Spatial variation in the association between neighbourhood deprivation and access to alcohol outlets
Hay, Geoff; Whigham, Peter A; Kypri, Kypros; Langley, John
Background: People who live in poor areas suffer higher mortality than those living in wealthier areas. People who live in poor areas in New Zealand have better access to alcohol and this association appears to vary spatially. We sought to investigate this spatial non-stationarity using Geographically Weighted Regression. Methods: The location of bars was geocoded for all of New Zealand and closest facility analysis was used to calculate distance to the nearest bar from each meshblock. A neighbourhood level census-based index of socioeconomic deprivation, and urban/rural status data were added as inputs to a Geographic Weighted Regression model to investigate spatial variation in the association between access to alcohol outlets and deprivation. Results: Spatial non-stationarity was discovered in deprivation and urban/rural status parameters with some large rural areas of New Zealand exhibiting significant departures from the global model of the association between distance to the nearest bar and neighbourhood deprivation. Conclusions: Lack of association discovered for rural areas may be the result of spatial heterogeneity. Research into the association between deprivation and access to alcohol should consider rural areas individually for environmental inequity rather than relying on global models showing no association.
Conference: 19th Annual Colloquium of the Spatial Information Research Centre (SIRC 2007: Does Space Matter?), Dunedin, New Zealand
Keywords: alcohol; liquor; outlet; density; deprivation; socio-economic status
Research Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)