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dc.contributor.authorDawson, Peteren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDobson, Stephenen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGoddard, Johnen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Johnen_NZ
dc.date.available2011-04-07T03:05:28Z
dc.date.copyright2005-08en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationDawson, P., Dobson, S., Goddard, J., & Wilson, J. (2005). Are football referees really biased and inconsistent? Evidence from the English Premier League (Economics Discussion Papers Series No. 511). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/898en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10523/898
dc.description.abstractThis paper presents a statistical analysis of patterns in the incidence of disciplinary sanction (yellow and red cards) taken against players in the English Premier League over the period 1996-2003, using bivariate negative binomial and bivariate Poisson regressions. Several questions concerning sources of inconsistency and bias in refereeing standards are examined. Evidence is found to support a time consistency hypothesis, that the average incidence of disciplinary sanction is predominantly stable over time. However, a refereeing consistency hypothesis, that the incidence of disciplinary sanction does not vary between referees, is rejected. The tendency for away teams to incur more disciplinary points than home teams cannot be attributed to the home advantage effect on match results, and appears to be due to a refereeing bias favouring the home team.en_NZ
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.publisherUniversity of Otagoen_NZ
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEconomics Discussion Papers Seriesen_NZ
dc.subjectrefereeing bias and inconsistencyen_NZ
dc.subjectEnglish Premier League footballen_NZ
dc.subjectbivariate Poisson regression, bivariate negative binomial regressionen_NZ
dc.subject.lcshH Social Sciences (General)en_NZ
dc.titleAre football referees really biased and inconsistent? Evidence from the English Premier Leagueen_NZ
dc.typeDiscussion Paperen_NZ
dc.description.versionUnpublisheden_NZ
otago.bitstream.pages32en_NZ
otago.date.accession2005-11-25en_NZ
otago.schoolEconomicsen_NZ
otago.openaccessOpen
otago.place.publicationDunedin, New Zealanden_NZ
dc.identifier.eprints55en_NZ
otago.school.eprintsEconomicsen_NZ
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otago.relation.number511en_NZ
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