|dc.description.abstract||Erbium-167-doped yttrium orthosilicate (167Er3+:Y2SiO5) is a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal which possesses unique properties that would make it an ideal microwave-addressed quantum memory. It has an optical transition at 1.5 µm, which lies in the telecom C-band where much of the optical telecommunications infrastructure is already operating. It also possesses both nuclear and electron spin states, and hyperfine structure with transitions at microwave frequencies. The hyperfine structure exhibits microwave frequency transitions with or without an applied magnetic field, which would allow for a memory compatible with superconducting systems. However, the complicated hyperfine structure has prevented the transitions of 167Er3+:Y2SiO5 from being fully utilised.
With the recent publication of new spin Hamiltonian parameters for the ground state of 167Er3+:Y2SiO5, we can predict which transitions should have the longest coherence time at zero field. Based on calculations using these spin Hamiltonian parameters, we used Raman heterodyne spectroscopy to investigate the hyperfine structure of 167Er3+:Y2SiO5 for small magnetic fields and for energy level differences from 600 to 1200 MHz. We observed many transitions from the 4I15/2 ground state, as well as the 4I13/2 excited state that until now has had little investigation regarding its hyperfine structure.
By comparing our spectra to the existing ground state spin Hamiltonian parameters, and unpublished excited state parameters, we identified the origin of many of the transitions. We observed differences between the predicted transition frequencies from both sets of parameters and the experimental data. The data obtained using Raman heterodyne was used to improve both ground and excited state parameters to give a better description of the zero-field hyperfine splittings.
In addition, we identified transitions from both the 4I15/2 ground and 4I13/2 excited state that have a small dependence on magnetic field. These transitions, with zero field frequencies of 879.4 MHz and 896.7 MHz respectively, yielded coherence times of 67 µs and 300 µs at 3.2 K, when measured with a two-pulse spin echo sequence. By using a dynamic decoupling sequence, we extending the coherence times of the transitions at 879.4 MHz to 380 µs and for the transitions at 896.7 MHz, to 1.4 ms.
These coherence time measurements demonstrate an improvement of a previous zero field coherence measurement in 167Er3+:Y2SiO5. By operating at lower temperatures, reducing the 167Er3+ ion concentration or using a different transition, it should be possible to extend the coherence time of 167Er3+:Y2SiO5 even further.||