|dc.description.abstract||Adolescence is often seen as a phase of life that is challenging, requiring most individuals to adapt and adjust to varying degrees. Adverse or stressful life events can lead to ill-health and psychological dysfunction, and a poor transition from childhood to adulthood can lead to maladaptation, risky behaviours, or juvenile delinquency. The ability to ‘bounce back’ from the effects of stress, trauma, or threat is known as resilience. The notion that resilience can be enhanced through an adaptive process is important to educators, social workers and mental health professionals. The risk factors that adolescents may encounter during their developmental years can come from within the individual, the family, or the community. Research suggests that the high need to succeed academically may contribute to mental health problems, especially in a controlled, compulsory and highly competitive education system. In Singapore, one of the highest causes of anxiety for students comes from academic performance, as academic performance is often seen as a source of pride for the family and has an impact on career prospects.
Outdoor adventure education (OAE) programmes conducted in schools with the aim of promoting resilience are gaining popularity. However, the majority of resilience research particularly with adolescent youth has been done in the West, with a small amount done in Asian countries. This study aims to close the research gap by examining the impact of outdoor intervention programmes on the levels of resilience of adolescents in Singapore. Singaporeans are predominantly of Asian descent and have different geographical, historical and social environments to those of the West.
This study employed a mixed methods design using both qualitative and quantitative data collection. The researcher recruited 14-year-old students in a typical public mainstream secondary school attending a three-day OAE programme conducted by the school. The quantitative methods measured resilience levels using the Singapore Youth Resilience Scale (SYRESS), to measure the perceived outcomes immediately before, immediately after, and eight weeks after the programme. Qualitative data gathered from interviews with students provided useful descriptions of salient factors and processes that played a part in promoting resilience. The results from this study show that between pre-test and post-test, the increase in resilience levels was statistically significant. Nine out of ten constructs in the SYRESS instrument demonstrated significant improvement. Results from the study did not indicate any significant relationships between resilience scores and students’ prior exposure to outdoor activities through co-curricular activities undertaken in school.||