributor.authorAudas, Richard
dc.identifier.citationGarces-Ozanne, A., Kalu, E. I., & Audas, R. (2016). How do empowerment and self-determination affect national health outcomes? (Economics Discussion Papers Series No. 1609). University of Otago. Retrieved from
dc.description.abstractThere remains a persistent gap in health outcomes between wealthy and poor countries. Basic measures such as life expectancy, infant and child mortality remain divergent, with preventable deaths being unacceptably high, despite significant efforts to reduce these disparities. We examine the impact of empowerment, measured by Freedom House’s ratings of country’s political and civil rights freedom, while controlling for per capita GDP, secondary school enrollment and income inequality, on national health outcomes. Using data from 1970-2013 across 149 countries, our results suggest, quite strongly, that higher levels of empowerment have a significant positive association with life expectancy, particularly for females, and lower rates of infant and child mortality. Our results point to the need for efforts to stimulate economic growth be accompanied with reforms to increase the levels of empowerment through increased political and economic freedom.en_NZ
dc.publisherUniversity of Otagoen_NZ
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEconomics Discussion Papers Seriesen_NZ
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International*
dc.subjectpolitical rights,en_NZ
dc.subjectcivil liberties,en_NZ
dc.subjectper capita GDPen_NZ
dc.subjectsecondary school enrollment,en_NZ
dc.subjectincome inequality,en_NZ
dc.subjectlife expectancy,en_NZ
dc.subjectinfant and childen_NZ
dc.titleHow do empowerment and self-determination affect national health outcomes?en_NZ
dc.typeDiscussion Paperen_NZ
otago.schoolOtago Business School / Department of Economicsen_NZ
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Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International