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dc.contributor.authorKensington, Christopheren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorRichards, Katrinaen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorMurray, Daveen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorPeake, Barrieen_NZ
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:02:07Z
dc.date.copyright2003-12en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationKensington, C., Richards, K., Murray, D., & Peake, B. (2003). Nitrogen species distribution in the Taieri Plain aquifer, New Zealand (pp. 27–36). Presented at the 15th Annual Colloquium of the Spatial Information Research Centre (SIRC 2003: Land, Place and Space).en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/748
dc.description.abstractNitrogen contamination of drinking water has been linked to health risks including ‘blue baby syndrome’. In New Zealand, up to 51% of people use at least some groundwater for drinking, and there is growing concern that the rapid growth of intensive dairying may lead to aquifer contamination. The distribution of nitrogen species nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2-) and organic nitrogen were measured in groundwater bores in the Taieri Plain aquifer, New Zealand, during March-November 2002. There was significant spatial variation in the concentration of nitrate and ammonium across the aquifer. Concentrations of nitrate were low in the confined aquifer in West Taieri, but high in unconfined bores in East Taieri and in bores in alluvial fans, i.e. where infiltration of surface runoff can occur. Ammonium showed the reverse pattern, i.e. low concentrations in the unconfined aquifer, and high concentrations in parts of the confined aquifer. Nitrite concentrations were low everywhere. Mean nitrate concentrations for confined and unconfined bores were well below the maximum limit for drinking water in New Zealand (11.3 ppm NO3-N), but in the unconfined zone some individual measurements approached or slightly exceeded this limit. Some individual measurements for ammonium species exceeded the aesthetic guideline for drinking water (1.2 ppm NH4-N). No temporal variations were seen in species concentrations over the relatively short time scale of the study, and there was little correlation between concentrations and bore depth. Fortuitously, the Waihola silt-sand unit protects the underlying aquifer and mitigates the potential for contamination in the areas where intensive dairying occurs on the Taieri Plain. The unconfined/semiconfined aquifer in East Taieri, and alluvial fan areas, are far more vulnerable to contamination from nitrogen species. Ideally, conditions and land use practices in these areas should be closely monitored and, perhaps, regulated.en_NZ
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.relation.urihttp://www.business.otago.ac.nz/SIRC05/conferences/2003/03_Kensington.pdfen_NZ
dc.subjectnitrogenen_NZ
dc.subjectnitrateen_NZ
dc.subjectnitriteen_NZ
dc.subjectammoniumen_NZ
dc.subjectmappingen_NZ
dc.subjectTaieri Plain aquiferen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshQE Geologyen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshGE Environmental Sciencesen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshGeography en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshGeology en_NZ
dc.subject.lcshQD Chemistryen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshQA76 Computer softwareen_NZ
dc.titleNitrogen species distribution in the Taieri Plain aquifer, New Zealanden_NZ
dc.typeConference or Workshop Item (Paper)en_NZ
dc.description.versionPublisheden_NZ
otago.date.accession2005-11-29en_NZ
otago.relation.pages27-36en_NZ
otago.openaccessOpen
dc.identifier.eprints74en_NZ
dc.description.refereedNon Peer Revieweden_NZ
otago.school.eprintsSpatial Information Research Centreen_NZ
otago.school.eprintsGeographyen_NZ
otago.school.eprintsChemistryen_NZ
dc.description.referencesAmerican Public Health Association (APHA) (1998) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Clesceri, L.S., A.E. Greenberg and A.D. Eaton (eds.) United Book Press, Maryland. Avery, A.A. (1999) Infantile Methaemoglobinaemia: Re-examining the role of drinking water nitrates. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107:7, pp. 583-586. Barrell, D.J.A., P.J. Forsyth, N.J. Litchfield and L.J. Brown. (1999) Quaternary stratigraphy of the Lower Taieri Plain, Otago, New Zealand. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Science Report, 99:15. Burden, R.J. (1982) Nitrate contamination of New Zealand aquifers: a review. New Zealand Journal of Science, 25, pp. 205-220. Canter, L.W. (1997) Nitrates in Groundwater. Lewis Publishers, USA. Close, M.E., M.R. Rosen, and V.R. Smith (2001) Fate and transport of nitrates and pesticides in New Zealand’s aquifers. In: Groundwaters of New Zealand, Rosen, M.R. and P.A. White (eds). New Zealand Hydrological Society, Wellington, pp. 185-220. Downes, C.J. (1980) Chemistry of the Hutt Valley underground waters. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chemistry Division Report, pp. 55-56. Gallegos, E., A. Warren, E. Robles, E. Campoy, A. Calderon, M.G. Sainz, P. Bonilla and O. Escolero. (1999) The effects of wastewater irrigation on groundwater quality in Mexico. Water Science Technology, 40: 2, pp. 45-52. Hallberg, G.R. (1989) Nitrate in groundwater in the United States. In: Follett, R.F. (ed.) Nitrogen Management and Groundwater Protection. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 35-74. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (1997) Method 11732: Water quality - Determination of ammonium nitrogen by flow analysis (CFA and FIA) and spectrometric detection. Web site http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/CatalogueDetailPage.CataloguDetail (accessed 2002) IRRICON (1994) Lower Taieri Groundwater Report, Preliminary Study, for Otago Regional Council, Dunedin. IRRICON (1997) Lower Taieri Groundwater Study, for Otago Regional Council, Dunedin. Kensington, C.G. (2003) Distribution of Nitrogen Species in Groundwater in the Taieri Plain Aquifer, New Zealand. Unpublished MSc thesis. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Mariotti, A., A. Landreau and B. Simon (1988) 15N isotope biogeochemistry and natural denitrification process in groundwater: Application to the chalk aquifer of northern France. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, pp. 1869-1878. McLarin, W., G. Bekesi, L. Brown and J. McConchie (1999) Nitrate contamination of the unconfined aquifer, Manakau, Horowhenua, New Zealand. Journal of Hydrology (NZ), 38: 2, pp. 211-235. Ministry of Health (1995) Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand 1995. Ministry of Health, Wellington. Otago Regional Council (1999) Taieri River Catchment Monitoring Report. Unpublished internal report housed in the Otago Regional Council library, Dunedin. Selvarajah, N., G.R. Maggs, J.R. Crush and S.F. Ledgard (1994) Nitrate in ground water in the Waikato region. In: The Efficient Use of Fertilisers in a Changing Environment: Reconciling Productivity with Sustainability. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Workshop (Feb, 1994), Fertiliser and Lime Research Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North. Wassenaar, L.I. (1995) Evaluation of the origin and fate of nitrate in the Abbotsford aquifer using the isotopes of 15N and 18O in NO3-. Applied Geochemistry, 10, pp. 391-340.en_NZ
otago.event.dates1-2 December 2003en_NZ
otago.event.placeDunedin, New Zealanden_NZ
otago.event.typeconferenceen_NZ
otago.event.title15th Annual Colloquium of the Spatial Information Research Centre (SIRC 2003: Land, Place and Space)en_NZ
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