Colonial Intervention on Guardianship and 'Adoption' Practices in Fiji 1874-1970
|dc.identifier.citation||Newman, E. (2018). Colonial Intervention on Guardianship and ‘Adoption’ Practices in Fiji 1874-1970 (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/8493||en|
|dc.description.abstract||The arrival of Europeans in Fiji, from the late 1700s, impacted the established social structures of the indigenous communities, removing what were considered inappropriate social behaviours and introducing concepts and values which altered the societal relationships and status of iTaukei (indigenous Fijians). This included the introduction of colonialist terms and practices of ‘orphan’ and ‘adoption’. Scholars such as Vern Carroll, Ivan Brady and Ward Goodenough have questioned whether the use of these terms were appropriate when referring to the traditional practices of child circulation amongst kin within Oceania. Yet the iTaukei population came to use these terms, practices and their meanings, although not entirely in the same context as the European. This thesis investigates the colonialist perspective of Fiji’s traditional child circulation and introduced European practices of child care, guardianship, adoption and orphanage institutions. The research covers a number of key topics that are relevant for this thesis. It begins with an understanding of Fijian kinship structure prior to, and just after, the arrival of the first Europeans. The research then explores colonial interventions of guardianship (the first being a consequence of the introduced Indian Indentured Labour Scheme). Missionaries brought with them the institution of orphanages and a history of these are explored (today orphanages are now known as Children’s Homes). The Child Welfare Department in Fiji is responsible for the placement of vulnerable children into safe homes. As they are an important part of guardianship and adoption today this thesis provides a history of how this scheme developed into a government department. In 1945 Fiji enacted the Adoption of Infants Act as a formal process for all children of Fiji, regardless of ethnicity, and this research follows the path of creation. Although the Adoption of Infants Act caters for all ethnicities of Fiji, ‘informal adoption’ or child circulation continued and continues to be practised by iTaukei. During the colonial period the colonial government accepted this customary practice as an acceptable form of child care. This thesis provides a history of adoption and guardianship practices in Fiji during the colonial period of 1874 to 1970.|
|dc.publisher||University of Otago|
|dc.rights||All items in OUR Archive are provided for private study and research purposes and are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.|
|dc.title||Colonial Intervention on Guardianship and 'Adoption' Practices in Fiji 1874-1970|
|thesis.degree.discipline||Te Tumu: School of Māori, Pacific and Indigenous Studies|
|thesis.degree.name||Doctor of Philosophy|
|thesis.degree.grantor||University of Otago|
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