The effect of a diet moderately high in protein and fiber on insulin sensitivity measured using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST)
Te Morenga, Lisa; Docherty, Paul; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim
Evidence shows that weightloss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD) that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n=42) or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy), relatively high fibre (>30g/day) diet (HPHFib) (n=47) for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method - the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST). Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8, 4.5%; p=0.013) in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.
Rights Statement: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: diet; dietary protein; dietary fibre; insulin sensitivity assessment; insulin sensitivity; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; dietary intervention
Research Type: Journal Article
This paper is a version chapter from a PhD thesis (Te Morenga, L. A. (2010). The effects of altering macronutrient composition on diabetes risk (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/439) and as such has been externally reviewed by experts in the field. It is currently under peer review.
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