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dc.contributor.authorOdolinski, Robert
dc.contributor.authorTeunissen, Peter J. G.
dc.identifier.citationOdolinski, R., & Teunissen, P. J. G. (2018). An assessment of smartphone and low-cost multi-GNSS single-frequency RTK positioning for low, medium and high ionospheric disturbance periods. Journal of Geodesy, 1–22. doi:
dc.description.abstractThe emerging GNSSs make single-frequency (SF) RTK positioning possible. In this contribution two different types of low-cost (few hundred USDs) RTK receivers are analyzed, which can track L1 GPS, B1 BDS, E1 Galileo and L1 QZSS, or any combinations thereof, for a location in Dunedin, New Zealand. These SF RTK receivers can potentially give competitive ambiguity resolution and positioning performance to that of more expensive (thousands USDs) dual-frequency (DF) GPS receivers. A smartphone implementation of one of these SF receiver types is also evaluated. The least-squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE) procedure is first used to formulate a realistic stochastic model, which assures that our receivers at hand can achieve the best possible ambiguity resolution and RTK positioning performance. The best performing low-cost SF RTK receiver types are then assessed against DF GPS receivers and survey-grade antennas. Real data with ionospheric disturbances at low, medium and high levels are analyzed, while making use of the ionosphere-weighted model. It will be demonstrated that when the presence of the residual ionospheric delays increases, instantaneous RTK positioning is not possible for any of the receivers, and a multi-epoch model is necessary to use. It is finally shown that the low-cost SF RTK performance can remain competitive to that of more expensive DF GPS receivers even when the ionospheric disturbance level reaches a Kp-index of 7−, i.e. for a strong geomagnetic storm, for the baseline at hand.en_NZ
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Geodesyen_NZ
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectSmartphone RTKen_NZ
dc.subjectLow-cost RTK receiveren_NZ
dc.subjectIonosphere-weighted modelsen_NZ
dc.subjectL1 GPSen_NZ
dc.subjectB1 BDSen_NZ
dc.subjectE1 Galileoen_NZ
dc.subjectL1 QZSSen_NZ
dc.titleAn assessment of smartphone and low-cost multi-GNSS single-frequency RTK positioning for low, medium and high ionospheric disturbance periodsen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Articleen_NZ
otago.schoolSchool of Surveyingen_NZ
dc.rights.statementOpen Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecomm, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en_NZ
dc.description.refereedPeer Revieweden_NZ
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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International